Abstract

A method for designing physically path-length-matched, three-dimensional photonic circuits is described. We focus specifically on the case in which all the waveguides are uniquely routed from the input to output—a problem that has not been addressed to date and that allows for the waveguides to be used in interferometric measurements. Circuit elements were fabricated via the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. We demonstrate via interferometric methods that the fabricated circuits were indeed optically path-length matched to within 45  μm, which is within the coherence length required for many applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  4. M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kernet, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Ródenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37, 392–394 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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  26. N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

L. Labadie, G. Martín, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, “First fringes with an integrated-optics beam combiner at 10 μm. A new step towards instrument miniaturization for mid-infrared interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

P. Tuthill, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, A. Lehmann, M. Ams, G. Marshall, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, B. Pope, and P. Stewart, “Photonic technologies for a pupil remapping interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77341P (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Jesacher, G. D. Marshall, T. Wilson, and M. J. Booth, “Adaptive optics for direct laser writing with plasma emission aberration sensing,” Opt. Express 18, 656–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Cui, J. Femiani, J. Hu, P. Wonka, and A. Razdan, “Curve matching for open 2D curves,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 30, 1–10(2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kernet, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. J. Thiebaut, “High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747–751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gruen and D. Akca, “Least squares 3D surface and curve matching,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 59, 151–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31–L34(2001).
[CrossRef]

Akca, D.

A. Gruen and D. Akca, “Least squares 3D surface and curve matching,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 59, 151–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

P. Tuthill, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, A. Lehmann, M. Ams, G. Marshall, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, B. Pope, and P. Stewart, “Photonic technologies for a pupil remapping interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77341P (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Norris, N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, S. Lacour, S. Gross, M. Ams, P. Stewart, J. Lawrence, N. Charles, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, and M. Withford, “Challenges in photonic pupil remapping for optical stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1114.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

Anheier, N. C.

L. Labadie, G. Martín, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, “First fringes with an integrated-optics beam combiner at 10 μm. A new step towards instrument miniaturization for mid-infrared interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arezki, B.

A. Ródenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37, 392–394 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, G. Martín, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, “First fringes with an integrated-optics beam combiner at 10 μm. A new step towards instrument miniaturization for mid-infrared interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, M.

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kernet, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J. P.

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31–L34(2001).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J.-P.

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kernet, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernacki, B.

L. Labadie, G. Martín, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, “First fringes with an integrated-optics beam combiner at 10 μm. A new step towards instrument miniaturization for mid-infrared interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Booth, M. J.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Charles, N.

N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

B. Norris, N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, S. Lacour, S. Gross, M. Ams, P. Stewart, J. Lawrence, N. Charles, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, and M. Withford, “Challenges in photonic pupil remapping for optical stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1114.

Chen, W.-J.

Chen, Y. Q.

Y. Zhao and Y. Q. Chen, “Connected equi-length line segments for curve and structure matching,” in Proceedings of IJPRAI (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1019–1037.

Corkum, P. B.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cryan, M. J.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646–649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, M.

M. Cui, J. Femiani, J. Hu, P. Wonka, and A. Razdan, “Curve matching for open 2D curves,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 30, 1–10(2009).
[CrossRef]

du Foresto, V. Coudé

V. Coudé du Foresto and S. Ridgway, “FLUOR: a stellar interferometer using single-mode infrared fibers,” in ESO Conference on High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. Beckers and F. Merkle, eds. (1991), pp. 731–740.

V. Coudé du Foresto, “Fringe benefits: the spatial filtering advantages of single-mode fibers,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern and F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, 1997), pp. 27–30.

Eaton, S. M.

Femiani, J.

M. Cui, J. Femiani, J. Hu, P. Wonka, and A. Razdan, “Curve matching for open 2D curves,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 30, 1–10(2009).
[CrossRef]

Fink, K. D.

J. H. Mathews and K. D. Fink, Numerical Methods Using MATLAB, 4th ed. (Prentice Hall, 2003).

Fuerbach, A.

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

Gross, S.

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Norris, N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, S. Lacour, S. Gross, M. Ams, P. Stewart, J. Lawrence, N. Charles, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, and M. Withford, “Challenges in photonic pupil remapping for optical stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1114.

N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

Gruen, A.

