Abstract

Accurate calculation of underwater light is fundamental to predictions of upper-ocean heating, primary production, and photo-oxidation. However, most ocean models simulating these processes do not yet incorporate radiative transfer modules for their light calculations. Such models are often driven by above-surface, broadband, daily averaged irradiance or photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) values obtained from climatology or satellite observations, sometimes without correction for sea-surface reflectance, even though surface reflectance can reduce in-water values by more than 20%. We present factors computed by a radiative transfer code that can be used to convert above-surface values in either energy or quantum units to in-water net irradiance, as needed for calculations of water heating, and to in-water PAR, as needed for calculations of photosynthesis and photo-oxidation.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. D. Dickey and P. G. Falkowski, “Solar energy and its biological-physical interactions in the sea,” in The Sea, A. R. Robinson, J. J. McCarthy, and B. J. Rothschild, eds. (Wiley, 2002), pp. 401–440.
  2. C. A. Paulson and J. J. Simpson, “Irradiance measurements in the upper ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 7, 952–956 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. J. Simpson and T. D. Dickey, “The relationship between downward irradiance and upper ocean structure,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 11, 309–323 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. C. Ohlmann, D. A. Siegel, and C. D. Mobley, “Ocean radiant heating. Part I: Optical influences,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 1833–1848 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. Ohlmann and D. A. Siegel, “Ocean radiant heating. Part II: Parameterizing solar radiation transmission through the upper ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 1849–1865 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. C. Ohlmann, “Ocean radiant heating in climate models,” J. Clim. 16, 1337–1351 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for the computation of underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).
  9. C. D. Mobley, Ocean Optics Web Book: HydroLight (2011), http://www.oceanopticsbook.info/view/radiative_transfer_theory/level_2/hydrolight.
  10. E. K. Schneider and Z. Zhu, “Sensitivity of the simulated annual cycle of sea surface temperature in the equatorial Pacific to sunlight penetration,” J. Clim. 11, 1932–1950 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Chlorophyll modulation of sea surface temperature in the Arabian Sea in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 747–750 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, J. Ishizaka, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigments in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2021–2024 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Murtugudde, J. Beauchamp, C. R. McClain, M. Lewis, and A. J. Busalacchi, “Effects of penetrative radiation on the upper tropical ocean circulation,” J. Clim. 15, 470–486 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. A. Rochford, A. B. Kara, A. J. Wallcraft, and R. A. Arnone, “Importance of solar subsurface heating in ocean general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30923–30938 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. B. Kara, A. J. Wallcraft, and H. E. Hurlburt, “A new solar radiation penetration scheme for use in ocean mixed layer studies: An application to the Black Sea using a fine-resolution hybrid coordinate ocean model (HYCOM),” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 13–32 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Sweeney, A. Gnanadesikan, S. M. Griffies, M. J. Harrison, A. J. Rosati, and B. L. Samuels, “Impacts of shortwave penetration depth on large-scale ocean circulations and heat transport,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 1103–1119 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Oschlies, “Feedbacks of biotically induced radiative heating on upper-ocean heat budget, circulation, and biological production in a coupled ecosystem-circulation model,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12031 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Manizza, C. L. Quéré, A. J. Watson, and E. T. Buitenhuis, “Bio-optical feedbacks among phytoplankton, upper ocean physics and sea-ice in a global model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05603 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Danabasoglu, W. G. Large, J. J. Tribbia, P. R. Gent, and B. P. Briegleb, “Diurnal coupling in the tropical oceans of CCSM3,” J. Clim. 19, 2347–2365 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. M. Shell, F. Frouin, S. Nakamoto, and R. C. J. Somerville, “Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4445–4452 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Wetzel, E. Maier-Reimer, M. Botzet, and J. Jungclaus, “Effects of ocean biology on the penetrative radiation in a coupled climate model,” J. Clim. 19, 3973–3987 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Jochum, S. Yeager, K. Lindsay, K. Moore, and R. Murtagudde, “Quantification of the feedback between phytoplankton and ENSO in the Community Climate System Model,” J. Clim. 23, 2916–2925 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. W. Gregg and N. W. Casey, “Skill assessment of a spectral ocean-atmosphere radiative model,” J. Marine Syst. 76, 49–63 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. W. Gregg, “Tracking the SeaWiFS record with a coupled physical/biogeochemical/radiative model of the global oceans,” Deep-Sea Res. II 49, 81–105 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. “GMAO ocean biology and biogeochemical modeling” (2012), https://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/research/oceanbiology/.
  27. C. D. Mobley, “Fast light calculations for ocean ecosystem and inverse models,” Opt. Express 19, 18927–18944 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, “The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: A case study,” Biogeosciences 4, 817–835 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, W. P. Bissett, and B. Cahill, “Fast and accurate irradiance calculations for ecosystem models,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 6, 10625–10662 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. D. Mobley and F. Chai, “Improved ocean ecosystem predictions via improved optics,” to be presented at Ocean Optics XXI, Glasgow, Scotland, 8–12 October 2012.
  31. M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J.-P. Gattuso, B. Gentili, C. M. Duarte, J. A. Kelypas, J. J. Middelburg, and D. Antoine, “Light availability in the coastal ocean: Impact on the distribution of benthic photosynthetic organisms and their contribution to primary production,” Biogeosciences 3, 489–513 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. K. Mopper and D. J. Kieber, Marine Photochemistry and Its Impact on Carbon Cycling (Cambridge University, 2000).
  34. P. Coble, “Marine optical biogeochemistry: The chemistry of ocean color,” Chem. Rev. 107, 402–418 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. Frouin, B. A. Franz, and J. Werdell, “The SeaWiFS PAR product,” in NASA Technical Memo 2003–206892, Vol. 22: Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), pp. 50–54.
  36. J. Aiken and G. Moore, “ATBD photosynthetically available radiation (PAR),” Technical report (Plymouth Marine Lab, 1997).
  37. C. D. Mobley, “EcoLight-S 1.0 users’ guide and technical documentation,” Technical report (Sequoia Scientific, Inc., 2011), http://www.sequoiasci.com/products/els-radiative.cmsx.
  38. C. Cox and W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  39. C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).
  40. P. Gege, “Analytic model for the direct and diffuse components of downwelling spectral irradiance in water,” Appl. Opt. 51, 1407–1419 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  41. F. Kasten and G. Czeplak, “Solar and terrestrial radiation dependent on the amount and type of cloud,” Sol. Energy 24, 177–189 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  42. A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  43. A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 41, 387–392 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  44. C. D. Mobley, “Ocean optics web book: A new IOP model for Case 1 water,” 2010, http://www.oceanopticsbook.info/view/optical_constituents_of_the_ocean/__level_2/a_new_iop_model_for_case_1_water.
  45. R. M. Letelier, D. M. Karl, M. R. Abbot, and R. R. Bidigare, “Light driven seasonal patterns of chlorophyll and nitrate in the lower euphotic zone of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 508–519 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  46. M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

