Abstract

Sensor design and mission planning for satellite ocean color measurements requires careful consideration of the signal dynamic range and sensitivity (specifically here signal-to-noise ratio or SNR) so that small changes of ocean properties (e.g., surface chlorophyll-a concentrations or Chl) can be quantified while most measurements are not saturated. Past and current sensors used different signal levels, formats, and conventions to specify these critical parameters, making it difficult to make cross-sensor comparisons or to establish standards for future sensor design. The goal of this study is to quantify these parameters under uniform conditions for widely used past and current sensors in order to provide a reference for the design of future ocean color radiometers. Using measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the Aqua satellite (MODISA) under various solar zenith angles (SZAs), typical (Ltypical) and maximum (Lmax) at-sensor radiances from the visible to the shortwave IR were determined. The Ltypical values at an SZA of 45° were used as constraints to calculate SNRs of 10 multiband sensors at the same Ltypical radiance input and 2 hyperspectral sensors at a similar radiance input. The calculations were based on clear-water scenes with an objective method of selecting pixels with minimal cross-pixel variations to assure target homogeneity. Among the widely used ocean color sensors that have routine global coverage, MODISA ocean bands (1 km) showed 2–4 times higher SNRs than the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) (1 km) and comparable SNRs to the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS)-RR (reduced resolution, 1.2 km), leading to different levels of precision in the retrieved Chl data product. MERIS-FR (full resolution, 300 m) showed SNRs lower than MODISA and MERIS-RR with the gain in spatial resolution. SNRs of all MODISA ocean bands and SeaWiFS bands (except the SeaWiFS near-IR bands) exceeded those from prelaunch sensor specifications after adjusting the input radiance to Ltypical. The tabulated Ltypical, Lmax, and SNRs of the various multiband and hyperspectral sensors under the same or similar radiance input provide references to compare sensor performance in product precision and to help design future missions such as the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission and the Pre-Aerosol-Clouds-Ecosystems (PACE) mission currently being planned by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (3)

Z. Yu, X. Chen, B. Zhou, L. Tian, X. Yuan, and L. Feng, “Assessment of total suspended sediment concentrations in Poyang Lake using HJ-1A/1B CCD imagery,” Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol. 30, 295–304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Moses, J. H. Bowles, R. L. Lucke, and M. R. Corson, “Impact of signal-to-noise ratio in a hyperspectral sensor on the accuracy of biophysical parameter estimation in case II waters,” Opt. Express 20, 4309–4330 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: a novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C01011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

T. Schroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 1469–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Remote sensing of the ocean contributions from ultraviolet to near-infrared using the shortwave infrared bands: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1535–1547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS long-term solar diffuser reflectance and sensor noise analyses,” Appl. Opt. 46, 762–773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Giardino, V. E. Brando, A. G. Dekker, N. Strömbeck, and G. Candiani, “Assessment of water quality in Lake Garda (Italy) using Hyperion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 183–195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, B. Casey, R. Arnone, A. Weidemann, R. Parsons, M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, W. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huot, C. A. Brown, and J. J. Cullen, “New algorithms for MODIS sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and a comparison with present data products,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 3, 108–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

R. K. Vincent, X. Qin, R. M. L. McKay, J. Miner, K. Czajkowski, J. Savino, and T. Bridgeman, “Phycocyanin detection from LANDSAT TM data for mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Erie,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 381–392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wettle, V. E. Brando, and A. G. Dekker, “A methodology for retrieval of environmental noise equivalent spectra applied to four Hyperion scenes of the same tropical coral reef,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 188–197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christian, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep Sea Research II: Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51, 281–301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

R. O. Green, B. E. Pavri, and T. G. Chrien, “On-orbit radiometric and spectral calibration characteristics of EO-1 Hyperion derived with an underflight of AVIRIS and in situ measurements at Salar de Arizaro, Argentina,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1194–1203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Kruse, J. W. Boardman, and J. F. Huntington, “Comparison of airborne hyperspectral data and EO-1 Hyperion for mineral mapping,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1388–1400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Morrison, “In situ determination of the quantum yield of phytoplankton chlorophyll a fluorescence: a simple algorithm, observations, and a model,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 618–631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

