Abstract

Instead of the traditional heating method, the cavity length of an internal-mirror He–Ne laser is controlled by air cooling which is implemented by a mini cooling fan. The responsive property of the cooling fan and the thermal expansion of the internal-mirror laser tube are investigated. According to these investigations, a controlling system is designed to drive the cooling fan controlling the cavity length of the laser. Then the frequency is stabilized by comparing the light intensities of two operating longitudinal modes. The results of beating with an iodine stabilized He–Ne laser show that a relative uncertainty (Δf/f) of 4.3×109 in 5 months, a frequency fluctuation of <1.4MHz, and an Allan deviation of 6×1011 (τ=10,000s) in 20 h are obtained.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2002 (2)

R. Thalmann, “CCL key comparison: calibration of gauge blocks by interferometry,” Metrologia 39, 165–177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Eom, H. Choi, and S. Lee, “Frequency stabilization of an internal mirror He–Ne laser by digital control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 221–224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Beers and W. Penzes, “The NIST length scale interferometer,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 104, 225–252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

P. E. Ciddor and R. M. Duffy, “Two-mode frequency-stabilised He–Ne (633 nm) lasers: studies of short- and long-term stability,” J. Phys. E 16, 1223–1227 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

A. Sasaki and T. Hayashi, “Amplitude and frequency stabilization of an internal-mirror He–Ne laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1455–1460 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1972 (1)

Alonso, M. V.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Balhorn, R.

Balling, P.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barger, R. L.

Barwood, G. P.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beers, J.

J. Beers and W. Penzes, “The NIST length scale interferometer,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 104, 225–252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, J.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

T. Eom, H. Choi, and S. Lee, “Frequency stabilization of an internal mirror He–Ne laser by digital control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 221–224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ciddor, P. E.

P. E. Ciddor and R. M. Duffy, “Two-mode frequency-stabilised He–Ne (633 nm) lasers: studies of short- and long-term stability,” J. Phys. E 16, 1223–1227 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Duffy, R. M.

P. E. Ciddor and R. M. Duffy, “Two-mode frequency-stabilised He–Ne (633 nm) lasers: studies of short- and long-term stability,” J. Phys. E 16, 1223–1227 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eom, T.

T. Eom, H. Choi, and S. Lee, “Frequency stabilization of an internal mirror He–Ne laser by digital control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 221–224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Faller, J. E.

Fellman, T.

Godwin, H. M.

Hald, J.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Hayashi, T.

A. Sasaki and T. Hayashi, “Amplitude and frequency stabilization of an internal-mirror He–Ne laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1455–1460 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Henningsen, J.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jean, P.

Jungner, P.

Krin, P.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kunzmann, H.

Lawall, J. R.

Lebowsky, F.

Lee, S.

T. Eom, H. Choi, and S. Lee, “Frequency stabilization of an internal mirror He–Ne laser by digital control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 221–224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. Y.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L. S.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Niebauer, T. M.

Nyholm, K.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.

Penzes, W.

J. Beers and W. Penzes, “The NIST length scale interferometer,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 104, 225–252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Picard, S.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qian, J.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, L.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rowley, W. R. C.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, A.

A. Sasaki and T. Hayashi, “Amplitude and frequency stabilization of an internal-mirror He–Ne laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1455–1460 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shi, C. Y.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stahlberg, B.

Takasaki, H.

Tan, S. L.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thalmann, R.

R. Thalmann, “CCL key comparison: calibration of gauge blocks by interferometry,” Metrologia 39, 165–177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsukiji, M.

Umeda, N.

Windeler, R.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zucco, M.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krin, J. Qian, Z. Y. Liu, C. Y. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 transitions in I2127 at λ=543  nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876–880 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. E (1)

P. E. Ciddor and R. M. Duffy, “Two-mode frequency-stabilised He–Ne (633 nm) lasers: studies of short- and long-term stability,” J. Phys. E 16, 1223–1227 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

J. Beers and W. Penzes, “The NIST length scale interferometer,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 104, 225–252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Sasaki and T. Hayashi, “Amplitude and frequency stabilization of an internal-mirror He–Ne laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1455–1460 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

R. Thalmann, “CCL key comparison: calibration of gauge blocks by interferometry,” Metrologia 39, 165–177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Eom, H. Choi, and S. Lee, “Frequency stabilization of an internal mirror He–Ne laser by digital control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 221–224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental schematic of the internal-mirror He–Ne laser stabilized by air cooling. TEC, thermoelectric cooler.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Results obtained with the free running laser. (a) Temperature of the aluminum box, (b) variation of the power difference of the two longitudinal modes, and (c) expansion velocity of the cavity length calculated from (b).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Response curve of the cooling fan.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Equivalent DC voltages corresponding to different preheating times when the laser is locked.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Rotating speeds corresponding to different preheating times when the laser is locked.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Preheating and locking process of the laser.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Frequency drifts when the laser is locked.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Allan deviation of the frequency when the laser is locked.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Frequency repeatability of the laser.

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