Abstract

The high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) instrument described in this paper utilizes the fundamental and second-harmonic output from an injection seeded Nd:YAG laser as the laser transmitter. The light scattered in the atmosphere is collected using a commercial Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope with the optical receiver train first splitting the fundamental and second-harmonic return signal with the fundament light monitored using an avalanche photodiode. The second-harmonic return signal is mode matched into a tunable confocal Fabry–Perot (CFP) interferometer with a free spectral range of 7.5 GHz and a finesse of 50.7 (312) at 532 nm (1064 nm) placed in the optical receiver for spectrally filtering the molecular and aerosol return signals. The light transmitted through the CFP is used to monitor the aerosol return signal while the light reflected from the CFP is used to monitor the molecular return signal. Data collected with the HSRL are presented and inversion results are compared to a co-located solar radiometer, demonstrating the successful operation of the instrument. The CFP-based filtering technique successfully employed by this HSRL instrument is easily portable to other arbitrary wavelengths, thus allowing for the future development of multiwavelength HSRL instruments.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. A. Reagan, and J. L. Carlsten, “Optical characterization of continental and biomass burning aerosols over Bozeman Montana: A case study of the aerosol direct effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D21201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, and I. Matsui, “Development of a dual-wavelength high-spectral-resolution lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 78600D (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Repasky, J. Reagan, A. Nehrir, D. Hoffman, M. Thomas, J. Carlsten, J. Shaw, and G. Shaw, “Observational studies of aerosols over Bozeman, Montana, using a two-color lidar, a water vapor DIAL, a solar radiometer and a ground-based nephelometer over a 24-hour period,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 320–336 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

G. A. Gary, C. Pietraszewski, E. A. West, and T. C. Dines, “Solar confocal interferometers for sub-picometer-resolution spectral filters,” Astron. Astrophys. 467, 375–383 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Y. Yu, J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. A. Remer, T. L. Anderson, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, S. Christopher, P. deCola, D. Koch, N. Loeb, M. S. Reddy, M. Schulz, T. Takamura, and M. Zhou, “A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 613–666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. McFiggans, P. Artaxo, U. Baltensperger, H. Coe, M. C. Facchini, G. Feingold, S. Fuzzi, M. Gysel, A. Laaksonem, U. Lohmann, T. F. Mentel, D. M. Murphy, C. D. O’Dowd, J. R. Snider, and E. Weingartner, “The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 2593–2649 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, “Global indirect aerosol effects: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 715–737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, “Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios for key aerosol types derived from selected Aerosol Robotic Network locations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Imaki, Y. Takegoshi, and T. Kobayashi, “Ultraviolet high-spectral-resolution lidar with Fabry–Perot filter for accurate measurement of extinction and lidar ratio,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3063–3067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Imaki and T. Kobayashi, “Ultraviolet high spectral resolution Doppler lidar for measuring wind field and aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6023–6030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, “Extinction to backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high spectral resolution lidar and Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2760–2767 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan and M. T. Osborn, “Spaceborne lidar calibration from cirrus and molecular backscatter returns,” IEEE Trans. Geoscience Remote Sens. 40, 2285–2290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hair, L. M. Caldwell, D. A. Krueger, and C.-Y. She, “High spectral resolution lidar with iodine vapor filters: measurement of atmospheric state and aerosol profiles,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5280–5295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Haywood and O. Boucher, “Estimates of the direct and indirect radiaitve forcing due to tropospheric aerosols: A review,” Rev. Geophys. 38, 513–543 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. P. Shine, M. Piers, and F. Forster, “The effect of human activity on radiative forcing of climate change: a review of recent development,” Glob. Planet. Change 20, 205–225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, and N. Sugimoto, “High spectral resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661–1670 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

1992

1991

C. J. Grund and E. W. Eloranta, “University of Wisconsin high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Eng. 30, 6–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

R. J. Alvarez, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “High spectral resolution measurements of tropospheric backscatter ratio using barium atomic blocking filters,” Appl. Opt. 7, 876–881 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984

1983

1981

1977

S. Twomey, “The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meterol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Carniglia, L. Mandel, and K. H. Drexhage, “Absorption and emission of evanescent photons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 479–486 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970

1968

1961

G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, “Confocal multimode resonator for millimeter through optical wavelength masers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453–508 (1961).

Abuhassan, N.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, A.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Adams, P.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Alvarez, R. J.

C. Y. She, R. J. Alvarez, L. M. Caldwell, and D. A. Krueger, “High spectral resolution Rayleigh-Mie lidar measurement of aerosol and atmospheric profiles,” Opt. Lett. 17, 541–543 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Alvarez, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “High spectral resolution measurements of tropospheric backscatter ratio using barium atomic blocking filters,” Appl. Opt. 7, 876–881 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. L.