M. Jochum, S. Yeager, K. Lindsay, K. Moore, and R. Murtagudde, “Quantification of the feedback between phytoplankton and ENSO in the Community Climate System Model,” J. Clim. 23, 2916–2925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

W. W. Gregg and N. W. Casey, “Skill assessment of a spectral ocean-atmosphere radiative model,” J. Marine Syst. 76, 49–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, W. P. Bissett, and B. Cahill, “Fast and accurate irradiance calculations for ecosystem models,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 6, 10625–10662 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. Coble, “Marine optical biogeochemistry: The chemistry of ocean color,” Chem. Rev. 107, 402–418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, “The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: A case study,” Biogeosciences 4, 817–835 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J.-P. Gattuso, B. Gentili, C. M. Duarte, J. A. Kelypas, J. J. Middelburg, and D. Antoine, “Light availability in the coastal ocean: Impact on the distribution of benthic photosynthetic organisms and their contribution to primary production,” Biogeosciences 3, 489–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Danabasoglu, W. G. Large, J. J. Tribbia, P. R. Gent, and B. P. Briegleb, “Diurnal coupling in the tropical oceans of CCSM3,” J. Clim. 19, 2347–2365 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Wetzel, E. Maier-Reimer, M. Botzet, and J. Jungclaus, “Effects of ocean biology on the penetrative radiation in a coupled climate model,” J. Clim. 19, 3973–3987 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. B. Kara, A. J. Wallcraft, and H. E. Hurlburt, “A new solar radiation penetration scheme for use in ocean mixed layer studies: An application to the Black Sea using a fine-resolution hybrid coordinate ocean model (HYCOM),” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 13–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Sweeney, A. Gnanadesikan, S. M. Griffies, M. J. Harrison, A. J. Rosati, and B. L. Samuels, “Impacts of shortwave penetration depth on large-scale ocean circulations and heat transport,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 1103–1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Manizza, C. L. Quéré, A. J. Watson, and E. T. Buitenhuis, “Bio-optical feedbacks among phytoplankton, upper ocean physics and sea-ice in a global model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Oschlies, “Feedbacks of biotically induced radiative heating on upper-ocean heat budget, circulation, and biological production in a coupled ecosystem-circulation model,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12031 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Letelier, D. M. Karl, M. R. Abbot, and R. R. Bidigare, “Light driven seasonal patterns of chlorophyll and nitrate in the lower euphotic zone of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 508–519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. C. Ohlmann, “Ocean radiant heating in climate models,” J. Clim. 16, 1337–1351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Shell, F. Frouin, S. Nakamoto, and R. C. J. Somerville, “Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4445–4452 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Murtugudde, J. Beauchamp, C. R. McClain, M. Lewis, and A. J. Busalacchi, “Effects of penetrative radiation on the upper tropical ocean circulation,” J. Clim. 15, 470–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. A. Rochford, A. B. Kara, A. J. Wallcraft, and R. A. Arnone, “Importance of solar subsurface heating in ocean general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30923–30938 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, J. Ishizaka, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigments in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2021–2024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, “Tracking the SeaWiFS record with a coupled physical/biogeochemical/radiative model of the global oceans,” Deep-Sea Res. II 49, 81–105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Chlorophyll modulation of sea surface temperature in the Arabian Sea in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 747–750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ohlmann, D. A. Siegel, and C. D. Mobley, “Ocean radiant heating. Part I: Optical influences,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 1833–1848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ohlmann and D. A. Siegel, “Ocean radiant heating. Part II: Parameterizing solar radiation transmission through the upper ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 1849–1865 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

