Abstract

Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of optical thin films are very important for a reliable device performance. In the present work, the effect of annealing on the stability and the characteristics of niobium and tantalum oxide films grown at room temperature (RT) by dual ion beam sputtering were studied. The refractive index (n(λ)), extinction coefficient (k(λ)), hardness (H), reduced Young’s modulus (Er), and film stress (σ) were investigated as a function of the annealing temperature (TA). X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all as-deposited films were amorphous, and crystallization was observed only after annealing at 700°C. Compositional analyses confirmed that the atomic ratio of oxygen to metal in as-deposited and annealed films was close to 2.5, indicating that the films were stoichiometric pentoxides of Nb and Ta. The properties of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 films were, respectively, affected by postdeposition annealing: n(λ) values (at 550 nm) decreased from 2.30 to 2.20 and from 2.14 to 2.08, the average H and Er values increased from 5.6 to 7.4 GPa, and from 121 to 132 GPa for Nb2O5, and from 6.5 to 8.3 GPa, and from 132 to 144 GPa for Ta2O5, and the initial low compressive stress for both materials changed to tensile. We explain the variation of the coating material properties in terms of film stoichiometry, crystallinity, electronic structure, and possible reactions at the film–substrate interface.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047–1058 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  49. C. A. Davis, “A simple model for the formation of compressive stress in thin films by ion bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 226, 30–34 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  50. G. Carter, “Peening in ion-assisted thin film deposition-a generalized model,” J. Phys. D 27, 1046–1055 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

B. Baloukas and L. Martinu, “Metameric interference security image structures,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1585–1593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gnanarajan and S. K. H. Lam, “Evaluation of epitaxial Ta2O5 and Ta2O films during thermal oxidation of epitaxial tantalum films on sapphire substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 494–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. V. Jagadeesh Chandra, G. Mohan Rao, and S. Uthanna, “Heat treatment induced structural and optical properties of rf magnetron sputtered tantalum oxide films,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 290–294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. Lai, L. Lin, Z. Huang, R. Gai, and Y. Qu, “Effect of thickness on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of sputter deposited Nb2O5 films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1801–1805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674–1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Mujawar, A. L. Inamdar, S. B. Patil, and P. S. Patil, “Electrochromic properties of spray-deposited niobium oxide thin films,” Solid State Ionics 177, 3333–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Optical properties and microstructure of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23, 241–247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Chandrasekharan, I. Park, R. I. Masel, and M. A. Shannon, “Thermal oxidation of tantalum films at various oxidation states from 300 to 700 °C,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 114908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Lai, M. Li, H. Wang, H. Hu, X. Wang, J. G. Hou, Y. Song, and Y. Jiang, “Optical scattering characteristics of annealed niobium oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 488, 314–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Maeng, L. Axe, T. Tyson, and A. Jiang, “An investigation of structures of thermal and anodic tantalum oxide films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, B60–B64 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. U. Naab, O. W. Holland, J. L. Duggan, and F. D. McDaniel, “Ion beam analyses of carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1415–1419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547–566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Oberste-Berghaus, L. Martinu, R. Blacker, I. Stevenson, G. Sadkhin, D. Morton, S. McEldowney, R. Klinger, P. J. Martin, N. Court, S. Dligatch, M. Gross, and R. P. Netterfield, “Mechanical characteristics of optical coatings prepared by various techniques: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2670–2679 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. He, Q. Fang, M. Liu, L. Q. Zhu, and L. D. Zhang, “The structural and interfacial properties of HfO2/Si by the plasma oxidation of sputtered metallic Hf thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 155–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

I. Petrov, P. B. Barna, L. Hultman, and J. E. Greene, “Microstructural evaluation during film growth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, S117–S128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien and C. C. Lee, “Effects of ion energy on internal stress and optical properties of ion beam sputtering Ta2O5 films,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2755–2763 (2003).