H. Y. Yu, J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. A. Remer, T. L. Anderson, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, S. Christopher, P. deCola, D. Koch, N. Loeb, M. S. Reddy, M. Schulz, T. Takamura, and M. Zhou, “A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 613–666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Annegarn, H.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Artaxo, P.

G. McFiggans, P. Artaxo, U. Baltensperger, H. Coe, M. C. Facchini, G. Feingold, S. Fuzzi, M. Gysel, A. Laaksonem, U. Lohmann, T. F. Mentel, D. M. Murphy, C. D. O’Dowd, J. R. Snider, and E. Weingartner, “The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 2593–2649 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Mhhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contributions of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Austin, P.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

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H. Y. Yu, J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. A. Remer, T. L. Anderson, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, S. Christopher, P. deCola, D. Koch, N. Loeb, M. S. Reddy, M. Schulz, T. Takamura, and M. Zhou, “A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 613–666 (2006).
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Baltensperger, U.

G. McFiggans, P. Artaxo, U. Baltensperger, H. Coe, M. C. Facchini, G. Feingold, S. Fuzzi, M. Gysel, A. Laaksonem, U. Lohmann, T. F. Mentel, D. M. Murphy, C. D. O’Dowd, J. R. Snider, and E. Weingartner, “The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 2593–2649 (2006).
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J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

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H. Y. Yu, J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. A. Remer, T. L. Anderson, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, S. Christopher, P. deCola, D. Koch, N. Loeb, M. S. Reddy, M. Schulz, T. Takamura, and M. Zhou, “A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 613–666 (2006).
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P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Mhhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contributions of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007).

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P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Mhhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contributions of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Boers, R.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

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H. Y. Yu, J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. A. Remer, T. L. Anderson, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, S. Christopher, P. deCola, D. Koch, N. Loeb, M. S. Reddy, M. Schulz, T. Takamura, and M. Zhou, “A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 613–666 (2006).
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B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
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Chin, M.

H. Y. Yu, J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. A. Remer, T. L. Anderson, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, S. Christopher, P. deCola, D. Koch, N. Loeb, M. S. Reddy, M. Schulz, T. Takamura, and M. Zhou, “A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 613–666 (2006).
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J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Christopher, S.

H. Y. Yu, J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. A. Remer, T. L. Anderson, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, S. Christopher, P. deCola, D. Koch, N. Loeb, M. S. Reddy, M. Schulz, T. Takamura, and M. Zhou, “A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 613–666 (2006).
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Chuang, C.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Clark, D.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
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Coe, H.

G. McFiggans, P. Artaxo, U. Baltensperger, H. Coe, M. C. Facchini, G. Feingold, S. Fuzzi, M. Gysel, A. Laaksonem, U. Lohmann, T. F. Mentel, D. M. Murphy, C. D. O’Dowd, J. R. Snider, and E. Weingartner, “The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 2593–2649 (2006).
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Collins, B.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Cook, A. L.

Cooke, W.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Dai, X.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

deCola, P.

H. Y. Yu, J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. A. Remer, T. L. Anderson, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, S. Christopher, P. deCola, D. Koch, N. Loeb, M. S. Reddy, M. Schulz, T. Takamura, and M. Zhou, “A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 613–666 (2006).
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DeMott, P.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

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Ding, Y.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Drexhage, K. H.

Dubovik, O.

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, “Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios for key aerosol types derived from selected Aerosol Robotic Network locations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11 (2005).
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Eck, T. F.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
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Eichinger, W. E.

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Facchini, M. C.

G. McFiggans, P. Artaxo, U. Baltensperger, H. Coe, M. C. Facchini, G. Feingold, S. Fuzzi, M. Gysel, A. Laaksonem, U. Lohmann, T. F. Mentel, D. M. Murphy, C. D. O’Dowd, J. R. Snider, and E. Weingartner, “The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 2593–2649 (2006).
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Fahey, D. W.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Mhhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contributions of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007).

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J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Johnson, C. A.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Johnson, J. R.

Karneli, A.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, J.

H. Y. Yu, J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. A. Remer, T. L. Anderson, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, S. Christopher, P. deCola, D. Koch, N. Loeb, M. S. Reddy, M. Schulz, T. Takamura, and M. Zhou, “A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 613–666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Kaufman, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kettle, A.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Kiehl, J.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Klett, J. D.

Kobayashi, T.

Koch, D.

H. Y. Yu, J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. A. Remer, T. L. Anderson, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, S. Christopher, P. deCola, D. Koch, N. Loeb, M. S. Reddy, M. Schulz, T. Takamura, and M. Zhou, “A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 613–666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Kovalev, V. A.

V. A. Kovalev and W. E. Eichinger, Elastic Lidar, Theory, Practice, and Analysis Methods (Wiley, 2004).

Krueger, D. A.

Laaksonem, A.

