Abstract

We describe a new spectral imaging instrument using a TeO2 acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) operating in the visible domain (450–900 nm). It allows for fast (1 second), monochromatic (FWHM ranges from 0.6 nm at 450 nm to 3.5 nm at 800 nm) picture acquisition with good spatial resolution. This instrument was designed as a breadboard of the visible channel of a new satellite-borne atmospheric limb spectral imager, named the Atmospheric Limb Tracker for the Investigation of the Upcoming Stratosphere (ALTIUS), that is currently being developed. We tested its remote sensing capabilities by observing the dense, turbulent plume exhausted by a waste incinerator stack at two wavelengths sensitive to NO2. An average value of 6.0±0.4×1017moleculescm2 has been obtained for the NO2 slant column density within the plume, close to the stack outlet. Although this result was obtained with a rather low accuracy, it demonstrates the potential of spectral imaging by using AOTFs in remote sensing.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

C. Stedham, M. Draper, J. Ward, E. Wachman, and C. Pannell, “A novel acousto-optic tunable filter for use in hyperspectral imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68891C (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Wachman, and C. N. Pannell, “High-performance hyperspectral imager using a novel acousto-optic tuneable filter,” Proc. SPIE 6966, 696607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

V. B. Voloshinov, K. B. Yushkov, and B. B. Linde, “Improvement in performance of a TeO2 acousto-optic imaging spectrometer,” J. Opt. A 9, 341–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

C. von Savigny, J. W. Kaiser, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, I. S. McDermid, and T. Leblanc, “Spatial and temporal characterization of SCIAMACHY limb pointing errors during the first three years of the mission,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2593–2602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Mélin and G. Zibordi, “Aerosol variability in the Po Valley analyzed from automated optical measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L03810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

F. Lohberger, G. Hönninger, and U. Platt, “Ground-based imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy of atmospheric gases,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4711–4717 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta and V. B. Voloshinov, “Hyperspectral imager, from ultraviolet to visible, with a KDP acousto-optic tunable filter,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2752–2759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Suhre, L. J. Denes, and N. Gupta, “Telecentric confocal optics for aberration correction of acousto-optic tunable filters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1255–1260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, G. Zibordi, J. D. Chern, J. Mao, C. Li, and B. N. Holben, “Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4661–4679 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross sections of NO2 : Simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373–391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1998 (2)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, A. Dehn, B. Deters, S. Himmelmann, A. Richter, S. Voigt, and J. Orphal, “Atmospheric remote-sensing reference data from GOME: Part 1. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 231–794 nm range,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 1025–l031(1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. W. Harder, J. W. Brault, P. V. Johnston, and G. H. Mount, “Temperature dependent NO2 cross sections at high spectral resolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3861–3879 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 289–305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Voloshinov, V. Ya. Molchanov, and J. C. Mosquera, “Spectral and polarization analysis of optical images by means of acousto-optics,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 119–127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, and P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

I. C. Chang, “Noncollinear acousto-optic filter with large angular aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 370–372 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1924 (1)

H. Koschmieder, “Theorie der horizontale Sichtweite,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 12, 33–55 (1924).

Acharya, P. K.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adler-Golden, S. M.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Auvinen, H.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bach, B.

Baeke, A.

Barnes, G.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berk, A.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berkenbosch, S.

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bourassa, A. E.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bovensmann, H.

C. von Savigny, J. W. Kaiser, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, I. S. McDermid, and T. Leblanc, “Spatial and temporal characterization of SCIAMACHY limb pointing errors during the first three years of the mission,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2593–2602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brault, J. W.

J. W. Harder, J. W. Brault, P. V. Johnston, and G. H. Mount, “Temperature dependent NO2 cross sections at high spectral resolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3861–3879 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, C.

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, and P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brohede, S.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J. P.