E. K. Schneider and Z. Zhu, “Sensitivity of the simulated annual cycle of sea surface temperature in the equatorial Pacific to sunlight penetration,” J. Clim. 11, 1932–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

1990

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 41, 387–392 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. J. Simpson and T. D. Dickey, “The relationship between downward irradiance and upper ocean structure,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 11, 309–323 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

F. Kasten and G. Czeplak, “Solar and terrestrial radiation dependent on the amount and type of cloud,” Sol. Energy 24, 177–189 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

C. A. Paulson and J. J. Simpson, “Irradiance measurements in the upper ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 7, 952–956 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1954

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Abbot, M. R.

R. M. Letelier, D. M. Karl, M. R. Abbot, and R. R. Bidigare, “Light driven seasonal patterns of chlorophyll and nitrate in the lower euphotic zone of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 508–519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

J. Aiken and G. Moore, “ATBD photosynthetically available radiation (PAR),” Technical report (Plymouth Marine Lab, 1997).

Aita, M. N.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Gattuso, B. Gentili, C. M. Duarte, J. A. Kelypas, J. J. Middelburg, and D. Antoine, “Light availability in the coastal ocean: Impact on the distribution of benthic photosynthetic organisms and their contribution to primary production,” Biogeosciences 3, 489–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

P. A. Rochford, A. B. Kara, A. J. Wallcraft, and R. A. Arnone, “Importance of solar subsurface heating in ocean general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30923–30938 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arrigo, K. R.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asanuma, I.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aumont, O.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barber, R.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beauchamp, J.

R. Murtugudde, J. Beauchamp, C. R. McClain, M. Lewis, and A. J. Busalacchi, “Effects of penetrative radiation on the upper tropical ocean circulation,” J. Clim. 15, 470–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bidigare, R.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bidigare, R. R.

R. M. Letelier, D. M. Karl, M. R. Abbot, and R. R. Bidigare, “Light driven seasonal patterns of chlorophyll and nitrate in the lower euphotic zone of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 508–519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bissett, W. P.

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, W. P. Bissett, and B. Cahill, “Fast and accurate irradiance calculations for ecosystem models,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 6, 10625–10662 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, “The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: A case study,” Biogeosciences 4, 817–835 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E. S.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Botzet, M.

P. Wetzel, E. Maier-Reimer, M. Botzet, and J. Jungclaus, “Effects of ocean biology on the penetrative radiation in a coupled climate model,” J. Clim. 19, 3973–3987 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Briegleb, B. P.

G. Danabasoglu, W. G. Large, J. J. Tribbia, P. R. Gent, and B. P. Briegleb, “Diurnal coupling in the tropical oceans of CCSM3,” J. Clim. 19, 2347–2365 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buitenhuis, E. T.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Manizza, C. L. Quéré, A. J. Watson, and E. T. Buitenhuis, “Bio-optical feedbacks among phytoplankton, upper ocean physics and sea-ice in a global model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Busalacchi, A. J.

R. Murtugudde, J. Beauchamp, C. R. McClain, M. Lewis, and A. J. Busalacchi, “Effects of penetrative radiation on the upper tropical ocean circulation,” J. Clim. 15, 470–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, B.

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, W. P. Bissett, and B. Cahill, “Fast and accurate irradiance calculations for ecosystem models,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 6, 10625–10662 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Carr, M.-E.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Casey, N. W.

W. W. Gregg and N. W. Casey, “Skill assessment of a spectral ocean-atmosphere radiative model,” J. Marine Syst. 76, 49–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chai, F.

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, “The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: A case study,” Biogeosciences 4, 817–835 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley and F. Chai, “Improved ocean ecosystem predictions via improved optics,” to be presented at Ocean Optics XXI, Glasgow, Scotland, 8–12 October 2012.

Ciotti, A.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coble, P.

P. Coble, “Marine optical biogeochemistry: The chemistry of ocean color,” Chem. Rev. 107, 402–418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coombes, C. A.

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 41, 387–392 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Czeplak, G.

F. Kasten and G. Czeplak, “Solar and terrestrial radiation dependent on the amount and type of cloud,” Sol. Energy 24, 177–189 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dall’Olmo, G.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Danabasoglu, G.

G. Danabasoglu, W. G. Large, J. J. Tribbia, P. R. Gent, and B. P. Briegleb, “Diurnal coupling in the tropical oceans of CCSM3,” J. Clim. 19, 2347–2365 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T. D.

J. J. Simpson and T. D. Dickey, “The relationship between downward irradiance and upper ocean structure,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 11, 309–323 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Dickey and P. G. Falkowski, “Solar energy and its biological-physical interactions in the sea,” in The Sea, A. R. Robinson, J. J. McCarthy, and B. J. Rothschild, eds. (Wiley, 2002), pp. 401–440.