R. D. Fiete and T. Tantalo, “Comparison of SNR image quality metrics for remote sensing systems,” Opt. Eng. 40, 574–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “How precise are SeaWiFS ocean color estimates? Implications of digitization-noise errors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 239–249(2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. M. Letelier and M. R. Abbott, “An analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence algorithms for the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 215–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

B.-C. Gao, “An operational method for estimating signal to noise ratios from data acquired with imaging spectrometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 43, 23–33 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

P. J. Curran and J. L. Dungan, “Estimation of signal-to-noise: a new procedure applied to AVIRIS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 620–628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, and A. Morel, “A three component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, M. R.

R. M. Letelier and M. R. Abbott, “An analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence algorithms for the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 215–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, S. W. B. Z.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, S. W. B. Z. Ahmad, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS land bands for ocean remote sensing applications,” presented at Ocean Optics XVIII, Montreal, Canada, 9–13 October 2006, http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/staff/franz/papers/franz_et_al_2006_oo.pdf .

Aiken, J.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Al-Saadi, J.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Angal, A.

X. Xiong, A. Angal, and X. Xie, “On-orbit noise characterization for MODIS reflective solar bands,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2008 (IEEE, 2008).

Arnone, R.

Z. Lee, B. Casey, R. Arnone, A. Weidemann, R. Parsons, M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, W. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

Arrigo, K.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Barnes, R. A.

J. R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS long-term solar diffuser reflectance and sensor noise analyses,” Appl. Opt. 46, 762–773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. R. McClain, “Prelaunch Acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer,” NASA Technical Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 22.

Barnes, W. L.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. R. McClain, “Prelaunch Acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer,” NASA Technical Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 22.

Behnert, I.

T. Schroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 1469–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boardman, J. W.

F. A. Kruse, J. W. Boardman, and J. F. Huntington, “Comparison of airborne hyperspectral data and EO-1 Hyperion for mineral mapping,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1388–1400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bontempi,

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Boss, E. S.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowles, J. H.

Brando, V. E.

C. Giardino, V. E. Brando, A. G. Dekker, N. Strömbeck, and G. Candiani, “Assessment of water quality in Lake Garda (Italy) using Hyperion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 183–195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wettle, V. E. Brando, and A. G. Dekker, “A methodology for retrieval of environmental noise equivalent spectra applied to four Hyperion scenes of the same tropical coral reef,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 188–197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bridgeman, T.

R. K. Vincent, X. Qin, R. M. L. McKay, J. Miner, K. Czajkowski, J. Savino, and T. Bridgeman, “Phycocyanin detection from LANDSAT TM data for mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Erie,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 381–392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. A.

Y. Huot, C. A. Brown, and J. J. Cullen, “New algorithms for MODIS sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and a comparison with present data products,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 3, 108–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Butcher, S. D.

Candiani, G.

C. Giardino, V. E. Brando, A. G. Dekker, N. Strömbeck, and G. Candiani, “Assessment of water quality in Lake Garda (Italy) using Hyperion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 183–195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Carder, K. L.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “How precise are SeaWiFS ocean color estimates? Implications of digitization-noise errors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 239–249(2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Casey, B.

Z. Lee, B. Casey, R. Arnone, A. Weidemann, R. Parsons, M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, W. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Chavez, F.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Chen, D. T.

Chen, F. R.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Z. Yu, X. Chen, B. Zhou, L. Tian, X. Yuan, and L. Feng, “Assessment of total suspended sediment concentrations in Poyang Lake using HJ-1A/1B CCD imagery,” Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol. 30, 295–304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chin, M.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Chrien, T. G.