2002

H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Negative thermal expansion behavior in single crystal and ceramic of Nb2O5-based compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5051–5054 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, Ch. Liesch, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Thermal stability of sputtered niobium oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4863–4871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and W. S. Sun, “Determination of the mechanical properties of thin films by digital phase shifting interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 198, 325–331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, and M. Leskela, “Development of dielectric properties of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide based nanolayered materials,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, F35–F41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047–1058 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and D. H. Wong, “The characteristics of some metallic oxides prepared in high vacuum by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 171, 151–156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Ono and K. Koyanagi, “Infrared absorption peak due to Ta═O bonds in Ta2O5 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1431–1433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxide films deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691 (2000).

1999

J. Lin, N. Masaaki, A. Tsukune, and M. Yamada, “Ta2O5 thin films with exceptionally high dielectric constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2370–2372 (1999).

H. Kupfer, T. Flügel, F. Richter, and P. Schlott, “Intrinsic stress in dielectric thin films for micromechanical components,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 116–119, 116–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentaoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng., Rep. 22, 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. Leskela, and R. Lappalainen, “Niobium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 4, 29–34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Zhang, B. Lim, and I. W. Boyd, “Thin tantalum pentaoxide films deposited by photo-induced CVD,” Thin Solid Films 336, 340–343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Orel, M. Macek, and J. Grdadolnik, “In situ UV-VIS and ex-situ IR spectro electrochemical investigations of amorphous and crystalline electrochromic Nb2O5 films in charged/discharged states,” J. Solid State Electrochem. 2, 221–236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, D. T. Wei, and J. H. Lin, “Morphology of dual ion beam sputtered films investigated by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 308–309, 74–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Pawlicka, M. Atik, and M. A. Aegerter, “Synthesis of multicolor Nb2O5 coatings for electrochromic devices,” Thin Solid Films 301, 236–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371–373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Cevro and G. Carter, “Ion beam and dual ion beam sputter deposition of tantalum oxide films,” Opt. Eng. 34, 596–606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. Carter, “Peening in ion-assisted thin film deposition-a generalized model,” J. Phys. D 27, 1046–1055 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. C. Fang, F. Jones, and V. Prasada, “Effect of gas impurity and ion bombardment on stresses in sputter-deposited thin films: a molecular-dynamics approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4472–4482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Davis, “A simple model for the formation of compressive stress in thin films by ion bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 226, 30–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. S. Gardner and P. A. Flinn, “Mechanical stress as a function of temperature in aluminum films,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 2160–2169 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

P. A. Flinn, D. S. Gardner, and W. D. Nix, “Measurement and interpretation of stress in aluminum-based metallization as a function of thermal history,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 34, 689–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

P. J. Martin, “Ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mater. Sci. 21, 1–25 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

Y. Okada and Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314–320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

1964

B. M. Gatehouse and A. D. Wadsley, “The crystal structure of the high temperature form of niobium pentaoxide,” Acta Crystallogr. 17, 1545–1554 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, M. A.

A. Pawlicka, M. Atik, and M. A. Aegerter, “Synthesis of multicolor Nb2O5 coatings for electrochromic devices,” Thin Solid Films 301, 236–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amassian, A.

J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674–1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atik, M.

A. Pawlicka, M. Atik, and M. A. Aegerter, “Synthesis of multicolor Nb2O5 coatings for electrochromic devices,” Thin Solid Films 301, 236–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Autran, J. L.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentaoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng., Rep. 22, 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Axe, L.

S. Maeng, L. Axe, T. Tyson, and A. Jiang, “An investigation of structures of thermal and anodic tantalum oxide films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, B60–B64 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Balland, B.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentaoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng., Rep. 22, 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baloukas, B.

Barna, P. B.

I. Petrov, P. B. Barna, L. Hultman, and J. E. Greene, “Microstructural evaluation during film growth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, S117–S128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhalla, A. S.

H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Negative thermal expansion behavior in single crystal and ceramic of Nb2O5-based compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5051–5054 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blacker, R.

Boudreault, G.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547–566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, I. W.

J. Y. Zhang, B. Lim, and I. W. Boyd, “Thin tantalum pentaoxide films deposited by photo-induced CVD,” Thin Solid Films 336, 340–343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G.

M. Cevro and G. Carter, “Ion beam and dual ion beam sputter deposition of tantalum oxide films,” Opt. Eng. 34, 596–606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Carter, “Peening in ion-assisted thin film deposition-a generalized model,” J. Phys. D 27, 1046–1055 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Çetinörgü, E.