G. McFiggans, P. Artaxo, U. Baltensperger, H. Coe, M. C. Facchini, G. Feingold, S. Fuzzi, M. Gysel, A. Laaksonem, U. Lohmann, T. F. Mentel, D. M. Murphy, C. D. O’Dowd, J. R. Snider, and E. Weingartner, “The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 2593–2649 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lammel, G.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Land, C.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
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Leaitch, R.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Lean, J.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Mhhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contributions of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Lee, S. A.

Li, Y. H.

R. J. Alvarez, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “High spectral resolution measurements of tropospheric backscatter ratio using barium atomic blocking filters,” Appl. Opt. 7, 876–881 (1990).
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Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, “Extinction to backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high spectral resolution lidar and Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2760–2767 (2002).
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Z. Liu, I. Matsui, and N. Sugimoto, “High spectral resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661–1670 (1999).
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Loeb, N.

H. Y. Yu, J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. A. Remer, T. L. Anderson, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, S. Christopher, P. deCola, D. Koch, N. Loeb, M. S. Reddy, M. Schulz, T. Takamura, and M. Zhou, “A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 613–666 (2006).
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Lohmann, U.

G. McFiggans, P. Artaxo, U. Baltensperger, H. Coe, M. C. Facchini, G. Feingold, S. Fuzzi, M. Gysel, A. Laaksonem, U. Lohmann, T. F. Mentel, D. M. Murphy, C. D. O’Dowd, J. R. Snider, and E. Weingartner, “The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 2593–2649 (2006).
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U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, “Global indirect aerosol effects: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 715–737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Lowe, D. C.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Mhhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contributions of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Mack, T. L.

Madronich, S.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Mancini, E.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Mandel, L.

Markham, B.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
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Maskell, K.

J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

Matsui, I.

T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, and I. Matsui, “Development of a dual-wavelength high-spectral-resolution lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 78600D (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, and N. Sugimoto, “High spectral resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661–1670 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McFiggans, G.

G. McFiggans, P. Artaxo, U. Baltensperger, H. Coe, M. C. Facchini, G. Feingold, S. Fuzzi, M. Gysel, A. Laaksonem, U. Lohmann, T. F. Mentel, D. M. Murphy, C. D. O’Dowd, J. R. Snider, and E. Weingartner, “The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 2593–2649 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mentel, T. F.

G. McFiggans, P. Artaxo, U. Baltensperger, H. Coe, M. C. Facchini, G. Feingold, S. Fuzzi, M. Gysel, A. Laaksonem, U. Lohmann, T. F. Mentel, D. M. Murphy, C. D. O’Dowd, J. R. Snider, and E. Weingartner, “The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 2593–2649 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mhhre, G.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Mhhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contributions of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Mishchenko, M.

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G. McFiggans, P. Artaxo, U. Baltensperger, H. Coe, M. C. Facchini, G. Feingold, S. Fuzzi, M. Gysel, A. Laaksonem, U. Lohmann, T. F. Mentel, D. M. Murphy, C. D. O’Dowd, J. R. Snider, and E. Weingartner, “The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 2593–2649 (2006).
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K. Repasky, J. Reagan, A. Nehrir, D. Hoffman, M. Thomas, J. Carlsten, J. Shaw, and G. Shaw, “Observational studies of aerosols over Bozeman, Montana, using a two-color lidar, a water vapor DIAL, a solar radiometer and a ground-based nephelometer over a 24-hour period,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 320–336 (2010).
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J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

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J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

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J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

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J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

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J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

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J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