Dierssen, H.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doney, S. C.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dowell, M.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duarte, C. M.

J.-P. Gattuso, B. Gentili, C. M. Duarte, J. A. Kelypas, J. J. Middelburg, and D. Antoine, “Light availability in the coastal ocean: Impact on the distribution of benthic photosynthetic organisms and their contribution to primary production,” Biogeosciences 3, 489–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunne, J.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Falkowski, P. G.

T. D. Dickey and P. G. Falkowski, “Solar energy and its biological-physical interactions in the sea,” in The Sea, A. R. Robinson, J. J. McCarthy, and B. J. Rothschild, eds. (Wiley, 2002), pp. 401–440.

Feldman, G. C.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B. A.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, B. A. Franz, and J. Werdell, “The SeaWiFS PAR product,” in NASA Technical Memo 2003–206892, Vol. 22: Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), pp. 50–54.

Friedrichs, M. A. M.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, F.

K. M. Shell, F. Frouin, S. Nakamoto, and R. C. J. Somerville, “Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4445–4452 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, J. Ishizaka, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigments in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2021–2024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Chlorophyll modulation of sea surface temperature in the Arabian Sea in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 747–750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, B. A. Franz, and J. Werdell, “The SeaWiFS PAR product,” in NASA Technical Memo 2003–206892, Vol. 22: Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), pp. 50–54.

Fujii, M.

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, “The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: A case study,” Biogeosciences 4, 817–835 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gattuso, J.-P.

J.-P. Gattuso, B. Gentili, C. M. Duarte, J. A. Kelypas, J. J. Middelburg, and D. Antoine, “Light availability in the coastal ocean: Impact on the distribution of benthic photosynthetic organisms and their contribution to primary production,” Biogeosciences 3, 489–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gege, P.

Gent, P. R.

G. Danabasoglu, W. G. Large, J. J. Tribbia, P. R. Gent, and B. P. Briegleb, “Diurnal coupling in the tropical oceans of CCSM3,” J. Clim. 19, 2347–2365 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

J.-P. Gattuso, B. Gentili, C. M. Duarte, J. A. Kelypas, J. J. Middelburg, and D. Antoine, “Light availability in the coastal ocean: Impact on the distribution of benthic photosynthetic organisms and their contribution to primary production,” Biogeosciences 3, 489–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for the computation of underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gnanadesikan, A.

C. Sweeney, A. Gnanadesikan, S. M. Griffies, M. J. Harrison, A. J. Rosati, and B. L. Samuels, “Impacts of shortwave penetration depth on large-scale ocean circulations and heat transport,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 1103–1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H.

Gregg, W.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gregg, W. W.

W. W. Gregg and N. W. Casey, “Skill assessment of a spectral ocean-atmosphere radiative model,” J. Marine Syst. 76, 49–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, “Tracking the SeaWiFS record with a coupled physical/biogeochemical/radiative model of the global oceans,” Deep-Sea Res. II 49, 81–105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Griffies, S. M.

C. Sweeney, A. Gnanadesikan, S. M. Griffies, M. J. Harrison, A. J. Rosati, and B. L. Samuels, “Impacts of shortwave penetration depth on large-scale ocean circulations and heat transport,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 1103–1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Groom, S.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, A. W.

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 41, 387–392 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, M. J.

C. Sweeney, A. Gnanadesikan, S. M. Griffies, M. J. Harrison, A. J. Rosati, and B. L. Samuels, “Impacts of shortwave penetration depth on large-scale ocean circulations and heat transport,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 1103–1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoepffner, N.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hurlburt, H. E.

A. B. Kara, A. J. Wallcraft, and H. E. Hurlburt, “A new solar radiation penetration scheme for use in ocean mixed layer studies: An application to the Black Sea using a fine-resolution hybrid coordinate ocean model (HYCOM),” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 13–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishizaka, J.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, J. Ishizaka, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigments in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2021–2024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

Jochum, M.

M. Jochum, S. Yeager, K. Lindsay, K. Moore, and R. Murtagudde, “Quantification of the feedback between phytoplankton and ENSO in the Community Climate System Model,” J. Clim. 23, 2916–2925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jungclaus, J.

P. Wetzel, E. Maier-Reimer, M. Botzet, and J. Jungclaus, “Effects of ocean biology on the penetrative radiation in a coupled climate model,” J. Clim. 19, 3973–3987 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kameda, T.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kara, A. B.

A. B. Kara, A. J. Wallcraft, and H. E. Hurlburt, “A new solar radiation penetration scheme for use in ocean mixed layer studies: An application to the Black Sea using a fine-resolution hybrid coordinate ocean model (HYCOM),” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 13–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Rochford, A. B. Kara, A. J. Wallcraft, and R. A. Arnone, “Importance of solar subsurface heating in ocean general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30923–30938 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karl, D. M.