R. O. Green, B. E. Pavri, and T. G. Chrien, “On-orbit radiometric and spectral calibration characteristics of EO-1 Hyperion derived with an underflight of AVIRIS and in situ measurements at Salar de Arizaro, Argentina,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1194–1203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Christian, J. R.

C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christian, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep Sea Research II: Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51, 281–301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coble, P.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Corson, M.

Corson, M. R.

Cota, G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Cullen, J. J.

Y. Huot, C. A. Brown, and J. J. Cullen, “New algorithms for MODIS sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and a comparison with present data products,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 3, 108–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Culver, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Curran, P. J.

P. J. Curran and J. L. Dungan, “Estimation of signal-to-noise: a new procedure applied to AVIRIS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 620–628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Czajkowski, K.

R. K. Vincent, X. Qin, R. M. L. McKay, J. Miner, K. Czajkowski, J. Savino, and T. Bridgeman, “Phycocyanin detection from LANDSAT TM data for mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Erie,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 381–392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dall’Olmo, G.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C.

Z. Lee, B. Casey, R. Arnone, A. Weidemann, R. Parsons, M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, W. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Davis, C. O.

Dekker, A. G.

C. Giardino, V. E. Brando, A. G. Dekker, N. Strömbeck, and G. Candiani, “Assessment of water quality in Lake Garda (Italy) using Hyperion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 183–195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wettle, V. E. Brando, and A. G. Dekker, “A methodology for retrieval of environmental noise equivalent spectra applied to four Hyperion scenes of the same tropical coral reef,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 188–197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Delwart, S.

S. Delwart, “MERIS US workshop: instrument characterization overview,” presented at ESA/MERIS Workshop, OCEANS.US Office, Silver Spring, Md., USA, 14 July 2008( http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/MEETINGS/ESA_MERIS/presentations/InstCharacOverview.pdf ).

DiGiacomo, P.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Doerffer, R.

T. Schroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 1469–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doney, S. C.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dungan, J. L.

P. J. Curran and J. L. Dungan, “Estimation of signal-to-noise: a new procedure applied to AVIRIS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 620–628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dye, J.

Z. Lee, B. Casey, R. Arnone, A. Weidemann, R. Parsons, M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, W. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Eldering, A.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Eplee, J. R. E.

Esaias, W. E.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. R. McClain, “Prelaunch Acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer,” NASA Technical Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 22.

S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Technical Memorandum, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Feldman, G. C.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Technical Memorandum, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Feng, L.

Z. Yu, X. Chen, B. Zhou, L. Tian, X. Yuan, and L. Feng, “Assessment of total suspended sediment concentrations in Poyang Lake using HJ-1A/1B CCD imagery,” Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol. 30, 295–304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fiete, R. D.

R. D. Fiete and T. Tantalo, “Comparison of SNR image quality metrics for remote sensing systems,” Opt. Eng. 40, 574–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Firestone, E. R.

S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Technical Memorandum, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Fischer, J.

T. Schroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 1469–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, J.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Franz, B.

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: a novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C01011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B. A.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, S. W. B. Z. Ahmad, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS land bands for ocean remote sensing applications,” presented at Ocean Optics XVIII, Montreal, Canada, 9–13 October 2006, http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/staff/franz/papers/franz_et_al_2006_oo.pdf .

Fukushima, H.

Gao, B.-C.

Z. Lee, B. Casey, R. Arnone, A. Weidemann, R. Parsons, M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, W. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Gao, “An operational method for estimating signal to noise ratios from data acquired with imaging spectrometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 43, 23–33 (1993).
[CrossRef]

GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group,

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group,

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Giardino, C.

C. Giardino, V. E. Brando, A. G. Dekker, N. Strömbeck, and G. Candiani, “Assessment of water quality in Lake Garda (Italy) using Hyperion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 183–195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goes, J.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Goode, W.

Z. Lee, B. Casey, R. Arnone, A. Weidemann, R. Parsons, M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, W. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011502 (2007).
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Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. O.