Cevro, M.

M. Cevro and G. Carter, “Ion beam and dual ion beam sputter deposition of tantalum oxide films,” Opt. Eng. 34, 596–606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekharan, R.

R. Chandrasekharan, I. Park, R. I. Masel, and M. A. Shannon, “Thermal oxidation of tantalum films at various oxidation states from 300 to 700 °C,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 114908 (2005).
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C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentaoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng., Rep. 22, 269–322 (1998).
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H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Negative thermal expansion behavior in single crystal and ceramic of Nb2O5-based compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5051–5054 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, K. P.

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691 (2000).

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B. D. Cullity and S. R. Stock, Elements of X-ray Diffraction, 3rd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 2001), pp. 170, 619.

Cuomo, J. J.

J. J. Cuomo, S. M. Rossnagel, and H. R. Kaufman, Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology Part III (Noyes, 1989), pp. 170.

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C. A. Davis, “A simple model for the formation of compressive stress in thin films by ion bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 226, 30–34 (1993).
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Devine, R. A. B.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentaoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng., Rep. 22, 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dligatch, S.

Drese, R.

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, Ch. Liesch, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Thermal stability of sputtered niobium oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4863–4871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047–1058 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Duggan, J. L.

F. U. Naab, O. W. Holland, J. L. Duggan, and F. D. McDaniel, “Ion beam analyses of carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1415–1419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elliman, R. G.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547–566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, C. C.

C. C. Fang, F. Jones, and V. Prasada, “Effect of gas impurity and ion bombardment on stresses in sputter-deposited thin films: a molecular-dynamics approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4472–4482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

G. He, Q. Fang, M. Liu, L. Q. Zhu, and L. D. Zhang, “The structural and interfacial properties of HfO2/Si by the plasma oxidation of sputtered metallic Hf thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 155–162 (2004).
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D. S. Gardner and P. A. Flinn, “Mechanical stress as a function of temperature in aluminum films,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 2160–2169 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Flinn, D. S. Gardner, and W. D. Nix, “Measurement and interpretation of stress in aluminum-based metallization as a function of thermal history,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 34, 689–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Flügel, T.

H. Kupfer, T. Flügel, F. Richter, and P. Schlott, “Intrinsic stress in dielectric thin films for micromechanical components,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 116–119, 116–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gai, R.

F. Lai, L. Lin, Z. Huang, R. Gai, and Y. Qu, “Effect of thickness on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of sputter deposited Nb2O5 films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1801–1805 (2006).
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Gardner, D. S.

D. S. Gardner and P. A. Flinn, “Mechanical stress as a function of temperature in aluminum films,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 2160–2169 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Flinn, D. S. Gardner, and W. D. Nix, “Measurement and interpretation of stress in aluminum-based metallization as a function of thermal history,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 34, 689–699 (1987).
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Gatehouse, B. M.

B. M. Gatehouse and A. D. Wadsley, “The crystal structure of the high temperature form of niobium pentaoxide,” Acta Crystallogr. 17, 1545–1554 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Gnanarajan, S.

S. Gnanarajan and S. K. H. Lam, “Evaluation of epitaxial Ta2O5 and Ta2O films during thermal oxidation of epitaxial tantalum films on sapphire substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 494–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grdadolnik, J.

B. Orel, M. Macek, and J. Grdadolnik, “In situ UV-VIS and ex-situ IR spectro electrochemical investigations of amorphous and crystalline electrochromic Nb2O5 films in charged/discharged states,” J. Solid State Electrochem. 2, 221–236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Greene, J. E.

I. Petrov, P. B. Barna, L. Hultman, and J. E. Greene, “Microstructural evaluation during film growth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, S117–S128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

Grötzschel, R.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547–566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gujrathi, S. C.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547–566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R.

H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Negative thermal expansion behavior in single crystal and ceramic of Nb2O5-based compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5051–5054 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, G.

G. He, Q. Fang, M. Liu, L. Q. Zhu, and L. D. Zhang, “The structural and interfacial properties of HfO2/Si by the plasma oxidation of sputtered metallic Hf thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 155–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holland, O. W.

