Abstract

The effects of proton irradiation with energies of 3.5 and 5 MeV on the optical properties of PANDA (polarization-maintaining and absorption-reducing) optical fiber were investigated. The displacement and the ionization damage in the fiber induced by proton irradiation at 3.5, 5, and 10 MeV were calculated, respectively, using a Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter code. The irradiation-induced defects were analyzed by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, and broadband optical spectrum analysis. The results show that the proton irradiation leads to an increase of optical loss around 1310 nm and that the effect of 3.5 MeV protons is more severe than that of 5 MeV.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. D. Cacaina, H. Ylänen, D. A. Udvar, and S. Simon, “EPR study of gamma irradiated yttrium bioactive glasses and yttrium silica sol-gel microspheres,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 675–679 (2007).
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  32. J. X. Wen, G. D. Peng, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Gamma irradiation effect on Rayleigh scattering in low water peak single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 23271–23278 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  33. T. Kakuta, T. Shikama, T. Nishitani, B. Brichard, A. Krassilinikov, A. Tomashuk, S. Yamamoto, and S. Kasai, “Round-robin irradiation test of radiation resistant optical fibers for ITER diagnostic application,” J. Nucl. Mater. 307–311, 1277–1281 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. Canning, H. R. Sørensen, and M. Kristensen, “Solid-state autocatalysis and oscillatory reactions in silicate glass systems,” Opt. Commun. 260, 595–600 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  35. T. Allsop, L. Zhang, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using first and second-order diffraction from a long-period grating,” Opt. Commun. 211, 103–108 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

H. C. Zhang, H. Liu, W. Q. Qiang, H. J. Xue, and S. Y. He, “New model for assessing dose and dose rate sensitivity of gamma ray radiation loss in polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 274, 115–119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

J. X. Wen, G. D. Peng, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Gamma irradiation effect on Rayleigh scattering in low water peak single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 23271–23278 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran, I. Hossain, A. T. Ramli, D. A. Bradley, S. Hashim, and H. Ali, “Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 637, 185–189 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Tsuchiya, S. Kondo, T. Tsurui, K. Toh, S. Nagata, and T. Shikama, “Correlation between radiation-induced defects, and optical properties of pure fused silica-core optical fiber, under gamma-ray irradiation in air at 1273 K,” J. Nucl. Mater. 417, 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1966–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran, M. I. Hossain, A. T. Ramli, D. A. Bradley, and H. Ali, “Low-dose photon irradiation response of Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,” Appl. Radiat. Isotopes 69, 1189–1192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

S. Hashim, D. A. Bradley, N. Peng, A. T. Ramli, and H. Wagiran, “The thermoluminescence response of oxygen-doped optical fibres subjected to photon and electron irradiations,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 619, 291–294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Wang, H. G. Geng, C. Y. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and S. Y. He, “Evolution of defects in a multicomponent glass irradiated by 1 MeV electrons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268, 1478–1481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Li, H.-B. Geng, M. J. Lan, D. Z. Yang, S. Y. He, and C. M. Liu, “Degradation mechanisms of current gain in NPN transistors,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 066103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. L. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

S. H. Lee, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Nanoparticle-dispersed high-k organic–inorganic hybrid dielectrics for organic thin-film transistors,” Org. Electron. 10, 982–989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Francis, W. E. Stephens, and N. V. Richardson, “X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopies of quartz samples of contrasting toxicity,” Environ. Health 8(Suppl. 1), S4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Zhang, D. P. Xu, G. X. Song, Y. F. Xue, L. Li, D. Y. Wang, and W. H. Si, “Effect of Si─OH on the transformation of amorphous SiO2 to coesite,” J. Alloys Compd. 476, L4–L7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Han, G. H. Kim, K. S. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Fabrication of low OH loss holey fibers with varying air hole sizes and their optical properties,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1780–1784 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, L. Men, and Q. Chen, “Wavelength control with grating imprinted fiber Sagnac loop mirror by polarization and strain tuning,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 013111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahrenia, A. B. Mohamada, A. A. H. Kadhuma, W. R. W. Dauda, and S. E. Iyukeb, “Nafion/silicon oxide/phosphotungstic acid nanocomposite membrane with enhanced proton conductivity,” J. Membr. Sci. 327, 32–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Wang, H. B. Geng, S. Y. He, D. Z. Yang, Z. H. Zhang, X. B. Qin, and Z. X. Li, “Effects of 80 keV proton radiation on the optical properties and microstructure of type-GG17 glass as rubidium lamp envelope,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267, 2489–2494 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Seung, S. Masahiro, O. Yoshimichi, F. Makoto, A. Kouichi, Y. Eisuke, and O. Satoshi, “Birefringence in optical fibers formed by proton implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 265, 490–494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Cacaina, H. Ylänen, D. A. Udvar, and S. Simon, “EPR study of gamma irradiated yttrium bioactive glasses and yttrium silica sol-gel microspheres,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 675–679 (2007).