R. O. Green, B. E. Pavri, and T. G. Chrien, “On-orbit radiometric and spectral calibration characteristics of EO-1 Hyperion derived with an underflight of AVIRIS and in situ measurements at Salar de Arizaro, Argentina,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1194–1203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gregg, W. W.

S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Technical Memorandum, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Harding, L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Hawes, S. K.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heil, C. A.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Hooker, S.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Technical Memorandum, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Hu, C.

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: a novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C01011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “How precise are SeaWiFS ocean color estimates? Implications of digitization-noise errors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 239–249(2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, F. Lian, and Z. Lee, “Evaluation of GOCI sensitivity for at-sensor radiance and GDPS-retrieved chlorophyll-a products,” submitted to Ocean Science J..

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Huntington, J. F.

F. A. Kruse, J. W. Boardman, and J. F. Huntington, “Comparison of airborne hyperspectral data and EO-1 Hyperion for mineral mapping,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1388–1400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huot, Y.

Y. Huot, C. A. Brown, and J. J. Cullen, “New algorithms for MODIS sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and a comparison with present data products,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 3, 108–130 (2005).
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Iraci, L.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Jacob, D.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Johns, E.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, C.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Kamykowski, D.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawa, S. R.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Kelble, C.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Key, R.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Kishino, M.

Korwan, D. R.

Kruse, F. A.

F. A. Kruse, J. W. Boardman, and J. F. Huntington, “Comparison of airborne hyperspectral data and EO-1 Hyperion for mineral mapping,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1388–1400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuji, M.

Kwiatkowska, E. J.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, S. W. B. Z. Ahmad, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS land bands for ocean remote sensing applications,” presented at Ocean Optics XVIII, Montreal, Canada, 9–13 October 2006, http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/staff/franz/papers/franz_et_al_2006_oo.pdf .

Lee, Z.

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: a novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C01011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, B. Casey, R. Arnone, A. Weidemann, R. Parsons, M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, W. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, F. Lian, and Z. Lee, “Evaluation of GOCI sensitivity for at-sensor radiance and GDPS-retrieved chlorophyll-a products,” submitted to Ocean Science J..

Lee, Z. P.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Letelier, R.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Letelier, R. M.

R. M. Letelier and M. R. Abbott, “An analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence algorithms for the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 215–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. R.

Lian, F.

C. Hu, F. Lian, and Z. Lee, “Evaluation of GOCI sensitivity for at-sensor radiance and GDPS-retrieved chlorophyll-a products,” submitted to Ocean Science J..

Lima, I.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Lohrenz, S.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Lucke, R. L.

Magnuson, A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Mahowald, N.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mannino, A.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Maritorena, S.

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2705–2714 (2002).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

McClain, C. R.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
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J. R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS long-term solar diffuser reflectance and sensor noise analyses,” Appl. Opt. 46, 762–773 (2007).
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C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christian, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep Sea Research II: Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51, 281–301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. R. McClain, “Prelaunch Acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer,” NASA Technical Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 22.

S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Technical Memorandum, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, S. W. B. Z. Ahmad, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS land bands for ocean remote sensing applications,” presented at Ocean Optics XVIII, Montreal, Canada, 9–13 October 2006, http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/staff/franz/papers/franz_et_al_2006_oo.pdf .

McGlothlin, N. R.

McKay, R. M. L.

R. K. Vincent, X. Qin, R. M. L. McKay, J. Miner, K. Czajkowski, J. Savino, and T. Bridgeman, “Phycocyanin detection from LANDSAT TM data for mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Erie,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 381–392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meister, G.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, S. W. B. Z. Ahmad, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS land bands for ocean remote sensing applications,” presented at Ocean Optics XVIII, Montreal, Canada, 9–13 October 2006, http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/staff/franz/papers/franz_et_al_2006_oo.pdf .

Menzies, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Milligan, A. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miner, J.