F. U. Naab, O. W. Holland, J. L. Duggan, and F. D. McDaniel, “Ion beam analyses of carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1415–1419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hou, J. G.

F. Lai, M. Li, H. Wang, H. Hu, X. Wang, J. G. Hou, Y. Song, and Y. Jiang, “Optical scattering characteristics of annealed niobium oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 488, 314–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. C.

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and D. H. Wong, “The characteristics of some metallic oxides prepared in high vacuum by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 171, 151–156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxide films deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, D. T. Wei, and J. H. Lin, “Morphology of dual ion beam sputtered films investigated by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 308–309, 74–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

F. Lai, M. Li, H. Wang, H. Hu, X. Wang, J. G. Hou, Y. Song, and Y. Jiang, “Optical scattering characteristics of annealed niobium oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 488, 314–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

F. Lai, L. Lin, Z. Huang, R. Gai, and Y. Qu, “Effect of thickness on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of sputter deposited Nb2O5 films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1801–1805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hultman, L.

I. Petrov, P. B. Barna, L. Hultman, and J. E. Greene, “Microstructural evaluation during film growth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, S117–S128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hunsche, B.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inamdar, A. L.

S. H. Mujawar, A. L. Inamdar, S. B. Patil, and P. S. Patil, “Electrochromic properties of spray-deposited niobium oxide thin films,” Solid State Ionics 177, 3333–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jagadeesh Chandra, S. V.

S. V. Jagadeesh Chandra, G. Mohan Rao, and S. Uthanna, “Heat treatment induced structural and optical properties of rf magnetron sputtered tantalum oxide films,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 290–294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jaing, C. C.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691 (2000).

Jayavel, R.

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, Ch. Liesch, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Thermal stability of sputtered niobium oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4863–4871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047–1058 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371–373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jeynes, C.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547–566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, A.

S. Maeng, L. Axe, T. Tyson, and A. Jiang, “An investigation of structures of thermal and anodic tantalum oxide films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, B60–B64 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

F. Lai, M. Li, H. Wang, H. Hu, X. Wang, J. G. Hou, Y. Song, and Y. Jiang, “Optical scattering characteristics of annealed niobium oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 488, 314–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, F.

C. C. Fang, F. Jones, and V. Prasada, “Effect of gas impurity and ion bombardment on stresses in sputter-deposited thin films: a molecular-dynamics approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4472–4482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kappertz, O.

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, Ch. Liesch, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Thermal stability of sputtered niobium oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4863–4871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047–1058 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, H. R.

J. J. Cuomo, S. M. Rossnagel, and H. R. Kaufman, Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology Part III (Noyes, 1989), pp. 170.

Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.

E. Çetinörgü, B. Baloukas, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Mechanical and thermo-elastic characteristics of optical thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4536–4544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674–1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Optical properties and microstructure of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23, 241–247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Oberste-Berghaus, L. Martinu, R. Blacker, I. Stevenson, G. Sadkhin, D. Morton, S. McEldowney, R. Klinger, P. J. Martin, N. Court, S. Dligatch, M. Gross, and R. P. Netterfield, “Mechanical characteristics of optical coatings prepared by various techniques: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2670–2679 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klinger, R.

Klose, F.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koyanagi, K.

H. Ono and K. Koyanagi, “Infrared absorption peak due to Ta═O bonds in Ta2O5 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1431–1433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kukli, K.

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, and M. Leskela, “Development of dielectric properties of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide based nanolayered materials,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, F35–F41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. Leskela, and R. Lappalainen, “Niobium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 4, 29–34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kupfer, H.

H. Kupfer, T. Flügel, F. Richter, and P. Schlott, “Intrinsic stress in dielectric thin films for micromechanical components,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 116–119, 116–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lai, F.

F. Lai, L. Lin, Z. Huang, R. Gai, and Y. Qu, “Effect of thickness on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of sputter deposited Nb2O5 films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1801–1805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Lai, M. Li, H. Wang, H. Hu, X. Wang, J. G. Hou, Y. Song, and Y. Jiang, “Optical scattering characteristics of annealed niobium oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 488, 314–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lam, S. K. H.

