Abstract

The authors present a pseudo-active chemical imaging sensor model embodying irradiative transient heating, temperature nonequilibrium thermal luminescence spectroscopy, differential hyperspectral imaging, and artificial neural network technologies integrated together. We elaborate on various optimizations, simulations, and animations of the integrated sensor design and apply it to the terrestrial chemical contamination problem, where the interstitial contaminant compounds of detection interest (analytes) comprise liquid chemical warfare agents, their various derivative condensed phase compounds, and other material of a life-threatening nature. The sensor must measure and process a dynamic pattern of absorptive-emissive middle infrared molecular signature spectra of subject analytes to perform its chemical imaging and standoff detection functions successfully.

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References

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  1. A. H. Carrieri, “Panoramic infrared-imaging spectroradiometer model with reverse phase-modulated beam broadcasting,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1952–1964 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. H. Carrieri, “Chemical imaging sensor and laser beacon,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2772–2784 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. N. Liou, “Thermal infrared radiation transfer in the atmosphere,” in An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation, Vol. 84 of International Geophysics Series, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2002), pp. 116–168.
  4. A. H. Carrieri and P. I. Lim, “Neural network pattern recognition of thermal-signature spectra for chemical defense,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2623–2635 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Rubí, “Does nature break the second law of thermodynamics?,” Scientific American, November, 2008.
  6. A. H. Carrieri, “Infrared detection of liquids on terrestrial surfaces by CO2 laser heating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4907–4913 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Kohonen, “The self-organizing map,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1464–1480 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. H. Carrieri, J. Copper, D. J. Owens, E. S. Roese, J. R. Bottiger, R. D. Everly, and K. C. Hung, “Infrared differential-absorption Mueller matrix spectroscopy and neural network-based data fusion for biological aerosol standoff detection,” Appl. Opt. 49, 382–393 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. L. Wolfe, “Differences in radiance: relative effects of temperature changes and emissivity changes,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1937–1939 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Kasuda and P. R. Archenbach, “Earth temperature and thermal diffusivity at selected stations in the United States,” ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 71, Part 1 (1965).
  11. G. R. Rosendahl, and W. V. Dykes, “Design study of an optical system for annular imagery,” Technical Report NAVTRAEQUIPCEN IH-216, AD 758637 (Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA, March, 1973).
  12. G. R. Rosendahl, W. V. Dykes, and F. J. Charek, “Design study of an optical system for panoramic imagery,” Technical Report NAVTRAEQUIPCEN IH-254, AD A026281 (Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA, June, 1976).
  13. W. J. Smith, “Reflecting objectives” in Modern Optical Engineering. The Design of Optical Systems, R. E. Fischer and W. J. Smith, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1966), pp. 415–416.
  14. T. N. Buican, “Birefringence interferometers for ultra-high-speed FT spectrometry and hyperspectral imaging:I. Dynamic model of the resonant photoelastic modulator,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 42, 51–58 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Ultra-high speed solid-state FTIR spectroscopy and applications for chemical defense,” presented at24th Army Science Conference,, Orlando, Florida, 29 November–2 December 2004.
  16. T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Multivariate PEM/FT spectrometry: Intrinsic data fusion and applications for IED and CB defense,” presented at 25th Army Science Conference, Orlando, Florida, 27–30 November 2006 .
  17. T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Phased-array monolithic PEM for FT spectrometry with applications in explosive detection and CB defense,” presented at 26th Army Science Conference , Orlando, Florida, 1–4 December 2008.
  18. T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Multiphysics modeling of a novel photoelastic modulator for ultra-high performance FT spectrometry,” presented at 26th Army Science Conference, Orlando, Florida, 1–4 December 2008.
  19. W. Shurcliff, “Mueller calculus and Jones calculus” in Polarized Light Production and Use, Vol. 4, H. Gross, ed. (Harvard University, 1962).
  20. For a definition of the differential Jones matrix and the computation of the Jones matrix for an inhomogeneous retarder see: C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light: A Statistical Optics Approach (Wiley, 1998), pp. 309–312.
  21. Zemax 12 manual, Radiant Zemax Development Corporationwww.radiantzemax.com.
  22. H. Gross, F. Blechinger, and B. Achtner, “Survey of optical instruments,” in The Handbook of Optical Systems, Vol. 4, H. Gross, ed. (Wiley, 2008).
  23. R. D. Hudson, “The analysis of infrared systems,” in Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, 1969), pp. 417–421.
  24. Website for Defense Industries-Army, “Northrop Grumman Remotec-Unmanned Ground Vehicles.” http://www.army-technology.com/contractors/mines/northrop-grumman/northrop-grumman2.html , accessed 12June2012.
  25. L. Onsager, “Reciprocal relations in irreversible processes I,” Phys. Rev. 37, 405–426 (1931).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. Onsager, “Reciprocal relations in irreversible processes II,” Phys. Rev. 38, 2265–2279 (1931).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. G. Miller, “Thermodynamics of irreversible processes: the experimental verification of the Onsager reciprocal relations,” Chem. Rev. 60, 15–37 (1960).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2006