R. K. Vincent, X. Qin, R. M. L. McKay, J. Miner, K. Czajkowski, J. Savino, and T. Bridgeman, “Phycocyanin detection from LANDSAT TM data for mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Erie,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 381–392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Montes, M. J.

Z. Lee, B. Casey, R. Arnone, A. Weidemann, R. Parsons, M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, W. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moore, G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Moore, J. K.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, and A. Morel, “A three component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
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Morrison, J. R.

J. R. Morrison, “In situ determination of the quantum yield of phytoplankton chlorophyll a fluorescence: a simple algorithm, observations, and a model,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 618–631 (2003).
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Moses, W. J.

Mueller, J.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Muller-Karger, F. E.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “How precise are SeaWiFS ocean color estimates? Implications of digitization-noise errors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 239–249(2001).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Karger, F.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Nakajima, M.

Nakajima, T.

Nakajima, T. Y.

Natraj, V.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Neil, D.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Neu, J.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Newchurch, M.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

O’Brien, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

O’Malley, R. T.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

P.,

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Parsons, R.

Z. Lee, B. Casey, R. Arnone, A. Weidemann, R. Parsons, M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, W. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011502 (2007).
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Patt, F. S.

Pavri, B. E.

R. O. Green, B. E. Pavri, and T. G. Chrien, “On-orbit radiometric and spectral calibration characteristics of EO-1 Hyperion derived with an underflight of AVIRIS and in situ measurements at Salar de Arizaro, Argentina,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1194–1203 (2003).
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Peterson, A. R.

Phinney, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Pickering, K.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Prieur, L.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, and A. Morel, “A three component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
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R. K. Vincent, X. Qin, R. M. L. McKay, J. Miner, K. Czajkowski, J. Savino, and T. Bridgeman, “Phycocyanin detection from LANDSAT TM data for mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Erie,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 381–392 (2004).
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Salisbury, J.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, and A. Morel, “A three component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
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Savino, J.

R. K. Vincent, X. Qin, R. M. L. McKay, J. Miner, K. Czajkowski, J. Savino, and T. Bridgeman, “Phycocyanin detection from LANDSAT TM data for mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Erie,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 381–392 (2004).
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Schaale, M.

T. Schroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 1469–1486 (2007).
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Schroeder, T.

T. Schroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 1469–1486 (2007).
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Siegal, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Siegel, D. A.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
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S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2705–2714 (2002).
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Signorini, S. R.

C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christian, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep Sea Research II: Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51, 281–301 (2004).
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Smith, R.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Snyder, W. A.

Sosik, H.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Strömbeck, N.

C. Giardino, V. E. Brando, A. G. Dekker, N. Strömbeck, and G. Candiani, “Assessment of water quality in Lake Garda (Italy) using Hyperion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 183–195 (2007).
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Strutton, P.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Subramaniam, A.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

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R. D. Fiete and T. Tantalo, “Comparison of SNR image quality metrics for remote sensing systems,” Opt. Eng. 40, 574–585 (2001).
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Taylor, C.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311–321 (2005).
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Z. Yu, X. Chen, B. Zhou, L. Tian, X. Yuan, and L. Feng, “Assessment of total suspended sediment concentrations in Poyang Lake using HJ-1A/1B CCD imagery,” Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol. 30, 295–304 (2012).
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Toole, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. O’Brien, D. Siegal, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. Smith, J. Mueller, B. Mitchell, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, M. Kahru, F. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3,” in NASA Technical Memorandum 2000—206892 SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. Hooker and E. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), Vol. 11.

Tzortziou, M.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Uchiyama, A.

Vincent, R. K.

R. K. Vincent, X. Qin, R. M. L. McKay, J. Miner, K. Czajkowski, J. Savino, and T. Bridgeman, “Phycocyanin detection from LANDSAT TM data for mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Erie,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 381–392 (2004).
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Wang, J.

J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Wang, M.