S. Gnanarajan and S. K. H. Lam, “Evaluation of epitaxial Ta2O5 and Ta2O films during thermal oxidation of epitaxial tantalum films on sapphire substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 494–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lappalainen, R.

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. Leskela, and R. Lappalainen, “Niobium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 4, 29–34 (1998).
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Lee, C. C.

C. L. Tien and C. C. Lee, “Effects of ion energy on internal stress and optical properties of ion beam sputtering Ta2O5 films,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2755–2763 (2003).

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and W. S. Sun, “Determination of the mechanical properties of thin films by digital phase shifting interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 198, 325–331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and D. H. Wong, “The characteristics of some metallic oxides prepared in high vacuum by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 171, 151–156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691 (2000).

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxide films deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, D. T. Wei, and J. H. Lin, “Morphology of dual ion beam sputtered films investigated by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 308–309, 74–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lennard, W. N.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547–566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leskela, M.

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, and M. Leskela, “Development of dielectric properties of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide based nanolayered materials,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, F35–F41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. Leskela, and R. Lappalainen, “Niobium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 4, 29–34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

F. Lai, M. Li, H. Wang, H. Hu, X. Wang, J. G. Hou, Y. Song, and Y. Jiang, “Optical scattering characteristics of annealed niobium oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 488, 314–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liesch, Ch.

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, Ch. Liesch, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Thermal stability of sputtered niobium oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4863–4871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lim, B.

J. Y. Zhang, B. Lim, and I. W. Boyd, “Thin tantalum pentaoxide films deposited by photo-induced CVD,” Thin Solid Films 336, 340–343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, N. Masaaki, A. Tsukune, and M. Yamada, “Ta2O5 thin films with exceptionally high dielectric constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2370–2372 (1999).

Lin, J. H.

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, D. T. Wei, and J. H. Lin, “Morphology of dual ion beam sputtered films investigated by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 308–309, 74–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

F. Lai, L. Lin, Z. Huang, R. Gai, and Y. Qu, “Effect of thickness on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of sputter deposited Nb2O5 films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1801–1805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

G. He, Q. Fang, M. Liu, L. Q. Zhu, and L. D. Zhang, “The structural and interfacial properties of HfO2/Si by the plasma oxidation of sputtered metallic Hf thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 155–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macek, M.

B. Orel, M. Macek, and J. Grdadolnik, “In situ UV-VIS and ex-situ IR spectro electrochemical investigations of amorphous and crystalline electrochromic Nb2O5 films in charged/discharged states,” J. Solid State Electrochem. 2, 221–236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

Maeng, S.

S. Maeng, L. Axe, T. Tyson, and A. Jiang, “An investigation of structures of thermal and anodic tantalum oxide films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, B60–B64 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. J.

Martinu, L.

E. Çetinörgü, B. Baloukas, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Mechanical and thermo-elastic characteristics of optical thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4536–4544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Baloukas and L. Martinu, “Metameric interference security image structures,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1585–1593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674–1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Optical properties and microstructure of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23, 241–247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Oberste-Berghaus, L. Martinu, R. Blacker, I. Stevenson, G. Sadkhin, D. Morton, S. McEldowney, R. Klinger, P. J. Martin, N. Court, S. Dligatch, M. Gross, and R. P. Netterfield, “Mechanical characteristics of optical coatings prepared by various techniques: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2670–2679 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Masaaki, N.

J. Lin, N. Masaaki, A. Tsukune, and M. Yamada, “Ta2O5 thin films with exceptionally high dielectric constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2370–2372 (1999).

Masel, R. I.

R. Chandrasekharan, I. Park, R. I. Masel, and M. A. Shannon, “Thermal oxidation of tantalum films at various oxidation states from 300 to 700 °C,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 114908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Masse, J. P.

J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674–1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matthee, T.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McDaniel, F. D.

F. U. Naab, O. W. Holland, J. L. Duggan, and F. D. McDaniel, “Ion beam analyses of carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1415–1419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McEldowney, S.

Modine, F. A.

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371–373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mohan Rao, G.

S. V. Jagadeesh Chandra, G. Mohan Rao, and S. Uthanna, “Heat treatment induced structural and optical properties of rf magnetron sputtered tantalum oxide films,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 290–294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morton, D.