T. N. Buican, “Birefringence interferometers for ultra-high-speed FT spectrometry and hyperspectral imaging:I. Dynamic model of the resonant photoelastic modulator,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 42, 51–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

T. Kohonen, “The self-organizing map,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1464–1480 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

1990

1975

1960

D. G. Miller, “Thermodynamics of irreversible processes: the experimental verification of the Onsager reciprocal relations,” Chem. Rev. 60, 15–37 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1931

L. Onsager, “Reciprocal relations in irreversible processes I,” Phys. Rev. 37, 405–426 (1931).
[CrossRef]

L. Onsager, “Reciprocal relations in irreversible processes II,” Phys. Rev. 38, 2265–2279 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Achtner, B.

H. Gross, F. Blechinger, and B. Achtner, “Survey of optical instruments,” in The Handbook of Optical Systems, Vol. 4, H. Gross, ed. (Wiley, 2008).

Archenbach, P. R.

T. Kasuda and P. R. Archenbach, “Earth temperature and thermal diffusivity at selected stations in the United States,” ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 71, Part 1 (1965).

Blechinger, F.

H. Gross, F. Blechinger, and B. Achtner, “Survey of optical instruments,” in The Handbook of Optical Systems, Vol. 4, H. Gross, ed. (Wiley, 2008).

Bottiger, J. R.

Brosseau, C.

For a definition of the differential Jones matrix and the computation of the Jones matrix for an inhomogeneous retarder see: C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light: A Statistical Optics Approach (Wiley, 1998), pp. 309–312.

Buican, T. N.

T. N. Buican, “Birefringence interferometers for ultra-high-speed FT spectrometry and hyperspectral imaging:I. Dynamic model of the resonant photoelastic modulator,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 42, 51–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Ultra-high speed solid-state FTIR spectroscopy and applications for chemical defense,” presented at24th Army Science Conference,, Orlando, Florida, 29 November–2 December 2004.

T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Multiphysics modeling of a novel photoelastic modulator for ultra-high performance FT spectrometry,” presented at 26th Army Science Conference, Orlando, Florida, 1–4 December 2008.

T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Multivariate PEM/FT spectrometry: Intrinsic data fusion and applications for IED and CB defense,” presented at 25th Army Science Conference, Orlando, Florida, 27–30 November 2006 .

T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Phased-array monolithic PEM for FT spectrometry with applications in explosive detection and CB defense,” presented at 26th Army Science Conference , Orlando, Florida, 1–4 December 2008.

Carrieri, A. H.

A. H. Carrieri, J. Copper, D. J. Owens, E. S. Roese, J. R. Bottiger, R. D. Everly, and K. C. Hung, “Infrared differential-absorption Mueller matrix spectroscopy and neural network-based data fusion for biological aerosol standoff detection,” Appl. Opt. 49, 382–393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Carrieri, “Chemical imaging sensor and laser beacon,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2772–2784 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Carrieri, “Panoramic infrared-imaging spectroradiometer model with reverse phase-modulated beam broadcasting,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1952–1964 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Carrieri and P. I. Lim, “Neural network pattern recognition of thermal-signature spectra for chemical defense,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2623–2635 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Carrieri, “Infrared detection of liquids on terrestrial surfaces by CO2 laser heating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4907–4913 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Phased-array monolithic PEM for FT spectrometry with applications in explosive detection and CB defense,” presented at 26th Army Science Conference , Orlando, Florida, 1–4 December 2008.