C. von Savigny, J. W. Kaiser, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, I. S. McDermid, and T. Leblanc, “Spatial and temporal characterization of SCIAMACHY limb pointing errors during the first three years of the mission,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2593–2602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, A. Dehn, B. Deters, S. Himmelmann, A. Richter, S. Voigt, and J. Orphal, “Atmospheric remote-sensing reference data from GOME: Part 1. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 231–794 nm range,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 1025–l031(1998).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross sections of NO2 : Simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373–391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 289–305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, I. C.

I. C. Chang, “Noncollinear acousto-optic filter with large angular aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 370–372 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chern, J. D.

D. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, G. Zibordi, J. D. Chern, J. Mao, C. Li, and B. N. Holben, “Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4661–4679 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, D. A.

D. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, G. Zibordi, J. D. Chern, J. Mao, C. Li, and B. N. Holben, “Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4661–4679 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W. P.

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, and P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Clairquin, R.

Colin, R.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross sections of NO2 : Simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373–391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 289–305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cooley, T. W.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de La Nöe, J.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
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Degenstein, D. A.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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J. P. Burrows, A. Dehn, B. Deters, S. Himmelmann, A. Richter, S. Voigt, and J. Orphal, “Atmospheric remote-sensing reference data from GOME: Part 1. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 231–794 nm range,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 1025–l031(1998).
[CrossRef]

Denes, L. J.

Deslauniers, D.-L.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deters, B.

J. P. Burrows, A. Dehn, B. Deters, S. Himmelmann, A. Richter, S. Voigt, and J. Orphal, “Atmospheric remote-sensing reference data from GOME: Part 1. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 231–794 nm range,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 1025–l031(1998).
[CrossRef]

Draper, M.

C. Stedham, M. Draper, J. Ward, E. Wachman, and C. Pannell, “A novel acousto-optic tunable filter for use in hyperspectral imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68891C (2008).
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Eck, T. F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W. F.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross sections of NO2 : Simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373–391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, J. A.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gattinger, R. L.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Georgiev, G.

Glenar, D.

Glorieux, S.

Griffioen, E.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
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E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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J. W. Harder, J. W. Brault, P. V. Johnston, and G. H. Mount, “Temperature dependent NO2 cross sections at high spectral resolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3861–3879 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hauchecorne, A.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross sections of NO2 : Simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373–391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 289–305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, J.

Himmelmann, S.

J. P. Burrows, A. Dehn, B. Deters, S. Himmelmann, A. Richter, S. Voigt, and J. Orphal, “Atmospheric remote-sensing reference data from GOME: Part 1. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 231–794 nm range,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 1025–l031(1998).
[CrossRef]

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A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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D. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, G. Zibordi, J. D. Chern, J. Mao, C. Li, and B. N. Holben, “Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4661–4679 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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Hönninger, G.

Hum, R. H.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross sections of NO2 : Simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373–391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, P. V.

J. W. Harder, J. W. Brault, P. V. Johnston, and G. H. Mount, “Temperature dependent NO2 cross sections at high spectral resolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3861–3879 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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C. von Savigny, J. W. Kaiser, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, I. S. McDermid, and T. Leblanc, “Spatial and temporal characterization of SCIAMACHY limb pointing errors during the first three years of the mission,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2593–2602 (2005).
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E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
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Kaufman, Y.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

D. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, G. Zibordi, J. D. Chern, J. Mao, C. Li, and B. N. Holben, “Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4661–4679 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
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King, R. A.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
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E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
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E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
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Mao, J.

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E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
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E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiensz, J. T.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Witt, G.

E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, S. V. Petelina, A. E. Bourassa, J. T. Wiensz, E. V. Ivanov, I. C. McDade, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, C. S. Haley, C. von Savigny, C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, E. Griffioen, J. Kaminski, W. F. Evans, E. Puckrin, K. Strong, V. Wehrle, R. H. Hum, D. J. Kendall, J. Matsushita, D. P. Murtagh, S. Brohede, J. Stegman, G. Witt, G. Barnes, W. F. Payne, L. Piché, K. Smith, G. Warshaw, D.-L. Deslauniers, P. Marchand, E. H. Richardson, R. A. King, I. Wevers, W. McCreath, E. Kyrölä, L. Oikarinen, G. W. Leppelmeier, H. Auvinen, G. Mégie, A. Hauchecorne, F. Lefèvre, J. de La Nöe, P. Ricaud, U. Frisk, F. Sjoberg, F. von Schéele, and L. Nordh, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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J. Xu, and R. Stroud, Acousto-Optic Devices: Principles, Design, and Applications (Wiley, 1992).