R. M. Letelier, D. M. Karl, M. R. Abbot, and R. R. Bidigare, “Light driven seasonal patterns of chlorophyll and nitrate in the lower euphotic zone of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 508–519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasten, F.

F. Kasten and G. Czeplak, “Solar and terrestrial radiation dependent on the amount and type of cloud,” Sol. Energy 24, 177–189 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G.

Kelypas, J. A.

J.-P. Gattuso, B. Gentili, C. M. Duarte, J. A. Kelypas, J. J. Middelburg, and D. Antoine, “Light availability in the coastal ocean: Impact on the distribution of benthic photosynthetic organisms and their contribution to primary production,” Biogeosciences 3, 489–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kieber, D. J.

K. Mopper and D. J. Kieber, Marine Photochemistry and Its Impact on Carbon Cycling (Cambridge University, 2000).

Kumar, S. P.

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, J. Ishizaka, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigments in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2021–2024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Chlorophyll modulation of sea surface temperature in the Arabian Sea in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 747–750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Large, W. G.

G. Danabasoglu, W. G. Large, J. J. Tribbia, P. R. Gent, and B. P. Briegleb, “Diurnal coupling in the tropical oceans of CCSM3,” J. Clim. 19, 2347–2365 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Letelier, R. M.

R. M. Letelier, D. M. Karl, M. R. Abbot, and R. R. Bidigare, “Light driven seasonal patterns of chlorophyll and nitrate in the lower euphotic zone of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 508–519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M.

R. Murtugudde, J. Beauchamp, C. R. McClain, M. Lewis, and A. J. Busalacchi, “Effects of penetrative radiation on the upper tropical ocean circulation,” J. Clim. 15, 470–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lima, I.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, K.

M. Jochum, S. Yeager, K. Lindsay, K. Moore, and R. Murtagudde, “Quantification of the feedback between phytoplankton and ENSO in the Community Climate System Model,” J. Clim. 23, 2916–2925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, S.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mahowald, N.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maier-Reimer, E.

P. Wetzel, E. Maier-Reimer, M. Botzet, and J. Jungclaus, “Effects of ocean biology on the penetrative radiation in a coupled climate model,” J. Clim. 19, 3973–3987 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manizza, M.

M. Manizza, C. L. Quéré, A. J. Watson, and E. T. Buitenhuis, “Bio-optical feedbacks among phytoplankton, upper ocean physics and sea-ice in a global model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marra, J.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Murtugudde, J. Beauchamp, C. R. McClain, M. Lewis, and A. J. Busalacchi, “Effects of penetrative radiation on the upper tropical ocean circulation,” J. Clim. 15, 470–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mélin, F.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Middelburg, J. J.

J.-P. Gattuso, B. Gentili, C. M. Duarte, J. A. Kelypas, J. J. Middelburg, and D. Antoine, “Light availability in the coastal ocean: Impact on the distribution of benthic photosynthetic organisms and their contribution to primary production,” Biogeosciences 3, 489–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milligan, A. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, “Fast light calculations for ocean ecosystem and inverse models,” Opt. Express 19, 18927–18944 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, W. P. Bissett, and B. Cahill, “Fast and accurate irradiance calculations for ecosystem models,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 6, 10625–10662 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ohlmann, D. A. Siegel, and C. D. Mobley, “Ocean radiant heating. Part I: Optical influences,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 1833–1848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for the computation of underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley and F. Chai, “Improved ocean ecosystem predictions via improved optics,” to be presented at Ocean Optics XXI, Glasgow, Scotland, 8–12 October 2012.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

C. D. Mobley, “EcoLight-S 1.0 users’ guide and technical documentation,” Technical report (Sequoia Scientific, Inc., 2011), http://www.sequoiasci.com/products/els-radiative.cmsx.

Moore, G.

J. Aiken and G. Moore, “ATBD photosynthetically available radiation (PAR),” Technical report (Plymouth Marine Lab, 1997).

Moore, J. K.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moore, K.

M. Jochum, S. Yeager, K. Lindsay, K. Moore, and R. Murtagudde, “Quantification of the feedback between phytoplankton and ENSO in the Community Climate System Model,” J. Clim. 23, 2916–2925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mopper, K.

K. Mopper and D. J. Kieber, Marine Photochemistry and Its Impact on Carbon Cycling (Cambridge University, 2000).

Morel, A.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for the computation of underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Muneyama, K.

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, J. Ishizaka, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigments in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2021–2024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Chlorophyll modulation of sea surface temperature in the Arabian Sea in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 747–750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

Murtagudde, R.

M. Jochum, S. Yeager, K. Lindsay, K. Moore, and R. Murtagudde, “Quantification of the feedback between phytoplankton and ENSO in the Community Climate System Model,” J. Clim. 23, 2916–2925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murtugudde, R.

R. Murtugudde, J. Beauchamp, C. R. McClain, M. Lewis, and A. J. Busalacchi, “Effects of penetrative radiation on the upper tropical ocean circulation,” J. Clim. 15, 470–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamoto, S.