A. Gruen and D. Akca, “Least squares 3D surface and curve matching,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 59, 151–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, H.

H. Gu and J. Xu, “Design of 3D optical network on chip,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (SOPO, 2009), pp. 771–774.

Haguenauer, P.

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31–L34(2001).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S.

Hu, J.

M. Cui, J. Femiani, J. Hu, P. Wonka, and A. Razdan, “Curve matching for open 2D curves,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 30, 1–10(2009).
[CrossRef]

Ireland, M.

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Tuthill, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, A. Lehmann, M. Ams, G. Marshall, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, B. Pope, and P. Stewart, “Photonic technologies for a pupil remapping interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77341P (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Norris, N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, S. Lacour, S. Gross, M. Ams, P. Stewart, J. Lawrence, N. Charles, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, and M. Withford, “Challenges in photonic pupil remapping for optical stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1114.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

Jesacher, A.

Jha, A.

Jocou, L.

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kernet, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jose, G.

Jovanovic, N.

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Tuthill, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, A. Lehmann, M. Ams, G. Marshall, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, B. Pope, and P. Stewart, “Photonic technologies for a pupil remapping interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77341P (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Norris, N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, S. Lacour, S. Gross, M. Ams, P. Stewart, J. Lawrence, N. Charles, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, and M. Withford, “Challenges in photonic pupil remapping for optical stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1114.

N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

Kar, A.

Kern, P.

A. Ródenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37, 392–394 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, G. Martín, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, “First fringes with an integrated-optics beam combiner at 10 μm. A new step towards instrument miniaturization for mid-infrared interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31–L34(2001).
[CrossRef]

Kernet, P.

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kernet, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kiusalaas, J.

J. Kiusalaas, Numerical Methods in Engineering with Python (Cambridge University, 2005).

Labadie, L.

A. Ródenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37, 392–394 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, G. Martín, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, “First fringes with an integrated-optics beam combiner at 10 μm. A new step towards instrument miniaturization for mid-infrared interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Labeye, P.

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kernet, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lacour, S.

P. Tuthill, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, A. Lehmann, M. Ams, G. Marshall, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, B. Pope, and P. Stewart, “Photonic technologies for a pupil remapping interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77341P (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. J. Thiebaut, “High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747–751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

B. Norris, N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, S. Lacour, S. Gross, M. Ams, P. Stewart, J. Lawrence, N. Charles, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, and M. Withford, “Challenges in photonic pupil remapping for optical stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1114.

Lawrence, J.

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Tuthill, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, A. Lehmann, M. Ams, G. Marshall, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, B. Pope, and P. Stewart, “Photonic technologies for a pupil remapping interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77341P (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

B. Norris, N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, S. Lacour, S. Gross, M. Ams, P. Stewart, J. Lawrence, N. Charles, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, and M. Withford, “Challenges in photonic pupil remapping for optical stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1114.

Lehmann, A.

P. Tuthill, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, A. Lehmann, M. Ams, G. Marshall, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, B. Pope, and P. Stewart, “Photonic technologies for a pupil remapping interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77341P (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

Li, J.

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory(Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Malbet, F.

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kernet, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31–L34(2001).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G.

P. Tuthill, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, A. Lehmann, M. Ams, G. Marshall, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, B. Pope, and P. Stewart, “Photonic technologies for a pupil remapping interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77341P (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Norris, N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, S. Lacour, S. Gross, M. Ams, P. Stewart, J. Lawrence, N. Charles, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, and M. Withford, “Challenges in photonic pupil remapping for optical stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1114.

N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

Marshall, G. D.

A. Jesacher, G. D. Marshall, T. Wilson, and M. J. Booth, “Adaptive optics for direct laser writing with plasma emission aberration sensing,” Opt. Express 18, 656–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

Martin, G.

Martín, G.

L. Labadie, G. Martín, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, “First fringes with an integrated-optics beam combiner at 10 μm. A new step towards instrument miniaturization for mid-infrared interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mathews, J. H.

J. H. Mathews and K. D. Fink, Numerical Methods Using MATLAB, 4th ed. (Prentice Hall, 2003).

Miese, C.

Millan-Gabet, R.

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31–L34(2001).
[CrossRef]

Ng, M. L.