2006 (2)

J. Canning, H. R. Sørensen, and M. Kristensen, “Solid-state autocatalysis and oscillatory reactions in silicate glass systems,” Opt. Commun. 260, 595–600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lin, W. X. Lin, C. T. Lee, and H. C. Chang, “Electronic transport and Schottky barrier heights of Ni/Au contacts on n-type GaN surface with and without a thin native oxide layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2505–2508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Y. Lim, C. Y. Kim, and B. S. Kim, “Effects of SiO2 barrier and N2 annealing on Sb-doped SnO2 transparent conducting film prepared by sol-gel dip coating,” J. Sol–Gel Sci. Technol. 31, 263–266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Griscom, “γ-ray-induced visible/infrared optical absorption bands in pure and F-doped silica-core fibers: are they due to self-trapped holes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 349, 139–147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using first and second-order diffraction from a long-period grating,” Opt. Commun. 211, 103–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kakuta, T. Shikama, T. Nishitani, B. Brichard, A. Krassilinikov, A. Tomashuk, S. Yamamoto, and S. Kasai, “Round-robin irradiation test of radiation resistant optical fibers for ITER diagnostic application,” J. Nucl. Mater. 307–311, 1277–1281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

I. H. Tan, M. L. P. da Silva, and N. R. Demarquette, “Paper surface modification by plasma deposition of double layers of organic silicon compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 11, 1019–1025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

I. A. Shkrob, B. M. Tadjikov, and A. D. Trifunac, “Magnetic resonance studies on radiation-induced point defects in mixed oxide glasses. I. Spin centers in B2O3 and alkali borate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 262, 6–34 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. L. Tchebotareva, J. L. Brebner, S. Roorda, and J. Albert, “Effect of proton implantation on the photosensitivity of SMF-28 optical fiber,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 687–691 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

F. Tetsuo, F. Minoru, O. Syunji, I. S. Tsutomu, and I. Noriaki, “Effects of proton implantation on amorphous SiO2predamaged by Si implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L1846–L1848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. L. Griscom, “Electron spin resonance in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 40, 211–272 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

E. J. Friebele, “Optical fiber waveguides in radiation environments,” Opt. Eng. 18, 552–561 (1979).

1973 (1)

Agnello, S.

A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1966–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

A. L. Tchebotareva, J. L. Brebner, S. Roorda, and J. Albert, “Effect of proton implantation on the photosensitivity of SMF-28 optical fiber,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 687–691 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alessi, A.

A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1966–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ali, H.

N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran, M. I. Hossain, A. T. Ramli, D. A. Bradley, and H. Ali, “Low-dose photon irradiation response of Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,” Appl. Radiat. Isotopes 69, 1189–1192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran, I. Hossain, A. T. Ramli, D. A. Bradley, S. Hashim, and H. Ali, “Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 637, 185–189 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using first and second-order diffraction from a long-period grating,” Opt. Commun. 211, 103–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baggio, J.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, J. M.

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using first and second-order diffraction from a long-period grating,” Opt. Commun. 211, 103–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berghmans, F.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blackmore, E. W.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boukenter, A.

A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1966–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. A.

N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran, M. I. Hossain, A. T. Ramli, D. A. Bradley, and H. Ali, “Low-dose photon irradiation response of Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,” Appl. Radiat. Isotopes 69, 1189–1192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran, I. Hossain, A. T. Ramli, D. A. Bradley, S. Hashim, and H. Ali, “Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 637, 185–189 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Hashim, D. A. Bradley, N. Peng, A. T. Ramli, and H. Wagiran, “The thermoluminescence response of oxygen-doped optical fibres subjected to photon and electron irradiations,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 619, 291–294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brebner, J. L.