Mujawar, S. H.

S. H. Mujawar, A. L. Inamdar, S. B. Patil, and P. S. Patil, “Electrochromic properties of spray-deposited niobium oxide thin films,” Solid State Ionics 177, 3333–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Naab, F. U.

F. U. Naab, O. W. Holland, J. L. Duggan, and F. D. McDaniel, “Ion beam analyses of carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1415–1419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Netterfield, R. P.

Neuhauser, H.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nix, W. D.

P. A. Flinn, D. S. Gardner, and W. D. Nix, “Measurement and interpretation of stress in aluminum-based metallization as a function of thermal history,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 34, 689–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Oberste-Berghaus, J.

Okada, Y.

Y. Okada and Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314–320 (1984).
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W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

H. Ono and K. Koyanagi, “Infrared absorption peak due to Ta═O bonds in Ta2O5 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1431–1433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Orel, B.

B. Orel, M. Macek, and J. Grdadolnik, “In situ UV-VIS and ex-situ IR spectro electrochemical investigations of amorphous and crystalline electrochromic Nb2O5 films in charged/discharged states,” J. Solid State Electrochem. 2, 221–236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pacey, C. G.

Park, I.

R. Chandrasekharan, I. Park, R. I. Masel, and M. A. Shannon, “Thermal oxidation of tantalum films at various oxidation states from 300 to 700 °C,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 114908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patil, P. S.

S. H. Mujawar, A. L. Inamdar, S. B. Patil, and P. S. Patil, “Electrochromic properties of spray-deposited niobium oxide thin films,” Solid State Ionics 177, 3333–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patil, S. B.

S. H. Mujawar, A. L. Inamdar, S. B. Patil, and P. S. Patil, “Electrochromic properties of spray-deposited niobium oxide thin films,” Solid State Ionics 177, 3333–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pawlicka, A.

A. Pawlicka, M. Atik, and M. A. Aegerter, “Synthesis of multicolor Nb2O5 coatings for electrochromic devices,” Thin Solid Films 301, 236–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, I.

I. Petrov, P. B. Barna, L. Hultman, and J. E. Greene, “Microstructural evaluation during film growth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, S117–S128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pharr, G. M.

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, D.

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prasada, V.

C. C. Fang, F. Jones, and V. Prasada, “Effect of gas impurity and ion bombardment on stresses in sputter-deposited thin films: a molecular-dynamics approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4472–4482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Qu, Y.

F. Lai, L. Lin, Z. Huang, R. Gai, and Y. Qu, “Effect of thickness on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of sputter deposited Nb2O5 films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1801–1805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rauhala, E.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547–566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richter, F.

H. Kupfer, T. Flügel, F. Richter, and P. Schlott, “Intrinsic stress in dielectric thin films for micromechanical components,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 116–119, 116–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ritala, M.

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, and M. Leskela, “Development of dielectric properties of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide based nanolayered materials,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, F35–F41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. Leskela, and R. Lappalainen, “Niobium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 4, 29–34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rossnagel, S. M.

J. J. Cuomo, S. M. Rossnagel, and H. R. Kaufman, Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology Part III (Noyes, 1989), pp. 170.

Sadkhin, G.

Sainty, W. G.

Sajavaara, T.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547–566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schlott, P.

H. Kupfer, T. Flügel, F. Richter, and P. Schlott, “Intrinsic stress in dielectric thin films for micromechanical components,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 116–119, 116–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, M. A.

R. Chandrasekharan, I. Park, R. I. Masel, and M. A. Shannon, “Thermal oxidation of tantalum films at various oxidation states from 300 to 700 °C,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 114908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, W. S.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

F. Lai, M. Li, H. Wang, H. Hu, X. Wang, J. G. Hou, Y. Song, and Y. Jiang, “Optical scattering characteristics of annealed niobium oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 488, 314–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, I.

Stock, S. R.

B. D. Cullity and S. R. Stock, Elements of X-ray Diffraction, 3rd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 2001), pp. 170, 619.

Sun, W. S.

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and W. S. Sun, “Determination of the mechanical properties of thin films by digital phase shifting interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 198, 325–331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Szymanowski, H.