M. Wang, “Remote sensing of the ocean contributions from ultraviolet to near-infrared using the shortwave infrared bands: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1535–1547 (2007).
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H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
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J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

Weidemann, A.

Z. Lee, B. Casey, R. Arnone, A. Weidemann, R. Parsons, M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, W. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011502 (2007).
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Werdell, P. J.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, S. W. B. Z. Ahmad, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS land bands for ocean remote sensing applications,” presented at Ocean Optics XVIII, Montreal, Canada, 9–13 October 2006, http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/staff/franz/papers/franz_et_al_2006_oo.pdf .

Westberry, T. K.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 5, 4235–4270 (2008).
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J. Fishman, J. Al-Saadi, P., Bontempi, K. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. DiGiacomo, A. Eldering, D. Edwards, J. Goes, J. Herman, C. Hu, L. Iraci, D. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, M. Wang, GEO-CAPE Atmospheric Science Working Group, and GEO-CAPE Ocean Science Working Group, “Fulfilling the mandate and meeting the challenges of the nation’s next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements: NASA’s Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc.(to be published).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Instrument sensitivity to resolve small changes in at-sensor radiance [(a), mWcm2μm1sr1] and surface ocean chlorophyll-a concentrations [(b)–(d), mgm3] derived from several ocean color instruments. (a) CZCS at-sensor radiance at 443 nm from a small region (25° to 27 °N; 85 °W to 83 °W) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (inset figure), (b)–(d) chlorophyll-a concentrations derived from the same region from MODISA, SeaWiFS, and MERIS-FR on 12 March 2009, respectively, using the same algorithms and software (SeaWiFS Data Analysis System or SeaDAS, version 6.3). The NE–SW linear line on the georeferenced MERIS image is a result of push broom striping noise. Note that MERIS-RR data have much higher SNRs than MERIS-FR data and therefore would not lead to the image noise shown in (d).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) MODISA RGB composite image over coastal waters off Zhejiang Province of China (25°20’N to 30°40’N; 119°20’E to 124°E); (b) the corresponding fluorescence line height (FLH) image shows an HAB (dark green and yellow colors). Note that although the RGB image derived from the land bands shows minimal cloud cover, a big portion of the ocean area shows no FLH data due to saturation of the corresponding ocean bands. White lines delineate coastlines.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Ltypical of MODISA determined from the 255 MODIS scenes using clear water pixels under a clear sky at various SZAs. The data are tabulated in Table 4.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Lmax of MODISA determined from the 255 MODIS scenes using cloud pixels at various SZAs. (a) Lmax from the top 5% of the brightest pixels; (b) Lmax from the top 1% of the brightest pixels. The data are tabulated in Tables 5 and 6, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) SNR of the MODISA 412 nm band determined using different thresholds of maximum/minimum ratio within small areas (running windows on an image). The SNR values of individual images become stable (i.e., they are similar from image to image) when the threshold is 1.002. Below this threshold, many images did not yield any qualified small windows, and SNRs determined from individual images varied substantially. To minimize the potential impact of inhomogeneous water and/or atmosphere on the SNR determination, the max/min threshold ratio in this study was chosen to be 1.002. The same method was applied to all other bands to determine the threshold value to assure spatial homogeneity of the target; (b) Noise level distribution of all qualified small windows from a typical image. The distribution is normal (according to the Gaussian fit) when the max/min threshold equals 1.002, while it is not normal when the threshold equals 1.0015.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Distribution of noise, defined as the standard deviation of all pixels in a given window (either 3×3, 5×5, or 7×7), as a function of window size from a simulated image. The image was assigned a unit value for all pixels, with added random noise from 1.0 to 1.0 with a Gaussian normal distribution. The different window sizes led to <5% changes in their histogram modes (numbers in parenthesis), suggesting that image noise (and thus SNR) is not sensitive to the choice of window size.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