A. L. Tchebotareva, J. L. Brebner, S. Roorda, and J. Albert, “Effect of proton implantation on the photosensitivity of SMF-28 optical fiber,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 687–691 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brichard, B.

T. Kakuta, T. Shikama, T. Nishitani, B. Brichard, A. Krassilinikov, A. Tomashuk, S. Yamamoto, and S. Kasai, “Round-robin irradiation test of radiation resistant optical fibers for ITER diagnostic application,” J. Nucl. Mater. 307–311, 1277–1281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cacaina, D.

D. Cacaina, H. Ylänen, D. A. Udvar, and S. Simon, “EPR study of gamma irradiated yttrium bioactive glasses and yttrium silica sol-gel microspheres,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 675–679 (2007).

Cannas, M.

A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1966–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

J. Canning, H. R. Sørensen, and M. Kristensen, “Solid-state autocatalysis and oscillatory reactions in silicate glass systems,” Opt. Commun. 260, 595–600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. C.

Y. J. Lin, W. X. Lin, C. T. Lee, and H. C. Chang, “Electronic transport and Schottky barrier heights of Ni/Au contacts on n-type GaN surface with and without a thin native oxide layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2505–2508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

P. Lu, L. Men, and Q. Chen, “Wavelength control with grating imprinted fiber Sagnac loop mirror by polarization and strain tuning,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 013111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. Y.

J. X. Wen, G. D. Peng, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Gamma irradiation effect on Rayleigh scattering in low water peak single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 23271–23278 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. L. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, M. L. P.

I. H. Tan, M. L. P. da Silva, and N. R. Demarquette, “Paper surface modification by plasma deposition of double layers of organic silicon compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 11, 1019–1025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dauda, W. R. W.

A. Mahrenia, A. B. Mohamada, A. A. H. Kadhuma, W. R. W. Dauda, and S. E. Iyukeb, “Nafion/silicon oxide/phosphotungstic acid nanocomposite membrane with enhanced proton conductivity,” J. Membr. Sci. 327, 32–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Demarquette, N. R.

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Q. Y. Wang, H. B. Geng, S. Y. He, D. Z. Yang, Z. H. Zhang, X. B. Qin, and Z. X. Li, “Effects of 80 keV proton radiation on the optical properties and microstructure of type-GG17 glass as rubidium lamp envelope,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267, 2489–2494 (2009).
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H. C. Zhang, H. Liu, W. Q. Qiang, H. J. Xue, and S. Y. He, “New model for assessing dose and dose rate sensitivity of gamma ray radiation loss in polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 274, 115–119 (2012).
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J. Y. Seung, S. Masahiro, O. Yoshimichi, F. Makoto, A. Kouichi, Y. Eisuke, and O. Satoshi, “Birefringence in optical fibers formed by proton implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 265, 490–494 (2007).
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S. H. Lee, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Nanoparticle-dispersed high-k organic–inorganic hybrid dielectrics for organic thin-film transistors,” Org. Electron. 10, 982–989 (2009).
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T. Kakuta, T. Shikama, T. Nishitani, B. Brichard, A. Krassilinikov, A. Tomashuk, S. Yamamoto, and S. Kasai, “Round-robin irradiation test of radiation resistant optical fibers for ITER diagnostic application,” J. Nucl. Mater. 307–311, 1277–1281 (2002).
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Peng, N.

S. Hashim, D. A. Bradley, N. Peng, A. T. Ramli, and H. Wagiran, “The thermoluminescence response of oxygen-doped optical fibres subjected to photon and electron irradiations,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 619, 291–294 (2010).
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H. C. Zhang, H. Liu, W. Q. Qiang, H. J. Xue, and S. Y. He, “New model for assessing dose and dose rate sensitivity of gamma ray radiation loss in polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 274, 115–119 (2012).
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Q. Y. Wang, H. B. Geng, S. Y. He, D. Z. Yang, Z. H. Zhang, X. B. Qin, and Z. X. Li, “Effects of 80 keV proton radiation on the optical properties and microstructure of type-GG17 glass as rubidium lamp envelope,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267, 2489–2494 (2009).
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N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran, M. I. Hossain, A. T. Ramli, D. A. Bradley, and H. Ali, “Low-dose photon irradiation response of Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,” Appl. Radiat. Isotopes 69, 1189–1192 (2011).
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N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran, I. Hossain, A. T. Ramli, D. A. Bradley, S. Hashim, and H. Ali, “Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 637, 185–189 (2011).
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S. Hashim, D. A. Bradley, N. Peng, A. T. Ramli, and H. Wagiran, “The thermoluminescence response of oxygen-doped optical fibres subjected to photon and electron irradiations,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 619, 291–294 (2010).
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S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2426–2434 (2007).
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Schwank, J. R.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2426–2434 (2007).
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J. Y. Seung, S. Masahiro, O. Yoshimichi, F. Makoto, A. Kouichi, Y. Eisuke, and O. Satoshi, “Birefringence in optical fibers formed by proton implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 265, 490–494 (2007).
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Shikama, T.