Niel, C.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Norris, B.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

B. Norris, N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, S. Lacour, S. Gross, M. Ams, P. Stewart, J. Lawrence, N. Charles, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, and M. Withford, “Challenges in photonic pupil remapping for optical stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1114.

O’Brien, J. L.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646–649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perraut, K.

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kernet, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31–L34(2001).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, G.

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. J. Thiebaut, “High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747–751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Politi, A.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646–649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pope, B.

P. Tuthill, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, A. Lehmann, M. Ams, G. Marshall, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, B. Pope, and P. Stewart, “Photonic technologies for a pupil remapping interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77341P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Psaila, N.

Qiao, H. A.

L. Labadie, G. Martín, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, “First fringes with an integrated-optics beam combiner at 10 μm. A new step towards instrument miniaturization for mid-infrared interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646–649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Razdan, A.

M. Cui, J. Femiani, J. Hu, P. Wonka, and A. Razdan, “Curve matching for open 2D curves,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 30, 1–10(2009).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S.

V. Coudé du Foresto and S. Ridgway, “FLUOR: a stellar interferometer using single-mode infrared fibers,” in ESO Conference on High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. Beckers and F. Merkle, eds. (1991), pp. 731–740.

Robertson, G.

P. Tuthill, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, A. Lehmann, M. Ams, G. Marshall, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, B. Pope, and P. Stewart, “Photonic technologies for a pupil remapping interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77341P (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

B. Norris, N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, S. Lacour, S. Gross, M. Ams, P. Stewart, J. Lawrence, N. Charles, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, and M. Withford, “Challenges in photonic pupil remapping for optical stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1114.

Ródenas, A.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, “Absorption and dispersion,” in Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 170–183.

Schanen, I.

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31–L34(2001).
[CrossRef]

Severi, M.

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31–L34(2001).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory(Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Spaleniak, I.

Stewart, P.

P. Tuthill, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, A. Lehmann, M. Ams, G. Marshall, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, B. Pope, and P. Stewart, “Photonic technologies for a pupil remapping interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77341P (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Norris, N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, S. Lacour, S. Gross, M. Ams, P. Stewart, J. Lawrence, N. Charles, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, and M. Withford, “Challenges in photonic pupil remapping for optical stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1114.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, “Absorption and dispersion,” in Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 170–183.

Thiebaut, E. J.

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. J. Thiebaut, “High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747–751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, R.

Traub, W.

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31–L34(2001).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tuthill, P.

P. Tuthill, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, A. Lehmann, M. Ams, G. Marshall, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, B. Pope, and P. Stewart, “Photonic technologies for a pupil remapping interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77341P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tuthill, P. G.

B. Norris, N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, S. Lacour, S. Gross, M. Ams, P. Stewart, J. Lawrence, N. Charles, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, and M. Withford, “Challenges in photonic pupil remapping for optical stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1114.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

Withford, M.

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Tuthill, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, A. Lehmann, M. Ams, G. Marshall, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, B. Pope, and P. Stewart, “Photonic technologies for a pupil remapping interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77341P (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Norris, N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, S. Lacour, S. Gross, M. Ams, P. Stewart, J. Lawrence, N. Charles, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, and M. Withford, “Challenges in photonic pupil remapping for optical stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1114.

N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

Withford, M. J.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

Woillez, J.

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. J. Thiebaut, “High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747–751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wonka, P.

M. Cui, J. Femiani, J. Hu, P. Wonka, and A. Razdan, “Curve matching for open 2D curves,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 30, 1–10(2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

H. Gu and J. Xu, “Design of 3D optical network on chip,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (SOPO, 2009), pp. 771–774.

Yu, S.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646–649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao and Y. Q. Chen, “Connected equi-length line segments for curve and structure matching,” in Proceedings of IJPRAI (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1019–1037.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (3)

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31–L34(2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kernet, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, G. Martín, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, “First fringes with an integrated-optics beam combiner at 10 μm. A new step towards instrument miniaturization for mid-infrared interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. (1)

A. Gruen and D. Akca, “Least squares 3D surface and curve matching,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 59, 151–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. J. Thiebaut, “High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747–751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pattern Recogn. Lett. (1)

M. Cui, J. Femiani, J. Hu, P. Wonka, and A. Razdan, “Curve matching for open 2D curves,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 30, 1–10(2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. Tuthill, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, A. Lehmann, M. Ams, G. Marshall, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, B. Pope, and P. Stewart, “Photonic technologies for a pupil remapping interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77341P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646–649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

V. Coudé du Foresto and S. Ridgway, “FLUOR: a stellar interferometer using single-mode infrared fibers,” in ESO Conference on High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. Beckers and F. Merkle, eds. (1991), pp. 731–740.