T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Multivariate PEM/FT spectrometry: Intrinsic data fusion and applications for IED and CB defense,” presented at 25th Army Science Conference, Orlando, Florida, 27–30 November 2006 .

T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Multiphysics modeling of a novel photoelastic modulator for ultra-high performance FT spectrometry,” presented at 26th Army Science Conference, Orlando, Florida, 1–4 December 2008.

T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Ultra-high speed solid-state FTIR spectroscopy and applications for chemical defense,” presented at24th Army Science Conference,, Orlando, Florida, 29 November–2 December 2004.

Charek, F. J.

G. R. Rosendahl, W. V. Dykes, and F. J. Charek, “Design study of an optical system for panoramic imagery,” Technical Report NAVTRAEQUIPCEN IH-254, AD A026281 (Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA, June, 1976).

Copper, J.

Dykes, W. V.

G. R. Rosendahl, and W. V. Dykes, “Design study of an optical system for annular imagery,” Technical Report NAVTRAEQUIPCEN IH-216, AD 758637 (Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA, March, 1973).

G. R. Rosendahl, W. V. Dykes, and F. J. Charek, “Design study of an optical system for panoramic imagery,” Technical Report NAVTRAEQUIPCEN IH-254, AD A026281 (Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA, June, 1976).

Everly, R. D.

Gross, H.

H. Gross, F. Blechinger, and B. Achtner, “Survey of optical instruments,” in The Handbook of Optical Systems, Vol. 4, H. Gross, ed. (Wiley, 2008).

Hudson, R. D.

R. D. Hudson, “The analysis of infrared systems,” in Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, 1969), pp. 417–421.

Hung, K. C.

Kasuda, T.

T. Kasuda and P. R. Archenbach, “Earth temperature and thermal diffusivity at selected stations in the United States,” ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 71, Part 1 (1965).

Kohonen, T.

T. Kohonen, “The self-organizing map,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1464–1480 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lim, P. I.

Liou, K. N.

K. N. Liou, “Thermal infrared radiation transfer in the atmosphere,” in An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation, Vol. 84 of International Geophysics Series, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2002), pp. 116–168.

Miller, D. G.

D. G. Miller, “Thermodynamics of irreversible processes: the experimental verification of the Onsager reciprocal relations,” Chem. Rev. 60, 15–37 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Onsager, L.

L. Onsager, “Reciprocal relations in irreversible processes I,” Phys. Rev. 37, 405–426 (1931).
[CrossRef]

L. Onsager, “Reciprocal relations in irreversible processes II,” Phys. Rev. 38, 2265–2279 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Owens, D. J.

Roese, E. S.

Rosendahl, G. R.

G. R. Rosendahl, W. V. Dykes, and F. J. Charek, “Design study of an optical system for panoramic imagery,” Technical Report NAVTRAEQUIPCEN IH-254, AD A026281 (Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA, June, 1976).

G. R. Rosendahl, and W. V. Dykes, “Design study of an optical system for annular imagery,” Technical Report NAVTRAEQUIPCEN IH-216, AD 758637 (Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA, March, 1973).

Rubí, J. M.

J. M. Rubí, “Does nature break the second law of thermodynamics?,” Scientific American, November, 2008.

Shurcliff, W.

W. Shurcliff, “Mueller calculus and Jones calculus” in Polarized Light Production and Use, Vol. 4, H. Gross, ed. (Harvard University, 1962).

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, “Reflecting objectives” in Modern Optical Engineering. The Design of Optical Systems, R. E. Fischer and W. J. Smith, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1966), pp. 415–416.

Wolfe, W. L.

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Rev.

D. G. Miller, “Thermodynamics of irreversible processes: the experimental verification of the Onsager reciprocal relations,” Chem. Rev. 60, 15–37 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

L. Onsager, “Reciprocal relations in irreversible processes I,” Phys. Rev. 37, 405–426 (1931).
[CrossRef]

L. Onsager, “Reciprocal relations in irreversible processes II,” Phys. Rev. 38, 2265–2279 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

T. Kohonen, “The self-organizing map,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1464–1480 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vibr. Spectrosc.