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J. E. Penner, M. Andreae, H. Annegarn, L. Barrie, J. Feichter, D. Hegg, A. Jayaraman, R. Leaitch, D. Murphy, J. Nganga, G. Pitari, A. Ackerman, P. Adams, P. Austin, R. Boers, O. Boucher, M. Chin, C. Chuang, B. Collins, W. Cooke, P. DeMott, Y. Feng, H. Fischer, I. Fung, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S.-L. Gong, A. Guenther, M. Herzog, A. Higurashi, Y. Kaufman, A. Kettle, J. Kiehl, D. Koch, G. Lammel, C. Land, U. Lohmann, S. Madronich, E. Mancini, M. Mishchenko, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, P. Rasch, D. L. Roberts, D. Savoie, S. Schwartz, J. Seinfeld, B. Soden, D. Tanré, K. Taylor, I. Tegen, X. Tie, G. Vali, R. Van Dingenen, M. van Weele, and Y. Zhang, “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nogeur, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds (Cambridge University, 2001).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the HSRL instrument.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A plot of the CFP interferometer cavity transmittance as a function of frequency is shown as the solid black line. The cavity transmittance peaks are separated in frequency by 7.5 GHz. A modeled backscatter signal is shown as a function of frequency as the green line showing the narrow aerosol scattering signal and the broad molecular scattering signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Top figure shows a schematic of the CFP design. A picture of the completed CFP used in the HSRL receiver train for spectrally separating the narrow Mie scattered signal from atmospheric aerosols from the Doppler-broadened Rayleigh scattered signal from atmospheric molecules is shown in the bottom of the figure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Top center (left, right) plot shows the CFP cavity transmittance for the modulated cw locking laser source when the cavity length is equal to (shorter than, longer than) the cavity resonant condition. The middle row of plots shows the modulated wavelength of the locking laser source. The bottom row of plots shows the cavity transmittance multiplied by the modulated signal used to tune the locking laser source. Integrating this signal over several cycles produces the average signal shown as the blue dashed line in the bottom row of plots. This blue line represents the error signal used to correct the CFP cavity length to maintain the resonant condition.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CFP cavity transmittance and reflection as a function of cavity length is shown in the top plot of this figure. The cavity transmittance peaks are separated by 7.5 GHz. The bottom plot shows the corresponding transmittance peaks at 1064 nm. Because an integer number of half-wavelengths need to fit within the cavity length to achieve the resonant condition, there will be twice as many resonant peaks at the 532 nm wavelength.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The solid black (dotted black, dashed blue, dot-dashed blue) line represents the Doppler broadened linewidth as a function of altitude for a surface temperature of 273 K and lapse rate of 9.8K/km (273 K and 6.5K/km, 293 K and 9.8K/km, and 293 K and 6.5K/km). The range of temperatures and lapse rates represent the typical range of values observed at Bozeman, Montana.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured values of KM,M and KM,A as a function of range used in the HSRL lidar inversion.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Plot of the attenuated molecular backscatter coefficient as a function of range is shown as the solid black line. The modeled molecular backscatter coefficient is shown as the dotted blue line in this figure.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Plot of the attenuated aerosol backscatter coefficient as a function of range. The aerosols are mostly confined below the planetary boundary layer at approximately 1.1 km.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Aerosol backscatter coefficient as a function of range calculated by scaling the modeled molecular backscatter coefficient by the ratio of the measured aerosol and molecular return signals shown in Figs. 8 and 9.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Lidar ratio as a function of range retrieved from the aerosol and molecular signals shown in Figs. 8 and 9 is plotted as the solid line. The lidar ratio is plotted from 600 m where the HSRL comes into full overlap to the planetary boundary layer at 1.1 km. The vertical line represents the column averaged lidar ratio calculated from the inverted AERONET data. The lidar data used to calculate the SA were collected at 17:48 UTC, while the AERONET data used in the inversion was collected at 18:37 UTC.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Plot of the attenuated molecular backscatter coefficient as a function of range is shown as the solid black line and is shown as the left-hand plot. The modeled molecular backscatter coefficient is shown as the dashed blue line in this figure. The difference between these two signals is related to the total round trip transmission. A plot of the attenuated aerosol backscatter coefficient as a function of range is shown in the right-hand plot.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Plot of the aerosol extinction as a function of range. The aerosols are mostly contained below the planetary boundary layer at approximately 1.6 km with an aerosol layer forming near the boundary layer.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Plot of the lidar ratio as a function of range for the aerosol extinction profile shown in Fig. 13. The artifacts present at the upper end of the plot are due to the presence of a sharp cloud-like feature at the same altitude in the attenuated backscattered light (see Fig. 12), which causes a small amount of ringing in the detector, leading to noise in the retrieved SA.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Plot of the aerosol attenuated backscatter coefficient from an optically thin cloud.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Plot of the molecular attenuated backscatter coefficient from an optically thin cloud.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Transmittance associated with the data shown in Figs. 15 and 16.

Equations (16)

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FSR=c2L=c2Rc,
F=πR1R,
FSRmm=c4L
P0,M(r)=(DM(r)γMKA,MDA(r)γAKA,A)(KM,MKM,AKA,MKA,A),
P0,A(r)=(DA(r)γAKM,ADM(r)γMKM,M)(KA,AKA,MKM,AKM,M),
D(σ,T)=m¯c28πσ02kTem¯c28πσ02kT(σσ0)2,
P0,M(r)=C0βM(r)T2(r)O(r)r2,
P0,A(r)=C0βA(r)T2(r)O(r)r2,
C0=P0cτ2Aη,
βA(r)=βM(r)P0,A(r)P0,M(r).
T2(r)=r2P0,M(r)C0βM(r),
TA2(r)=T2(r)TM2(r).
TA2(r)=e20rσA(r)dr.
σA(r)=12Δrln[(1+Δrr)2P0,M(r+Δr)βM(r)TM2(r)P0,M(r)βM(r+Δr)TM2(r+Δr)].
SA(r)=σA(r)βA(r).
SA=4πω0P(θ=180°),

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