K. M. Shell, F. Frouin, S. Nakamoto, and R. C. J. Somerville, “Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4445–4452 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, J. Ishizaka, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigments in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2021–2024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Chlorophyll modulation of sea surface temperature in the Arabian Sea in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 747–750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O’Malley, R. T.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oberhuber, J. M.

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, J. Ishizaka, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigments in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2021–2024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Chlorophyll modulation of sea surface temperature in the Arabian Sea in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 747–750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohlmann, J. C.

J. C. Ohlmann, “Ocean radiant heating in climate models,” J. Clim. 16, 1337–1351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ohlmann and D. A. Siegel, “Ocean radiant heating. Part II: Parameterizing solar radiation transmission through the upper ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 1849–1865 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ohlmann, D. A. Siegel, and C. D. Mobley, “Ocean radiant heating. Part I: Optical influences,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 1833–1848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oschlies, A.

A. Oschlies, “Feedbacks of biotically induced radiative heating on upper-ocean heat budget, circulation, and biological production in a coupled ecosystem-circulation model,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12031 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paulson, C. A.

C. A. Paulson and J. J. Simpson, “Irradiance measurements in the upper ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 7, 952–956 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Quéré, C. L.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Manizza, C. L. Quéré, A. J. Watson, and E. T. Buitenhuis, “Bio-optical feedbacks among phytoplankton, upper ocean physics and sea-ice in a global model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, T. E.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reinersman, P.

Rochford, P. A.

P. A. Rochford, A. B. Kara, A. J. Wallcraft, and R. A. Arnone, “Importance of solar subsurface heating in ocean general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30923–30938 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rosati, A. J.

C. Sweeney, A. Gnanadesikan, S. M. Griffies, M. J. Harrison, A. J. Rosati, and B. L. Samuels, “Impacts of shortwave penetration depth on large-scale ocean circulations and heat transport,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 1103–1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, J.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Samuels, B. L.

C. Sweeney, A. Gnanadesikan, S. M. Griffies, M. J. Harrison, A. J. Rosati, and B. L. Samuels, “Impacts of shortwave penetration depth on large-scale ocean circulations and heat transport,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 1103–1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scardi, M.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltz, M.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, E. K.

E. K. Schneider and Z. Zhu, “Sensitivity of the simulated annual cycle of sea surface temperature in the equatorial Pacific to sunlight penetration,” J. Clim. 11, 1932–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shell, K. M.

K. M. Shell, F. Frouin, S. Nakamoto, and R. C. J. Somerville, “Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4445–4452 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ohlmann, D. A. Siegel, and C. D. Mobley, “Ocean radiant heating. Part I: Optical influences,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 1833–1848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ohlmann and D. A. Siegel, “Ocean radiant heating. Part II: Parameterizing solar radiation transmission through the upper ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 1849–1865 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. J.

J. J. Simpson and T. D. Dickey, “The relationship between downward irradiance and upper ocean structure,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 11, 309–323 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Paulson and J. J. Simpson, “Irradiance measurements in the upper ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 7, 952–956 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, T.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Somerville, R. C. J.

K. M. Shell, F. Frouin, S. Nakamoto, and R. C. J. Somerville, “Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4445–4452 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

Stavn, R.

Sundman, L. K.

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, W. P. Bissett, and B. Cahill, “Fast and accurate irradiance calculations for ecosystem models,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 6, 10625–10662 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, C.

C. Sweeney, A. Gnanadesikan, S. M. Griffies, M. J. Harrison, A. J. Rosati, and B. L. Samuels, “Impacts of shortwave penetration depth on large-scale ocean circulations and heat transport,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 1103–1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tilstone, G.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tribbia, J. J.

G. Danabasoglu, W. G. Large, J. J. Tribbia, P. R. Gent, and B. P. Briegleb, “Diurnal coupling in the tropical oceans of CCSM3,” J. Clim. 19, 2347–2365 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turpie, K.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wallcraft, A. J.

A. B. Kara, A. J. Wallcraft, and H. E. Hurlburt, “A new solar radiation penetration scheme for use in ocean mixed layer studies: An application to the Black Sea using a fine-resolution hybrid coordinate ocean model (HYCOM),” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 13–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Rochford, A. B. Kara, A. J. Wallcraft, and R. A. Arnone, “Importance of solar subsurface heating in ocean general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30923–30938 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Waters, K.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watson, A. J.

M. Manizza, C. L. Quéré, A. J. Watson, and E. T. Buitenhuis, “Bio-optical feedbacks among phytoplankton, upper ocean physics and sea-ice in a global model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, J.

R. Frouin, B. A. Franz, and J. Werdell, “The SeaWiFS PAR product,” in NASA Technical Memo 2003–206892, Vol. 22: Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), pp. 50–54.

Westbury, T. K.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, P.

P. Wetzel, E. Maier-Reimer, M. Botzet, and J. Jungclaus, “Effects of ocean biology on the penetrative radiation in a coupled climate model,” J. Clim. 19, 3973–3987 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiggert, J. D.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, Y.

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeager, S.