T. N. Buican, “Birefringence interferometers for ultra-high-speed FT spectrometry and hyperspectral imaging:I. Dynamic model of the resonant photoelastic modulator,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 42, 51–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Ultra-high speed solid-state FTIR spectroscopy and applications for chemical defense,” presented at24th Army Science Conference,, Orlando, Florida, 29 November–2 December 2004.

T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Multivariate PEM/FT spectrometry: Intrinsic data fusion and applications for IED and CB defense,” presented at 25th Army Science Conference, Orlando, Florida, 27–30 November 2006 .

T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Phased-array monolithic PEM for FT spectrometry with applications in explosive detection and CB defense,” presented at 26th Army Science Conference , Orlando, Florida, 1–4 December 2008.

T. N. Buican and A. H. Carrieri, “Multiphysics modeling of a novel photoelastic modulator for ultra-high performance FT spectrometry,” presented at 26th Army Science Conference, Orlando, Florida, 1–4 December 2008.

W. Shurcliff, “Mueller calculus and Jones calculus” in Polarized Light Production and Use, Vol. 4, H. Gross, ed. (Harvard University, 1962).

For a definition of the differential Jones matrix and the computation of the Jones matrix for an inhomogeneous retarder see: C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light: A Statistical Optics Approach (Wiley, 1998), pp. 309–312.

Zemax 12 manual, Radiant Zemax Development Corporationwww.radiantzemax.com.

H. Gross, F. Blechinger, and B. Achtner, “Survey of optical instruments,” in The Handbook of Optical Systems, Vol. 4, H. Gross, ed. (Wiley, 2008).

R. D. Hudson, “The analysis of infrared systems,” in Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, 1969), pp. 417–421.

Website for Defense Industries-Army, “Northrop Grumman Remotec-Unmanned Ground Vehicles.” http://www.army-technology.com/contractors/mines/northrop-grumman/northrop-grumman2.html , accessed 12June2012.

T. Kasuda and P. R. Archenbach, “Earth temperature and thermal diffusivity at selected stations in the United States,” ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 71, Part 1 (1965).

G. R. Rosendahl, and W. V. Dykes, “Design study of an optical system for annular imagery,” Technical Report NAVTRAEQUIPCEN IH-216, AD 758637 (Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA, March, 1973).

G. R. Rosendahl, W. V. Dykes, and F. J. Charek, “Design study of an optical system for panoramic imagery,” Technical Report NAVTRAEQUIPCEN IH-254, AD A026281 (Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA, June, 1976).

W. J. Smith, “Reflecting objectives” in Modern Optical Engineering. The Design of Optical Systems, R. E. Fischer and W. J. Smith, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1966), pp. 415–416.