J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674–1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Optical properties and microstructure of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23, 241–247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Szyszka, B.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C. L.

C. L. Tien and C. C. Lee, “Effects of ion energy on internal stress and optical properties of ion beam sputtering Ta2O5 films,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2755–2763 (2003).

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and W. S. Sun, “Determination of the mechanical properties of thin films by digital phase shifting interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 198, 325–331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691 (2000).

Timmers, H.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547–566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Okada and Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314–320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and W. S. Sun, “Determination of the mechanical properties of thin films by digital phase shifting interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 198, 325–331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsukune, A.

J. Lin, N. Masaaki, A. Tsukune, and M. Yamada, “Ta2O5 thin films with exceptionally high dielectric constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2370–2372 (1999).

Tyson, T.

S. Maeng, L. Axe, T. Tyson, and A. Jiang, “An investigation of structures of thermal and anodic tantalum oxide films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, B60–B64 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Uthanna, S.

S. V. Jagadeesh Chandra, G. Mohan Rao, and S. Uthanna, “Heat treatment induced structural and optical properties of rf magnetron sputtered tantalum oxide films,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 290–294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Venkataraj, S.

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, Ch. Liesch, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Thermal stability of sputtered niobium oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4863–4871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047–1058 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vergöhl, M.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wadsley, A. D.

B. M. Gatehouse and A. D. Wadsley, “The crystal structure of the high temperature form of niobium pentaoxide,” Acta Crystallogr. 17, 1545–1554 (1964).
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Wang, H.

F. Lai, M. Li, H. Wang, H. Hu, X. Wang, J. G. Hou, Y. Song, and Y. Jiang, “Optical scattering characteristics of annealed niobium oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 488, 314–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

F. Lai, M. Li, H. Wang, H. Hu, X. Wang, J. G. Hou, Y. Song, and Y. Jiang, “Optical scattering characteristics of annealed niobium oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 488, 314–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Q.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547–566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wei, D. T.

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, D. T. Wei, and J. H. Lin, “Morphology of dual ion beam sputtered films investigated by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 308–309, 74–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weijers, T. D. M.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547–566 (2004).
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C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and D. H. Wong, “The characteristics of some metallic oxides prepared in high vacuum by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 171, 151–156 (2001).
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C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxide films deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wutting, M.

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, Ch. Liesch, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Thermal stability of sputtered niobium oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4863–4871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047–1058 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

J. Lin, N. Masaaki, A. Tsukune, and M. Yamada, “Ta2O5 thin films with exceptionally high dielectric constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2370–2372 (1999).

Zabeida, O.

E. Çetinörgü, B. Baloukas, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Mechanical and thermo-elastic characteristics of optical thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4536–4544 (2009).
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J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674–1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Optical properties and microstructure of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23, 241–247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. Y. Zhang, B. Lim, and I. W. Boyd, “Thin tantalum pentaoxide films deposited by photo-induced CVD,” Thin Solid Films 336, 340–343 (1998).
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G. He, Q. Fang, M. Liu, L. Q. Zhu, and L. D. Zhang, “The structural and interfacial properties of HfO2/Si by the plasma oxidation of sputtered metallic Hf thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 155–162 (2004).
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G. He, Q. Fang, M. Liu, L. Q. Zhu, and L. D. Zhang, “The structural and interfacial properties of HfO2/Si by the plasma oxidation of sputtered metallic Hf thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 155–162 (2004).
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Appl. Surf. Sci.

F. Lai, L. Lin, Z. Huang, R. Gai, and Y. Qu, “Effect of thickness on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of sputter deposited Nb2O5 films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1801–1805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and D. H. Wong, “The characteristics of some metallic oxides prepared in high vacuum by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 171, 151–156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Vapor Depos.

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. Leskela, and R. Lappalainen, “Niobium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 4, 29–34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol.