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D. Cacaina, H. Ylänen, D. A. Udvar, and S. Simon, “EPR study of gamma irradiated yttrium bioactive glasses and yttrium silica sol-gel microspheres,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 675–679 (2007).

Song, G. X.

G. Q. Zhang, D. P. Xu, G. X. Song, Y. F. Xue, L. Li, D. Y. Wang, and W. H. Si, “Effect of Si─OH on the transformation of amorphous SiO2 to coesite,” J. Alloys Compd. 476, L4–L7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sørensen, H. R.

J. Canning, H. R. Sørensen, and M. Kristensen, “Solid-state autocatalysis and oscillatory reactions in silicate glass systems,” Opt. Commun. 260, 595–600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, W. E.

S. M. Francis, W. E. Stephens, and N. V. Richardson, “X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopies of quartz samples of contrasting toxicity,” Environ. Health 8(Suppl. 1), S4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. Y.

Q. Y. Wang, H. G. Geng, C. Y. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and S. Y. He, “Evolution of defects in a multicomponent glass irradiated by 1 MeV electrons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268, 1478–1481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Syunji, O.

F. Tetsuo, F. Minoru, O. Syunji, I. S. Tsutomu, and I. Noriaki, “Effects of proton implantation on amorphous SiO2predamaged by Si implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L1846–L1848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tadjikov, B. M.

I. A. Shkrob, B. M. Tadjikov, and A. D. Trifunac, “Magnetic resonance studies on radiation-induced point defects in mixed oxide glasses. I. Spin centers in B2O3 and alkali borate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 262, 6–34 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

Tan, I. H.

I. H. Tan, M. L. P. da Silva, and N. R. Demarquette, “Paper surface modification by plasma deposition of double layers of organic silicon compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 11, 1019–1025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tchebotareva, A. L.

A. L. Tchebotareva, J. L. Brebner, S. Roorda, and J. Albert, “Effect of proton implantation on the photosensitivity of SMF-28 optical fiber,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 687–691 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tetsuo, F.

F. Tetsuo, F. Minoru, O. Syunji, I. S. Tsutomu, and I. Noriaki, “Effects of proton implantation on amorphous SiO2predamaged by Si implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L1846–L1848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toh, K.

B. Tsuchiya, S. Kondo, T. Tsurui, K. Toh, S. Nagata, and T. Shikama, “Correlation between radiation-induced defects, and optical properties of pure fused silica-core optical fiber, under gamma-ray irradiation in air at 1273 K,” J. Nucl. Mater. 417, 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tomashuk, A.

T. Kakuta, T. Shikama, T. Nishitani, B. Brichard, A. Krassilinikov, A. Tomashuk, S. Yamamoto, and S. Kasai, “Round-robin irradiation test of radiation resistant optical fibers for ITER diagnostic application,” J. Nucl. Mater. 307–311, 1277–1281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tortech, B.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trifunac, A. D.

I. A. Shkrob, B. M. Tadjikov, and A. D. Trifunac, “Magnetic resonance studies on radiation-induced point defects in mixed oxide glasses. I. Spin centers in B2O3 and alkali borate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 262, 6–34 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, B.

B. Tsuchiya, S. Kondo, T. Tsurui, K. Toh, S. Nagata, and T. Shikama, “Correlation between radiation-induced defects, and optical properties of pure fused silica-core optical fiber, under gamma-ray irradiation in air at 1273 K,” J. Nucl. Mater. 417, 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsurui, T.