SNRs of all spectral bands from the 10 multiband instruments, determined from their individual measurements at near-identical Ltypical (right axis, dashed line). Note that the MODISA bands were divided into three groups: 1 KM (ocean bands between 413 and 869 nm); HKM (land bands at 469, 555, 1240, 1640, and 2130 nm), and QKM (land bands at 645 and 859 nm). MERIS SNRs were determined from both FR and RR data. Because they were determined from multiple images, both mean and standard deviations (vertical bars) were plotted. These data are tabulated in Table 7. The numbers in the parentheses represent the number of images used in determining the SNRs.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Similar to Fig. 7, but these SNR values were determined from hyperspectral instruments of HICO (black symbols) and Hyperion (brown symbols), respectively. While the input radiance used to determine HICO SNR is similar to Ltypical for MODIS (green; the same as Ltypical in Fig. 7), the input radiance used to determine Hyperion SNR is higher than MODIS Ltypical in the green, red, NIR, and most shortwave IR wavelengths.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) SNR at different radiance (Lt) inputs (solid curves), modeled from SNR at one Lt input using a square root function. Also plotted are the SNR values derived at different (Lt) from direct MODISA measurements (discrete symbols); (b) MODISA and SeaWiFS SNRs determined from measurements over the ocean (solid symbols) at input radiance of MODISA Ltypical at SZA=45°. These SNRs are compared with those from the sensor specifications after adjustment of the input radiance to the same Ltypical (empty symbols). Also shown in the figure are the MODISA/SeaWiFS SNR ratios (stars) for the same Ltypical input radiance.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

MERIS-FR chlorophyll-a concentrations on 12 March 2009 from a small region in the eastern Gulf of Mexico derived from (a) the default band-ratio OC3 algorithm and (b) a new color index algorithm [33]. Inputs to both algorithms were the spectral Rrs data derived using the atmospheric correction approach in SeaDAS6.3. Note that this is approximately the same region as shown in Fig. 1, but without map projection, so the vertical striping on the right edge is apparent. Note the significant reduction in noise from (a) to (b), where eddy circulation features are clearly revealed.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Sensitivity of MODISA normalized FLH (nFLH) in detecting Chl changes at low concentrations. Data were extracted from a 10°×10° (60 °–50 °W, 30 °–40 °N) region near the North Atlantic Gyre. nFLH was derived from normalized water-leaving radiance at 667, 678, and 748 nm. (a) nFLH appears to monotonously increase with increasing Chl for Chl0.08mgm3 (winter) and for Chl0.14mgm3 (summer). nFLH values are much lower during summer due to nonphotochemical quenching; (b) The sensitivity of nFLH to resolve small Chl changes is dependent on the number of pixels used in calculating the averages. The annotated numbers indicate the number of pixels used to calculate the mean nFLH values. It appears that the relationship between nFLH and Chl for December 2011 became stabilized for N500.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Pixelization Noise in Chl Data Products from Three Ocean Color Instrumentsa

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Table 2. Maximum Valid Radiance of MODISA and Knee Radiance of SeaWiFS for All Ocean Bands, Determined from Measurements in 2004a

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Table 3. Satellite Instruments Used in This Study for SNR Evaluationsa

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Table 4. Ltypical (Units: mWcm2μm1sr1) of MODISA over the Ocean (0 °–70 °N and 135 °–45 °W) Determined from On-Orbit Measurements during All Months of 2004a

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Table 5. Lmax of MODISA Land Bands over Clouds (5% Brightest Pixels) (Units: mWcm2μm1sr1)a

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Table 6. Same as Table 5, but Lmax was Derived from the 1% Brightest Pixels (Units: mWcm2μm1sr1)a

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Table 7. SNRs (Mean and Standard Deviation) of the 10 Multiband Satellite Instruments Determined from On-Orbit Measurementsa

Equations (2)

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SNR(Signal/Noise)=nsignal/nnoise,nsignal=(Φ/hν)*t*A*η,
nnoise=sqrt(nphoton2+ndet2+nreadout2).

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