S. V. Jagadeesh Chandra, G. Mohan Rao, and S. Uthanna, “Heat treatment induced structural and optical properties of rf magnetron sputtered tantalum oxide films,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 290–294 (2007).
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R. Chandrasekharan, I. Park, R. I. Masel, and M. A. Shannon, “Thermal oxidation of tantalum films at various oxidation states from 300 to 700 °C,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 114908 (2005).
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S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, Ch. Liesch, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Thermal stability of sputtered niobium oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4863–4871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada and Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314–320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

G. He, Q. Fang, M. Liu, L. Q. Zhu, and L. D. Zhang, “The structural and interfacial properties of HfO2/Si by the plasma oxidation of sputtered metallic Hf thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 155–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, and M. Leskela, “Development of dielectric properties of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide based nanolayered materials,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, F35–F41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Maeng, L. Axe, T. Tyson, and A. Jiang, “An investigation of structures of thermal and anodic tantalum oxide films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, B60–B64 (2005).
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C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691 (2000).

C. L. Tien and C. C. Lee, “Effects of ion energy on internal stress and optical properties of ion beam sputtering Ta2O5 films,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2755–2763 (2003).

J. Phys. Chem. B

F. U. Naab, O. W. Holland, J. L. Duggan, and F. D. McDaniel, “Ion beam analyses of carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1415–1419 (2005).
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S. Gnanarajan and S. K. H. Lam, “Evaluation of epitaxial Ta2O5 and Ta2O films during thermal oxidation of epitaxial tantalum films on sapphire substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 494–497 (2008).
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H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Optical properties and microstructure of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23, 241–247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Petrov, P. B. Barna, L. Hultman, and J. E. Greene, “Microstructural evaluation during film growth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, S117–S128 (2003).
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C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentaoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng., Rep. 22, 269–322 (1998).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547–566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and W. S. Sun, “Determination of the mechanical properties of thin films by digital phase shifting interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 198, 325–331 (2001).
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[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047–1058 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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S. H. Mujawar, A. L. Inamdar, S. B. Patil, and P. S. Patil, “Electrochromic properties of spray-deposited niobium oxide thin films,” Solid State Ionics 177, 3333–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Y. Zhang, B. Lim, and I. W. Boyd, “Thin tantalum pentaoxide films deposited by photo-induced CVD,” Thin Solid Films 336, 340–343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674–1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Lai, M. Li, H. Wang, H. Hu, X. Wang, J. G. Hou, Y. Song, and Y. Jiang, “Optical scattering characteristics of annealed niobium oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 488, 314–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, D. T. Wei, and J. H. Lin, “Morphology of dual ion beam sputtered films investigated by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 308–309, 74–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

ERD concentration depth profiles of NbOx and TaOy films: (a), (b) as-deposited, and (c), (d) after annealing at 700°C.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

X-ray diffraction pattern of (a) NbOx and (b) TaOy films annealed at different temperatures.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

FTIR spectra of metal oxide films deposited on Si(001) substrate annealed at different temperatures: (a) NbOx; (b) TaOy.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical transmission spectra of as-deposited and annealed (a) NbOx and (b) TaOy thin films as a function of annealing temperature.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Effect of annealing temperature on the refractive index (n) for (a) NbOx and (b) TaOy films as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Load-displacement (Fh) curves for (a) NbOx and (b) TaOy films for different annealing temperatures.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) H and (b) Er of NbOx and TaOy films for different annealing temperatures.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

σ-T plots of (a) NbOx and (b) TaOy films.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Film Deposition and Annealing Conditions

Tables Icon

Table 2. ERD Analysis: Atomic Concentrations and Calculated Density Values of As-Deposited and Annealed (500°C and 700°C) NbOx and TaOy Thin Films

Tables Icon

Table 3. Grain Size and Lattice Parameters Calculated from the First Two Bragg Reflections After Annealing in Nitrogen at 700°C

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Table 4. CTE, νf, and Er Values of NbOx and TaOy Films Determined from the Stress-Temperature Measurements for the Thermal Cycles up to 300°C and 500°C

Equations (7)

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t=0.9λBcosθB.
dhkl=143[h2+hk+k2a2]+l2c2,
1Er=(1υf2)Ef+(1υin2)Ein,
σ=16REsds2(1υs)df,
σ(T)=σi+(αsαf)(Ef1νf)(TTd),
dσdT=[Ef(1νf)](αsαf),
Er=Ef(1νf2).

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