J. M. Rubí, “Does nature break the second law of thermodynamics?,” Scientific American, November, 2008.

K. N. Liou, “Thermal infrared radiation transfer in the atmosphere,” in An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation, Vol. 84 of International Geophysics Series, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2002), pp. 116–168.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Solid model cutaway view of the laser transmitter component of the surface contamination sensor model PSCSM. L: CO214 waveguide laser emitting a continuous-wave 0.102 eV energy beam that is linear-polarized and stable in the TEM00 spatial mode (L-beam); PEM: stress-birefringence photoelastic modulation ZnSe crystal, aligned precisely 45° to the incident linear-polarized L-beam, producing a incident polarization-modulation beam (iPM-beam) onto subject chemical contaminated terrain; BE: beam expander reducing iPM-beam divergence; SA: raster scanner of flat mirror M in azimuth (φ) and polar angle (θ) that facilitates iPM-beam area-heating of the CCT; and Wt: hemispherical shell Ge entrance window protecting L, PEM, BE, and SA optics. See text for a discussion of the transmitter design and operation of its optics embodiments.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Solid model drawing of the spectroradiometer receiver component of the PANSPEC surface contamination sensor model PSCSM specified in Table 1. Wr: hemispherical shell Ge entrance window for sealing of the internal chamber of the spectroradiometer and protecting its optics; V: vacuum pump-down valve for evacuating the internal chamber; FPA/Dewar: focal-plane array detector housed inside a windowed liquid nitrogen Dewar cryostat; Inset a: collector-focuser optic group comprising hyperboloid mirrors CF45 (Table 1, entries 4 through 5); Inset b: Schwarzschild objective collimator optics group comprising two spherical mirrors SCO910 (Table 1, entries 9 through 10); Inset c: virtual stack phased-array bar photoelastic modulator VSPA2829 (Table 1, entries 28 through 29); and Inset d: final two aft lens imager lenses IML5457 (Table 1, entries 54 through 57) with traced throughput rays. See text for discussions of the spectroradiometer design and operation of its optics embodiments.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Focus performance of the collector-focuser optics group CF45 (Table 1, entries 4 and 5) of the spectroradiometer receiver component of the PANSPEC surface contamination sensor model PSCSM (Fig. 2) at aperture stop AS6 (Table 1, entry 6). The plots show focused rays originally launched from respective field angles σ (numeric above plot) in the PSCCM’s panoramic field of view for all middle infrared wavelengths 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 μm. Barrel distortion and field curvature are the dominant aberrations. See text for a discussion of the analysis of the CF.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Frame 21 of 80 frames of the on-line simulation-animation movie of the surface contamination sensor model PSCSM (Fig. 1) interferometer engine’s virtual stack phased-array (VSPA) bar photoelastic modulator (PEM) at one-quarter period (6.29 μs) of elastic oscillation. Upper left: polarization pupil map output by the VSPA bar PEM. Lower right: elastic deformation (highly exaggerated) of the VSPA bar PEM. The elastic deformation eigenmode of the VSPA bar PEM illustrated oscillates at 39.75 kHz. The vertical color bar at right gauges surface displacements along the VSPA bar’s central axis in arbitrary units of length. The VSPA bar PEM is octagonal in shape, 200 mm long, 40 mm in height, and 40 mm in width. See Section 4.D for a discussion of the VSPA bar PEM and its operation principle, and view its simulation-animation movie online Media 1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Various middle infrared (MIR) image analyses of the spectroradiometer receiver component (Fig. 2) of the surface contamination chemical imaging spectroscopy sensor model (PSCSM) at the focal plane array (FPA), Table 1, entry 58. (a) Source bitmap of an alphabet template placed within the PSCSM’s entrance pupil. (b) Simulated MIR image of the alphabet template. (c) (left) Field curvature in tangential ray (T) and sagittal ray (S) planes, and (right) image percent distortion normalized to the maximum panorama field coordinate of the simulated MIR alphabet image. (d) Modulation transfer function of the simulated MIR alphabet image as a function of modulation frequency in line-pairs per mm for all MIR wavelengths spanning 812μm. See text for a discussion of these image analyses.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(left) Solid model drawing of a conceptual tactical defense system (CTDS) mobilizing the PANSPEC surface contamination sensor model (PSCSM) in an autonomous manner. UGV: unmanned ground vehicle; HFuC: hydrogen fuel cell or similar clean power source; C: cap enclosing transceiver and global positioning systems; E: sensor electronics; and P: laser power supply. (right) Land area panorama of the spectroradiometer component of the PSCSM shown as a yellow annulus centered about the CTDS’s transceiver. The red radial line is the laser beam output (iPM-beam, Fig. 1) of the laser transmitter-scanner component the PSCSM (Fig. 2) irradiating a zonal land area inside the panorama suspected of containing chemical contaminant(s). Total height of the CTDS is 3.715 m. See text for discussions of CTDS design, modus operandi, and mission.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

A networked plan of interconnected tasks for developing a prototype system of the conceptual tactical defense system (CTDS), Fig. 6. The tasks are comprised of technologies discussed throughout this manuscript, and the connections between nodes of tasks are bidirectional implying the cross-fertilization of ideas for developing these technologies. See text for discussions of tasks and their implementation in the CTDS prototype plan.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Design Summary of the Spectroradiometer Receiver Component, Fig. 2, of the PANSPEC Surface Contamination Sensor Model, Figs. 1 and 2 Combined

Equations (8)

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p4(ς51ς41)s(ς51)=p5;
t910=2f,
p9=(51/2+1)f,
p10=(51/21)f,
D10=(51/2+2)D9,
d9f=(51/2+2)f;
J=(eiδ2cos2ε+eiδ2sin2ε2isin12δcosεsinε2isin12δcosεsinεeiδ2cos2ε+eiδ2sin2ε);
R=[J×τa]1/2×[π1/2EP×NA×T]1/2×[D*]1/2×[(ω×dF)1/2×S/N(τd,Θv(t))1]1/2;

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