M. Jochum, S. Yeager, K. Lindsay, K. Moore, and R. Murtagudde, “Quantification of the feedback between phytoplankton and ENSO in the Community Climate System Model,” J. Clim. 23, 2916–2925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

E. K. Schneider and Z. Zhu, “Sensitivity of the simulated annual cycle of sea surface temperature in the equatorial Pacific to sunlight penetration,” J. Clim. 11, 1932–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biogeosci. Discuss.

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, W. P. Bissett, and B. Cahill, “Fast and accurate irradiance calculations for ecosystem models,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 6, 10625–10662 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biogeosciences

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westbury, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescense reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Gattuso, B. Gentili, C. M. Duarte, J. A. Kelypas, J. J. Middelburg, and D. Antoine, “Light availability in the coastal ocean: Impact on the distribution of benthic photosynthetic organisms and their contribution to primary production,” Biogeosciences 3, 489–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, “The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: A case study,” Biogeosciences 4, 817–835 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

P. Coble, “Marine optical biogeochemistry: The chemistry of ocean color,” Chem. Rev. 107, 402–418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. II

W. W. Gregg, “Tracking the SeaWiFS record with a coupled physical/biogeochemical/radiative model of the global oceans,” Deep-Sea Res. II 49, 81–105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M.-E. Carr, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine, K. R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, E. T. Buitenhuis, J. Campbell, A. Ciotti, H. Dierssen, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, W. Esaias, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, S. Groom, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, C. L. Quéré, S. Lorenz, J. Marra, F. Mélin, K. Moore, A. Morel, T. E. Reddy, J. Ryan, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, K. Turpie, G. Tilstone, K. Waters, and Y. Yamanaka, “A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 741–770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

M. Manizza, C. L. Quéré, A. J. Watson, and E. T. Buitenhuis, “Bio-optical feedbacks among phytoplankton, upper ocean physics and sea-ice in a global model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Chlorophyll modulation of sea surface temperature in the Arabian Sea in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 747–750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamoto, S. P. Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, J. Ishizaka, K. Muneyama, and R. Frouin, “Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigments in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2021–2024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim.

R. Murtugudde, J. Beauchamp, C. R. McClain, M. Lewis, and A. J. Busalacchi, “Effects of penetrative radiation on the upper tropical ocean circulation,” J. Clim. 15, 470–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Schneider and Z. Zhu, “Sensitivity of the simulated annual cycle of sea surface temperature in the equatorial Pacific to sunlight penetration,” J. Clim. 11, 1932–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Danabasoglu, W. G. Large, J. J. Tribbia, P. R. Gent, and B. P. Briegleb, “Diurnal coupling in the tropical oceans of CCSM3,” J. Clim. 19, 2347–2365 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Wetzel, E. Maier-Reimer, M. Botzet, and J. Jungclaus, “Effects of ocean biology on the penetrative radiation in a coupled climate model,” J. Clim. 19, 3973–3987 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Jochum, S. Yeager, K. Lindsay, K. Moore, and R. Murtagudde, “Quantification of the feedback between phytoplankton and ENSO in the Community Climate System Model,” J. Clim. 23, 2916–2925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ohlmann, “Ocean radiant heating in climate models,” J. Clim. 16, 1337–1351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

K. M. Shell, F. Frouin, S. Nakamoto, and R. C. J. Somerville, “Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4445–4452 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Oschlies, “Feedbacks of biotically induced radiative heating on upper-ocean heat budget, circulation, and biological production in a coupled ecosystem-circulation model,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12031 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Rochford, A. B. Kara, A. J. Wallcraft, and R. A. Arnone, “Importance of solar subsurface heating in ocean general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30923–30938 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res.

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

J. Marine Syst.

W. W. Gregg and N. W. Casey, “Skill assessment of a spectral ocean-atmosphere radiative model,” J. Marine Syst. 76, 49–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. Oceanogr.

A. B. Kara, A. J. Wallcraft, and H. E. Hurlburt, “A new solar radiation penetration scheme for use in ocean mixed layer studies: An application to the Black Sea using a fine-resolution hybrid coordinate ocean model (HYCOM),” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 13–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Sweeney, A. Gnanadesikan, S. M. Griffies, M. J. Harrison, A. J. Rosati, and B. L. Samuels, “Impacts of shortwave penetration depth on large-scale ocean circulations and heat transport,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 1103–1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Paulson and J. J. Simpson, “Irradiance measurements in the upper ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 7, 952–956 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Simpson and T. D. Dickey, “The relationship between downward irradiance and upper ocean structure,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 11, 309–323 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ohlmann, D. A. Siegel, and C. D. Mobley, “Ocean radiant heating. Part I: Optical influences,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 1833–1848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ohlmann and D. A. Siegel, “Ocean radiant heating. Part II: Parameterizing solar radiation transmission through the upper ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 1849–1865 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Letelier, D. M. Karl, M. R. Abbot, and R. R. Bidigare, “Light driven seasonal patterns of chlorophyll and nitrate in the lower euphotic zone of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 508–519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Sol. Energy

F. Kasten and G. Czeplak, “Solar and terrestrial radiation dependent on the amount and type of cloud,” Sol. Energy 24, 177–189 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 41, 387–392 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. D. Mobley, “Ocean optics web book: A new IOP model for Case 1 water,” 2010, http://www.oceanopticsbook.info/view/optical_constituents_of_the_ocean/__level_2/a_new_iop_model_for_case_1_water.