B. Tsuchiya, S. Kondo, T. Tsurui, K. Toh, S. Nagata, and T. Shikama, “Correlation between radiation-induced defects, and optical properties of pure fused silica-core optical fiber, under gamma-ray irradiation in air at 1273 K,” J. Nucl. Mater. 417, 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsutomu, I. S.

F. Tetsuo, F. Minoru, O. Syunji, I. S. Tsutomu, and I. Noriaki, “Effects of proton implantation on amorphous SiO2predamaged by Si implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L1846–L1848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Udvar, D. A.

D. Cacaina, H. Ylänen, D. A. Udvar, and S. Simon, “EPR study of gamma irradiated yttrium bioactive glasses and yttrium silica sol-gel microspheres,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 675–679 (2007).

Uffelen, M. V.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wagiran, H.

N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran, I. Hossain, A. T. Ramli, D. A. Bradley, S. Hashim, and H. Ali, “Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 637, 185–189 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran, M. I. Hossain, A. T. Ramli, D. A. Bradley, and H. Ali, “Low-dose photon irradiation response of Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,” Appl. Radiat. Isotopes 69, 1189–1192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Hashim, D. A. Bradley, N. Peng, A. T. Ramli, and H. Wagiran, “The thermoluminescence response of oxygen-doped optical fibres subjected to photon and electron irradiations,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 619, 291–294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wai, P. K. A.

Wang, D. Y.

G. Q. Zhang, D. P. Xu, G. X. Song, Y. F. Xue, L. Li, D. Y. Wang, and W. H. Si, “Effect of Si─OH on the transformation of amorphous SiO2 to coesite,” J. Alloys Compd. 476, L4–L7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Wang, H. G. Geng, C. Y. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and S. Y. He, “Evolution of defects in a multicomponent glass irradiated by 1 MeV electrons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268, 1478–1481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Wang, H. B. Geng, S. Y. He, D. Z. Yang, Z. H. Zhang, X. B. Qin, and Z. X. Li, “Effects of 80 keV proton radiation on the optical properties and microstructure of type-GG17 glass as rubidium lamp envelope,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267, 2489–2494 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. Y.

J. X. Wen, G. D. Peng, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Gamma irradiation effect on Rayleigh scattering in low water peak single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 23271–23278 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. L. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using first and second-order diffraction from a long-period grating,” Opt. Commun. 211, 103–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J. X.

J. X. Wen, G. D. Peng, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Gamma irradiation effect on Rayleigh scattering in low water peak single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 23271–23278 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. L. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Z. Y.

J. X. Wen, G. D. Peng, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Gamma irradiation effect on Rayleigh scattering in low water peak single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 23271–23278 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. L. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. P.

G. Q. Zhang, D. P. Xu, G. X. Song, Y. F. Xue, L. Li, D. Y. Wang, and W. H. Si, “Effect of Si─OH on the transformation of amorphous SiO2 to coesite,” J. Alloys Compd. 476, L4–L7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xue, H. J.

H. C. Zhang, H. Liu, W. Q. Qiang, H. J. Xue, and S. Y. He, “New model for assessing dose and dose rate sensitivity of gamma ray radiation loss in polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 274, 115–119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xue, Y. F.

G. Q. Zhang, D. P. Xu, G. X. Song, Y. F. Xue, L. Li, D. Y. Wang, and W. H. Si, “Effect of Si─OH on the transformation of amorphous SiO2 to coesite,” J. Alloys Compd. 476, L4–L7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yaakob, N. H.

N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran, M. I. Hossain, A. T. Ramli, D. A. Bradley, and H. Ali, “Low-dose photon irradiation response of Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,” Appl. Radiat. Isotopes 69, 1189–1192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran, I. Hossain, A. T. Ramli, D. A. Bradley, S. Hashim, and H. Ali, “Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 637, 185–189 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

T. Kakuta, T. Shikama, T. Nishitani, B. Brichard, A. Krassilinikov, A. Tomashuk, S. Yamamoto, and S. Kasai, “Round-robin irradiation test of radiation resistant optical fibers for ITER diagnostic application,” J. Nucl. Mater. 307–311, 1277–1281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. Z.