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Breadboard optical design: the front-end optics (FEO) is composed of a telecentric stop, a lens doublet, a calcite Glan-Taylor polarizer, and the TeO2 AOTF; the back-end optics (BEO) is composed of a Glan–Taylor polarizer, a lens doublet, an aperture stop, a second lens doublet, and the pixel array. Polarization state of the incident beam and the selected order is represented after each polarizer. The acoustic wave propagating through the crystal is represented by the pale gray region. Neither the relative dimensions of the optical elements nor the focal lengths are representative of the real dimensions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Functional scheme of the breadboard electronics and acquisition software.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Vector diagram of the momentum-matching condition in TeO2. The acoustic wave (K) and the incident (ki) and diffracted (kd) light beams are represented.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Image taken by the breadboard with the AOTF tuned at the central wavelength of 645 nm. The color bar shows the number of counts per pixel. The integration time was one second. Stray light has been removed and the image was corrected for flat field non-uniformities, which is the reason why the lower right corner is noisy (region of rather poor diffraction efficiency). Axes indicate pixel number.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Illustration of two photons trajectories. One is backscattered by the plume; the other one by the neutral air density (and passes close to the plume but not through). A simple single-scattering process is assumed. One notices the difference in path length in the boundary layer.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

First two images (cropped from the initial ones) capture the plume at 463.3 nm and 468.5 nm. The color scale units are arbitrary. The last image shows ln(I(468.5)/I(463.3)) where one can observe that most of the signal in the main body of the plume and its tail comes from the poor correspondence of the two plume images. Clearly, as the plume has moved down in the second picture, the ratio is sometimes computed between a brighter background pixel and a plume pixel, instead of two plume pixels. Only the very beginning of the plume is consistent from one image to the other.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Left drawing shows part of the optical design as seen from above. Stray light is generated by the scattering of the unwanted order (I0) by the diaphragm. The right picture is an image acquired when observing in the direction of the smokestack with the AOTF turned off. Integration time was two seconds.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Left panel: NO2 slant column density at the beginning of the plume, as computed with Eq. (8) for individual pixels. Right panel: Standard deviation of the computed SCD value. The large uncertainty at the pixel level arises from a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of the pictures and, to a lesser extent, to uncertainties on the optical thickness in the boundary layer.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Visible Channel Breadboard Characteristics

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

kd=ki+K,
λ|neno|Vf·sin2(θi+α)sinθi,
Ism(λ)=I0(λ)·exp(τNO2atm(λ)τNO2sm(λ)τother(λ)),
Icl(λ)=I0(λ)·exp(τNO2atm(λ)τNO2trop(λ)τother(λ)),
lnIsm(λw)Ism(λs)=lnI0(λw)I0(λs)+(τNO2atm(λs)τNO2atm(λw))+(τNO2sm(λs)τNO2sm(λw))+(τother(λs)τother(λw)),
lnIcl(λw)Icl(λs)=lnI0(λw)I0(λs)+(τNO2atm(λs)τNO2atm(λw))+(τNO2trop(λs)τNO2trop(λw))+(τother(λs)τother(λw)).
τNO2sm(λs)τNO2sm(λw)=lnIsm(λw)Ism(λs)lnIcl(λw)Icl(λs)+(τNO2trop(λs)τNO2trop(λw)).
SCDNO2sm=1σNO2(λs)σNO2(λw).[lnIsm(λw)Icl(λs)Ism(λs)Icl(λw)+(τNO2trop(λs)τNO2trop(λw))].

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