R. Frouin, B. A. Franz, and J. Werdell, “The SeaWiFS PAR product,” in NASA Technical Memo 2003–206892, Vol. 22: Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), pp. 50–54.

J. Aiken and G. Moore, “ATBD photosynthetically available radiation (PAR),” Technical report (Plymouth Marine Lab, 1997).

C. D. Mobley, “EcoLight-S 1.0 users’ guide and technical documentation,” Technical report (Sequoia Scientific, Inc., 2011), http://www.sequoiasci.com/products/els-radiative.cmsx.

T. D. Dickey and P. G. Falkowski, “Solar energy and its biological-physical interactions in the sea,” in The Sea, A. R. Robinson, J. J. McCarthy, and B. J. Rothschild, eds. (Wiley, 2002), pp. 401–440.

K. Mopper and D. J. Kieber, Marine Photochemistry and Its Impact on Carbon Cycling (Cambridge University, 2000).

C. D. Mobley and F. Chai, “Improved ocean ecosystem predictions via improved optics,” to be presented at Ocean Optics XXI, Glasgow, Scotland, 8–12 October 2012.

“GMAO ocean biology and biogeochemical modeling” (2012), https://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/research/oceanbiology/.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

C. D. Mobley, Ocean Optics Web Book: HydroLight (2011), http://www.oceanopticsbook.info/view/radiative_transfer_theory/level_2/hydrolight.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

HydroLight-generated ratios of PARo(z) to PARd(z) for Sun zenith angles of 0° (solid curves) and 60° (dashed curves) in a clear sky. Each group of three near-surface curves is, left to right, Chl=0.05 (blue), 0.5 (green), and 5.0mgm3 (red). The wind speed was 5ms1.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Ed(air) and Enet(0) as a function of solar zenith angle and wind speed for both clear and overcast sky conditions, computed for the wavelength range of 400–700 nm. The wind speed is coded by symbol shape and color as shown in the bottom left panel. Curves with symbols connected by lines are for a clear sky; curves without lines connecting the symbols are for an overcast sky. (b) Corresponding curves for 300–1000 nm. (c) Multiplicative factor that converts Ed(air) into Enet(0) for the 400–700 nm range. (d) Corresponding values computed over the 300–1000 nm range. The chlorophyll concentration was 0.5mgm3.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Above-surface Ed during the course of the day for selected latitudes and days of the year. Dots show the values computed by EcoLight-S; curves are the spline fits.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Ed(air)24 and Enet(0)24 for a wind speed of U=0, Chl=0.5mgm3, and a clear sky. (a) Daily averaged E values. (b) Factor that converts above-surface Ed(air)24 to below-surface Enet(0)24 values. Computations were at 2° latitude resolution; identifying symbols are plotted every 10° of latitude.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Ed(air)24, PARo(0)24, and the corresponding conversion factors. The conversion factors now have units that convert the energy units of Ed(air)24 to the quantum units of PARo(0)24. Environmental and other conditions are the same as for Fig. 4.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

PARd(air)24, PARo(0)24, and the factors that convert PARd(air)24 to PARo(0)24. Other conditions are the same as for Fig. 4.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

PARd(air)24, Enet(0)24, and the factors that convert above-surface PARd(air)24 to below-surface Enet(0)24 values. Other conditions are the same as for Fig. 4.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Surface transmission factors for the four types of conversions: (a) Ed(air)24 to Enet(0)24, (b) Ed(air)24 to PARo(0)24, (c) PARd(air)24 to PARo(0)24, and (d) PARd(air)24 to Enet(0)24. Curves with symbols and colors identifying the wind speed are for clear skies. The solid black curves without symbols are for an overcast sky and zero wind speed; the black dashed–dotted curves are for an overcast sky and 15ms1 wind speed. The clear-sky curves for 0 and 15ms1 wind speeds show values for low, medium, and high chlorophyll values of 0.05 (dotted lines), 0.5 (solid), and 5mgm3 (dashed). Other curves are for Chl=0.5mgm3 All curves are for 21 June.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The global annual patterns of Ed(air)24 and PARd(air)24 as generated by EcoLight-S for a clear sky and zero wind speed. The gray areas are regions of 24 h darkness during the polar night.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) In-water Enet(0)24 corresponding to Fig. 9(a). (b) Surface transmission factor that converts Ed(air)24 into Enet(0)24.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) In-water PARo(0)24 corresponding to Fig. 9(b). (b) Surface transmission factor that converts Ed(air)24 into PARo(0)24.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ed(z,λ)=02π0π/2L(z,θ,ϕ,λ)cosθsinθdθdϕ.
Ed(z)=400700Ed(z,λ)dλ,
dTdt=1ρcpdEnetdz,
Eo(z,λ)=02π0πL(z,θ,ϕ,λ)sinθdθdϕ
PARo=400700Eo(λ)λhcdλ.

Metrics