X. J. Li, H.-B. Geng, M. J. Lan, D. Z. Yang, S. Y. He, and C. M. Liu, “Degradation mechanisms of current gain in NPN transistors,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 066103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Wang, H. B. Geng, S. Y. He, D. Z. Yang, Z. H. Zhang, X. B. Qin, and Z. X. Li, “Effects of 80 keV proton radiation on the optical properties and microstructure of type-GG17 glass as rubidium lamp envelope,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267, 2489–2494 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ylänen, H.

D. Cacaina, H. Ylänen, D. A. Udvar, and S. Simon, “EPR study of gamma irradiated yttrium bioactive glasses and yttrium silica sol-gel microspheres,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 675–679 (2007).

Yoshimichi, O.

J. Y. Seung, S. Masahiro, O. Yoshimichi, F. Makoto, A. Kouichi, Y. Eisuke, and O. Satoshi, “Birefringence in optical fibers formed by proton implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 265, 490–494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X. L.

J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. L. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Q.

G. Q. Zhang, D. P. Xu, G. X. Song, Y. F. Xue, L. Li, D. Y. Wang, and W. H. Si, “Effect of Si─OH on the transformation of amorphous SiO2 to coesite,” J. Alloys Compd. 476, L4–L7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. C.

H. C. Zhang, H. Liu, W. Q. Qiang, H. J. Xue, and S. Y. He, “New model for assessing dose and dose rate sensitivity of gamma ray radiation loss in polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 274, 115–119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using first and second-order diffraction from a long-period grating,” Opt. Commun. 211, 103–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. H.

Q. Y. Wang, H. G. Geng, C. Y. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and S. Y. He, “Evolution of defects in a multicomponent glass irradiated by 1 MeV electrons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268, 1478–1481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Wang, H. B. Geng, S. Y. He, D. Z. Yang, Z. H. Zhang, X. B. Qin, and Z. X. Li, “Effects of 80 keV proton radiation on the optical properties and microstructure of type-GG17 glass as rubidium lamp envelope,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267, 2489–2494 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Radiat. Isotopes (1)

N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran, M. I. Hossain, A. T. Ramli, D. A. Bradley, and H. Ali, “Low-dose photon irradiation response of Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,” Appl. Radiat. Isotopes 69, 1189–1192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. B (1)

X. J. Li, H.-B. Geng, M. J. Lan, D. Z. Yang, S. Y. He, and C. M. Liu, “Degradation mechanisms of current gain in NPN transistors,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 066103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Health (1)

S. M. Francis, W. E. Stephens, and N. V. Richardson, “X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopies of quartz samples of contrasting toxicity,” Environ. Health 8(Suppl. 1), S4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

G. Q. Zhang, D. P. Xu, G. X. Song, Y. F. Xue, L. Li, D. Y. Wang, and W. H. Si, “Effect of Si─OH on the transformation of amorphous SiO2 to coesite,” J. Alloys Compd. 476, L4–L7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. L. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, L. Men, and Q. Chen, “Wavelength control with grating imprinted fiber Sagnac loop mirror by polarization and strain tuning,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 013111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

I. H. Tan, M. L. P. da Silva, and N. R. Demarquette, “Paper surface modification by plasma deposition of double layers of organic silicon compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 11, 1019–1025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Membr. Sci. (1)

A. Mahrenia, A. B. Mohamada, A. A. H. Kadhuma, W. R. W. Dauda, and S. E. Iyukeb, “Nafion/silicon oxide/phosphotungstic acid nanocomposite membrane with enhanced proton conductivity,” J. Membr. Sci. 327, 32–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1966–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Griscom, “Electron spin resonance in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 40, 211–272 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids. (2)

I. A. Shkrob, B. M. Tadjikov, and A. D. Trifunac, “Magnetic resonance studies on radiation-induced point defects in mixed oxide glasses. I. Spin centers in B2O3 and alkali borate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 262, 6–34 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Griscom, “γ-ray-induced visible/infrared optical absorption bands in pure and F-doped silica-core fibers: are they due to self-trapped holes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 349, 139–147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Mater. (2)

B. Tsuchiya, S. Kondo, T. Tsurui, K. Toh, S. Nagata, and T. Shikama, “Correlation between radiation-induced defects, and optical properties of pure fused silica-core optical fiber, under gamma-ray irradiation in air at 1273 K,” J. Nucl. Mater. 417, 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Kakuta, T. Shikama, T. Nishitani, B. Brichard, A. Krassilinikov, A. Tomashuk, S. Yamamoto, and S. Kasai, “Round-robin irradiation test of radiation resistant optical fibers for ITER diagnostic application,” J. Nucl. Mater. 307–311, 1277–1281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (1)

D. Cacaina, H. Ylänen, D. A. Udvar, and S. Simon, “EPR study of gamma irradiated yttrium bioactive glasses and yttrium silica sol-gel microspheres,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 675–679 (2007).

