Abstract

A significant operational difficulty with very large ring laser gyroscopes is the length of time required to achieve the desired single-mode configuration. A control technique has been developed where the order of mode splitting between corotating beams is alternated. Theoretical advantages to this are the elimination of noise caused by variations in perimeter and systematic error caused by Adler pulling. External seeding of mode configurations has been proposed to allow the technique to work fast enough to eliminate known sources of perimeter perturbations. While investigating the intensity requirements for this concept, we found that the operating mode of a large ring laser can be successfully self-seeded with seed beams of near (6±3) single photon cavity mode population.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Sagnac, “L’éther lumineux démontré par l’effet du vent relatif d’éther dans un interférométre en rotation uniforme,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 157, 708–710 (1913).
  2. W. Macek, D. Davis, R. Olthuis, J. Schneider, and G. White, “Ring laser rotation rate sensor,” Quantum Electronics; Proceedings of the Third International Congress (Dunod, 1964), p. 1313.
  3. The geometry of the laser is fixed by construction on a base made of materials not especially regarded for stability, in this case the basalt floor of a cavern in Christchurch, New Zealand.
  4. M. S. Longuet-Higgins, “A theory of the origin of microseisms,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 243, 1–35 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Schreiber, T. Klügel, and G. Stedman, “Earth tide and tilt detection by a ring laser gyroscope,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2132–2137 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–230 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Allan, “Time and frequency (time-domain) characterization, estimation, and prediction of precision clocks and oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647–654 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. E. Stedman, “Ring-laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. B. Hurst, R. W. Dunn, K. U. Schreiber, R. J. Thirkettle, and G. K. MacDonald, “Mode behavior in ultralarge ring lasers,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2337–2346 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Hurst, G. Stedman, K. Schreiber, R. Thirkettle, R. Graham, N. Rabeendran, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Experiments with a 834  m2 ring laser interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113115 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Adler, “A study of locking phenomena in oscillators,” Proc. IRE 34, 351–357 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Rowe, U. Schreiber, S. Cooper, B. King, M. Poulton, and G. Stedman, “Design and operation of a very large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2516–2523 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Graham, “New concepts for operating ring laser gyroscopes,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Canterbury, 2010).
  14. Obtaining the exact perimeter from the mode spacing requires a small correction to be made for the Gouy phase shift and refractive index of the gas.
  15. Computer models of tidal tilts show a pseudoperiodic nature with maximum peak-to-peak deviation of around 0.2 rad, corresponding to a Sagnac deviation of around 300 Hz.
  16. F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Park, G. Giuliani, and R. Byer, “Single axial mode operation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillator by injection seeding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 117–125 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

2011

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. Hurst, G. Stedman, K. Schreiber, R. Thirkettle, R. Graham, N. Rabeendran, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Experiments with a 834  m2 ring laser interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

K. Schreiber, T. Klügel, and G. Stedman, “Earth tide and tilt detection by a ring laser gyroscope,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2132–2137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

G. E. Stedman, “Ring-laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987

D. Allan, “Time and frequency (time-domain) characterization, estimation, and prediction of precision clocks and oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647–654 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

Y. Park, G. Giuliani, and R. Byer, “Single axial mode operation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillator by injection seeding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 117–125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1966

D. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1950

M. S. Longuet-Higgins, “A theory of the origin of microseisms,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 243, 1–35 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1946

R. Adler, “A study of locking phenomena in oscillators,” Proc. IRE 34, 351–357 (1946).
[CrossRef]

1913

G. Sagnac, “L’éther lumineux démontré par l’effet du vent relatif d’éther dans un interférométre en rotation uniforme,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 157, 708–710 (1913).

Adler, R.

R. Adler, “A study of locking phenomena in oscillators,” Proc. IRE 34, 351–357 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D.

D. Allan, “Time and frequency (time-domain) characterization, estimation, and prediction of precision clocks and oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647–654 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allegrini, M.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Belfi, J.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beverini, N.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bosi, F.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bouhadef, B.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R.

Y. Park, G. Giuliani, and R. Byer, “Single axial mode operation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillator by injection seeding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 117–125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Carelli, G.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cella, G.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cerdonio, M.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, S.

Davis, D.

W. Macek, D. Davis, R. Olthuis, J. Schneider, and G. White, “Ring laser rotation rate sensor,” Quantum Electronics; Proceedings of the Third International Congress (Dunod, 1964), p. 1313.

Di Virgilio, A.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, R. W.

Ferrante, I.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gebauer, A.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

Y. Park, G. Giuliani, and R. Byer, “Single axial mode operation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillator by injection seeding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 117–125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Graham, R.

R. Hurst, G. Stedman, K. Schreiber, R. Thirkettle, R. Graham, N. Rabeendran, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Experiments with a 834  m2 ring laser interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Graham, “New concepts for operating ring laser gyroscopes,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Canterbury, 2010).

Hurst, R.

R. Hurst, G. Stedman, K. Schreiber, R. Thirkettle, R. Graham, N. Rabeendran, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Experiments with a 834  m2 ring laser interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hurst, R. B.

King, B.

Klügel, T.

K. Schreiber, T. Klügel, and G. Stedman, “Earth tide and tilt detection by a ring laser gyroscope,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2132–2137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Longuet-Higgins, M. S.

M. S. Longuet-Higgins, “A theory of the origin of microseisms,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 243, 1–35 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Maccioni, E.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, G. K.

Macek, W.

W. Macek, D. