Abstract

A large number of model probability density functions (PDFs) are used to analyze atmospheric scintillation statistics. We have analyzed scintillation data from two different experimental setups covering a range of scintillation strengths to determine which candidate model PDFs best describe the experimental data. The PDFs were fitted to the experimental data using the method of least squares. The root-mean-squared fitting error was used to monitor the goodness of fit. The results of the fitting were found to depend strongly on the scintillation strength. We find that the log normally modulated Rician and the log normal PDFs are the best fit to the experimental data over the range of scintillation strengths encountered.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  36. S. Michael, R. R. Parenti, F. G. Walther, A. M. Volpicelli, J. D. Moores, W. Wilcox, and R. Murphy, “Comparison of scintillation measurements from a 5 km communication link to standard statistical models,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (2)

T. Turnbull, M. C. McKenzie, and J. C. Thomas, “Statistical measurements of irradiance fluctuations produced by a reflective membrane optical scintillator. II. Application to an incoherent broadband source,” Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 1143–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6476–6483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Michael, R. R. Parenti, F. G. Walther, A. M. Volpicelli, J. D. Moores, W. Wilcox, and R. Murphy, “Comparison of scintillation measurements from a 5 km communication link to standard statistical models,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

F. S. Vetelino, J. Recolons, L. Andrews, C. Young, B. Clare, K. Corbett, and K. Grant, “PDF models of the irradiance fluctuations in Gaussian beam waves,” Proc. SPIE 6215, 62150 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, B. Clare, K. Corbett, C. Young, K. Grant, and L. Andrews, “Characterizing the propagation path in moderate to strong optical turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3534–3543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, K. Grant, K. Corbett, and B. Clare, “Scintillation: theory vs. experiment,” Proc. SPIE 5793, 166–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, “Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1554–1562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

D. Mudge, A. Wedd, J. Craig, and J. C. Thomas, “Statistical measurements of irradiance fluctuations produced by a reflective membrane optical scintillator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 381–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (5)

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

1982 (3)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media: an update,” Proc. IEEE 68, 1424–1443 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

1978 (1)

D. L. Knepp and G. C. Valley, “Properties of joint Gaussian statistics,” Radio Sci. 13, 59–68 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (3)

R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1669–1692 (1975).
[CrossRef]

F. Davidson and A. Gonzalez-del-Valle, “Measurements of three-parameter log-normally distributed optical-field irradiance fluctuations in a turbulent medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 655–663 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Strohbehn, T. I. Wang, and J. P. Speck, “On the probability distribution of line-of-sight fluctuations of optical signals,” Radio Sci. 10, 59–70 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1970 (1)

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1545 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Al-Habash, M. A.

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, “Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1554–1562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L.

F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, and J. Recolons, “Aperture averaging effects on the probability density of irradiance fluctuations in moderate-to-strong turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2099–2108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, J. Recolons, L. Andrews, C. Young, B. Clare, K. Corbett, and K. Grant, “PDF models of the irradiance fluctuations in Gaussian beam waves,” Proc. SPIE 6215, 62150 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, B. Clare, K. Corbett, C. Young, K. Grant, and L. Andrews, “Characterizing the propagation path in moderate to strong optical turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3534–3543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, K. Grant, K. Corbett, and B. Clare, “Scintillation: theory vs. experiment,” Proc. SPIE 5793, 166–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L. C.

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, “Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1554–1562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and B. K. Shivamoggi, “Relations of the parameters of the I-K distribution for irradiance fluctuations to physical parameters of the turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2150–2156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Phillips and L. C. Andrews, “The significance of the class of K-distributions,” Proc. SPIE 926, 2–7 (1988).

R. L. Phillips and L. C. Andrews, “Universal statistical model for irradiance fluctuations in a turbulent medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 864–870 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Phillips and L. C. Andrews, “Measured statistics of laser-light scattering in atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1440–1445 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (SPIE, 2001).

Barakat, R.

Ben-Yosef, N.

Bissonnette, L. R.

Burris, H. R.

Churnside, J.

Churnside, J. H.

Clare, B.

F. S. Vetelino, J. Recolons, L. Andrews, C. Young, B. Clare, K. Corbett, and K. Grant, “PDF models of the irradiance fluctuations in Gaussian beam waves,” Proc. SPIE 6215, 62150 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, B. Clare, K. Corbett, C. Young, K. Grant, and L. Andrews, “Characterizing the propagation path in moderate to strong optical turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3534–3543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, K. Grant, K. Corbett, and B. Clare, “Scintillation: theory vs. experiment,” Proc. SPIE 5793, 166–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clifford, S. F.

Cochetti, F.

Consortini, A.

Corbett, K.

F. S. Vetelino, J. Recolons, L. Andrews, C. Young, B. Clare, K. Corbett, and K. Grant, “PDF models of the irradiance fluctuations in Gaussian beam waves,” Proc. SPIE 6215, 62150 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, B. Clare, K. Corbett, C. Young, K. Grant, and L. Andrews, “Characterizing the propagation path in moderate to strong optical turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3534–3543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, K. Grant, K. Corbett, and B. Clare, “Scintillation: theory vs. experiment,” Proc. SPIE 5793, 166–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cowley, W. G.

A. Khatoon, W. G. Cowley, and N. Letzepis, “Channel measurement and estimation for free space optical communications,” in Communications Theory Workshop (AusCTW), 2011 Australian (IEEE, 2011), pp. 112–117.

Craig, J.

D. Mudge, A. Wedd, J. Craig, and J. C. Thomas, “Statistical measurements of irradiance fluctuations produced by a reflective membrane optical scintillator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 381–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, F.

Du, W.

Fante, R. L.

R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media: an update,” Proc. IEEE 68, 1424–1443 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1669–1692 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, M.

Frehlich, R. G.

R. G. Frehlich and R. J. Hill, “Probability distribution of irradiance for the onset of strong scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1530–1540 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and R. G. Frehlich, “Experimental evaluation of log-normally modulated Rician and IK models of optical scintillation in the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1760–1766 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Frehlich and J. H. Churnside, “Probability density function for estimates of the moments of laser scintillation,” Proc. SPIE 926, 31–38 (1988).

R. J. Hill, R. G. Frehlich, and W. D. Otto, “The probability distribution of irradiance scintillation,” NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL ETL-274 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1997).

Furutsu, K.

Gamo, H.

Garrido-Balsells, J. M.

A. Jurado-Navas, J. M. Garrido-Balsells, J. F. Paris, and A. Puerta-Notario, “A unifying statistical model for atmospheric optical scintillation,” in Numerical Simulations of Physical and Engineering Processes (INTECH, 2011).

Goldner, E.

Gonzalez-del-Valle, A.

Grant, K.

F. S. Vetelino, J. Recolons, L. Andrews, C. Young, B. Clare, K. Corbett, and K. Grant, “PDF models of the irradiance fluctuations in Gaussian beam waves,” Proc. SPIE 6215, 62150 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, B. Clare, K. Corbett, C. Young, K. Grant, and L. Andrews, “Characterizing the propagation path in moderate to strong optical turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3534–3543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, K. Grant, K. Corbett, and B. Clare, “Scintillation: theory vs. experiment,” Proc. SPIE 5793, 166–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R. J.

Hopen, C. Y.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (SPIE, 2001).

Ito, S.

Jiang, Y.

Jurado-Navas, A.

A. Jurado-Navas, J. M. Garrido-Balsells, J. F. Paris, and A. Puerta-Notario, “A unifying statistical model for atmospheric optical scintillation,” in Numerical Simulations of Physical and Engineering Processes (INTECH, 2011).

Khatoon, A.

A. Khatoon, W. G. Cowley, and N. Letzepis, “Channel measurement and estimation for free space optical communications,” in Communications Theory Workshop (AusCTW), 2011 Australian (IEEE, 2011), pp. 112–117.

Knepp, D. L.

D. L. Knepp and G. C. Valley, “Properties of joint Gaussian statistics,” Radio Sci. 13, 59–68 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, R. S.

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1545 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Letzepis, N.

A. Khatoon, W. G. Cowley, and N. Letzepis, “Channel measurement and estimation for free space optical communications,” in Communications Theory Workshop (AusCTW), 2011 Australian (IEEE, 2011), pp. 112–117.

Ma, J.

Mahon, R.

Majumdar, A. K.

McKenzie, M.

M. McKenzie, “SAMS: Scintillation Analysis and Modelling Suite,” University of South Australia vacation scholarship report (2008).

McKenzie, M. C.

T. Turnbull, M. C. McKenzie, and J. C. Thomas, “Statistical measurements of irradiance fluctuations produced by a reflective membrane optical scintillator. II. Application to an incoherent broadband source,” Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 1143–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Michael, S.

S. Michael, R. R. Parenti, F. G. Walther, A. M. Volpicelli, J. D. Moores, W. Wilcox, and R. Murphy, “Comparison of scintillation measurements from a 5 km communication link to standard statistical models,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. I.

Moores, J. D.

S. Michael, R. R. Parenti, F. G. Walther, A. M. Volpicelli, J. D. Moores, W. Wilcox, and R. Murphy, “Comparison of scintillation measurements from a 5 km communication link to standard statistical models,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mudge, D.

D. Mudge, A. Wedd, J. Craig, and J. C. Thomas, “Statistical measurements of irradiance fluctuations produced by a reflective membrane optical scintillator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 381–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, R.

S. Michael, R. R. Parenti, F. G. Walther, A. M. Volpicelli, J. D. Moores, W. Wilcox, and R. Murphy, “Comparison of scintillation measurements from a 5 km communication link to standard statistical models,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Otto, W. D.

R. J. Hill, R. G. Frehlich, and W. D. Otto, “The probability distribution of irradiance scintillation,” NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL ETL-274 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1997).

Parenti, R. R.

S. Michael, R. R. Parenti, F. G. Walther, A. M. Volpicelli, J. D. Moores, W. Wilcox, and R. Murphy, “Comparison of scintillation measurements from a 5 km communication link to standard statistical models,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paris, J. F.

A. Jurado-Navas, J. M. Garrido-Balsells, J. F. Paris, and A. Puerta-Notario, “A unifying statistical model for atmospheric optical scintillation,” in Numerical Simulations of Physical and Engineering Processes (INTECH, 2011).

Parry, G.

Phillips, R. L.

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, “Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1554–1562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and B. K. Shivamoggi, “Relations of the parameters of the I-K distribution for irradiance fluctuations to physical parameters of the turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2150–2156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Phillips and L. C. Andrews, “The significance of the class of K-distributions,” Proc. SPIE 926, 2–7 (1988).

R. L. Phillips and L. C. Andrews, “Universal statistical model for irradiance fluctuations in a turbulent medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 864–870 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Phillips and L. C. Andrews, “Measured statistics of laser-light scattering in atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1440–1445 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (SPIE, 2001).

Puerta-Notario, A.

A. Jurado-Navas, J. M. Garrido-Balsells, J. F. Paris, and A. Puerta-Notario, “A unifying statistical model for atmospheric optical scintillation,” in Numerical Simulations of Physical and Engineering Processes (INTECH, 2011).

Pusey, P. N.

Rabinovich, W. S.

Recolons, J.

F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, and J. Recolons, “Aperture averaging effects on the probability density of irradiance fluctuations in moderate-to-strong turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2099–2108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, J. Recolons, L. Andrews, C. Young, B. Clare, K. Corbett, and K. Grant, “PDF models of the irradiance fluctuations in Gaussian beam waves,” Proc. SPIE 6215, 62150 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shivamoggi, B. K.

Speck, J. P.

J. W. Strohbehn, T. I. Wang, and J. P. Speck, “On the probability distribution of line-of-sight fluctuations of optical signals,” Radio Sci. 10, 59–70 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Strohbehn, J. W.

J. W. Strohbehn, T. I. Wang, and J. P. Speck, “On the probability distribution of line-of-sight fluctuations of optical signals,” Radio Sci. 10, 59–70 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Wang and J. W. Strohbehn, “Perturbed log-normal distribution of irradiance fluctuations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 994–999 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1545 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Suite, M.

Tan, L.

Thomas, J. C.

T. Turnbull, M. C. McKenzie, and J. C. Thomas, “Statistical measurements of irradiance fluctuations produced by a reflective membrane optical scintillator. II. Application to an incoherent broadband source,” Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 1143–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Mudge, A. Wedd, J. Craig, and J. C. Thomas, “Statistical measurements of irradiance fluctuations produced by a reflective membrane optical scintillator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 381–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, L. M.

Turnbull, T.

T. Turnbull, M. C. McKenzie, and J. C. Thomas, “Statistical measurements of irradiance fluctuations produced by a reflective membrane optical scintillator. II. Application to an incoherent broadband source,” Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 1143–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

D. L. Knepp and G. C. Valley, “Properties of joint Gaussian statistics,” Radio Sci. 13, 59–68 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Vetelino, F. S.

F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, and J. Recolons, “Aperture averaging effects on the probability density of irradiance fluctuations in moderate-to-strong turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2099–2108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, B. Clare, K. Corbett, C. Young, K. Grant, and L. Andrews, “Characterizing the propagation path in moderate to strong optical turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3534–3543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, J. Recolons, L. Andrews, C. Young, B. Clare, K. Corbett, and K. Grant, “PDF models of the irradiance fluctuations in Gaussian beam waves,” Proc. SPIE 6215, 62150 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, K. Grant, K. Corbett, and B. Clare, “Scintillation: theory vs. experiment,” Proc. SPIE 5793, 166–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volpicelli, A. M.

S. Michael, R. R. Parenti, F. G. Walther, A. M. Volpicelli, J. D. Moores, W. Wilcox, and R. Murphy, “Comparison of scintillation measurements from a 5 km communication link to standard statistical models,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walther, F. G.

S. Michael, R. R. Parenti, F. G. Walther, A. M. Volpicelli, J. D. Moores, W. Wilcox, and R. Murphy, “Comparison of scintillation measurements from a 5 km communication link to standard statistical models,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. I.

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Young, C.

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (8)

Opt. Eng. (1)

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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

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Proc. SPIE (5)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scintillation index (SI) variation as a function of the structure parameter for several of the DSTO data files over 1 min intervals. The plane and spherical wave Rytov variances are also shown for comparison.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental and some of the fitted model intensity PDFs for some DSTO data: (a) SI=0.18 and (b) SI=1.74. The vertical axis is the probability of occurrence of In.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

RMS fitting error as a function of the SI for all model PDFs in Table 1 for the DSTO data.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

RMS fitting error as a function of the SI for all model PDFs in Table 1 for the ITR data.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Variation in RMS fitting error as the data are fitted out to different multiples of the mean signal count for one of the DSTO datasets.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of PDFs Used for Analysis

Equations (3)

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σI2=I2I21=In21,
In=II
σR2=αCn2k7/6L11/6;α={1.23plane wave0.497spherical wave,

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