J. Sol–Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

T. Y. Lim, C. Y. Kim, and B. S. Kim, “Effects of SiO2 barrier and N2 annealing on Sb-doped SnO2 transparent conducting film prepared by sol-gel dip coating,” J. Sol–Gel Sci. Technol. 31, 263–266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. J. Lin, W. X. Lin, C. T. Lee, and H. C. Chang, “Electronic transport and Schottky barrier heights of Ni/Au contacts on n-type GaN surface with and without a thin native oxide layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2505–2508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Tetsuo, F. Minoru, O. Syunji, I. S. Tsutomu, and I. Noriaki, “Effects of proton implantation on amorphous SiO2predamaged by Si implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L1846–L1848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran, I. Hossain, A. T. Ramli, D. A. Bradley, S. Hashim, and H. Ali, “Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 637, 185–189 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (6)

S. Hashim, D. A. Bradley, N. Peng, A. T. Ramli, and H. Wagiran, “The thermoluminescence response of oxygen-doped optical fibres subjected to photon and electron irradiations,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 619, 291–294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Wang, H. G. Geng, C. Y. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and S. Y. He, “Evolution of defects in a multicomponent glass irradiated by 1 MeV electrons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268, 1478–1481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Wang, H. B. Geng, S. Y. He, D. Z. Yang, Z. H. Zhang, X. B. Qin, and Z. X. Li, “Effects of 80 keV proton radiation on the optical properties and microstructure of type-GG17 glass as rubidium lamp envelope,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267, 2489–2494 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Zhang, H. Liu, W. Q. Qiang, H. J. Xue, and S. Y. He, “New model for assessing dose and dose rate sensitivity of gamma ray radiation loss in polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 274, 115–119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Tchebotareva, J. L. Brebner, S. Roorda, and J. Albert, “Effect of proton implantation on the photosensitivity of SMF-28 optical fiber,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 687–691 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Seung, S. Masahiro, O. Yoshimichi, F. Makoto, A. Kouichi, Y. Eisuke, and O. Satoshi, “Birefringence in optical fibers formed by proton implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 265, 490–494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

Y. G. Han, G. H. Kim, K. S. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Fabrication of low OH loss holey fibers with varying air hole sizes and their optical properties,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1780–1784 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, H. R. Sørensen, and M. Kristensen, “Solid-state autocatalysis and oscillatory reactions in silicate glass systems,” Opt. Commun. 260, 595–600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using first and second-order diffraction from a long-period grating,” Opt. Commun. 211, 103–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. J. Friebele, “Optical fiber waveguides in radiation environments,” Opt. Eng. 18, 552–561 (1979).

Opt. Express (1)

Org. Electron. (1)

S. H. Lee, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Nanoparticle-dispersed high-k organic–inorganic hybrid dielectrics for organic thin-film transistors,” Org. Electron. 10, 982–989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram showing the measurement of optical power under proton irradiation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simplified three-layer model of optical fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Ionization energy loss as a function of penetrating depth under different proton energies.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Number of atom displacements as a function of penetrating depth under different proton energies.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Loss coefficient as a function of proton fluence.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Analytical results for the O 1s XPS spectrum of the unirradiated optical fiber.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Si 2p spectrum and analysis results for the unirradiated fiber.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Analytical results for the O 1s XPS spectrum of the fiber without coating after irradiation.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Analysis results for the Si 2p spectrum of the fiber without coating after irradiation.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

FTIR spectra of optical-fiber-stripped coated clad before and after proton irradiation.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

EPR differential spectra of the optical fiber.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

EPR integral spectra of the optical fiber.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Loss spectra of the optical fibers before and after proton irradiation.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P=VV01000R.
SiOSipSiO+Si+,
SiOSiO+e.
SiO+HpSiOH,
SiOSi+H2pSiOH+SiH.

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