V. Coudé du Foresto, “Fringe benefits: the spatial filtering advantages of single-mode fibers,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern and F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, 1997), pp. 27–30.

H. Gu and J. Xu, “Design of 3D optical network on chip,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (SOPO, 2009), pp. 771–774.

Y. Zhao and Y. Q. Chen, “Connected equi-length line segments for curve and structure matching,” in Proceedings of IJPRAI (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1019–1037.

J. Kiusalaas, Numerical Methods in Engineering with Python (Cambridge University, 2005).

J. H. Mathews and K. D. Fink, Numerical Methods Using MATLAB, 4th ed. (Prentice Hall, 2003).

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory(Chapman and Hall, 1983).

“RSoft, BeamPROP, & FemSIM,” http://www.rsoftdesign.com .

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, “Absorption and dispersion,” in Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 170–183.

B. Norris, N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, S. Lacour, S. Gross, M. Ams, P. Stewart, J. Lawrence, N. Charles, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, and M. Withford, “Challenges in photonic pupil remapping for optical stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1114.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, G. D. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of an integrated pupil remapping interferometer: a new technology for high contrast exoplanetary imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

N. Jovanovic, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, M. Ams, J. Lawrence, S. Lacour, G. Marshall, G. Robertson, M. Ireland, M. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “First stellar photons through an integrated photonic pupil remapping interferometer,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1212.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Original cubic-spline-based waveguide (solid line), a second waveguide with a different output coordinate (dotted line), and its path-length-matched equivalent (dashed line).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

3D plot showing start and end points, along with end-point projection and values needed for conversion from cylindrical to Cartesian coordinates.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

3D waveguide before and after rotation about the axis formed by the end points. (a) and (b) show the 2D projections in the xz and yz planes, respectively. (c) shows the effect of the rotation in three dimensions from a viewpoint like that depicted in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

3D image of eight path-length-matched waveguides.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized throughput as a function of radius of curvature for a 30 mm long waveguide. Solid lines are theoretical computations from the equations given, and dashed lines are simulations using the BeamPROP package. A step-index profile has been assumed for all guides, except for the direct-write waveguide, the curve labeled BeamPROP ULI, as described in the text.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Refractive index profile of an ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide at 1550 nm. (b) Intensity distribution of the mode guided by the waveguide as modeled by BeamPROP. Inset shows a cross-sectional micrograph of the waveguide at the same scale.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured and simulated throughputs for ULI waveguides as a function of radius of curvature.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Curve created by two circular arcs.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Addition of a third circular arc with reduced radii of all circles, allows for a mechanism to increase path length.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Radius of curvature as a function of position along the waveguide routes for the cubic-spline-based and arc-based waveguide designs. The arc-based waveguide curve has a flat radius of curvature across the waveguide, while the spline-based guide changes over its length with its region of small radii of curvature indicated (circle).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Arc-based waveguide design of a pupil remapper with outputs shifted laterally by 5 mm at the output.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Predicted throughput (top curve) and corresponding radius of curvature (bottom curve) for each of the eight waveguides in Fig. 11.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Test setup for measuring the accuracy of path- length matching in the pupil-remapping device.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Images of two sets of spectrally dispersed interference fringes for two pairs of waveguides with smaller (left) and greater (right) separations. Wavelength runs in the vertical direction, and the spatial fringe pixels are horizontal. Top diagrams illustrate which two waveguides (solid circles) are used to make the particular fringe image.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Relative path-length difference between each waveguide and the reference waveguide, which is normalized to zero.

Equations (7)

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P(z)=P(0)exp(γz),
γ=π2ρ(ρRc)1/2U2V2W1.51K12(W)exp(43RcρW3DV2),
U=ρ(k2nco2β2)1/2,
W=ρ(β2k2ncl2)1/2,
D=nco2ncl22nco2.
Pout=Pin(1(R1±R2R1R2)2ρ2V48Δ2(r0ρ)6).
r0=ρV1.

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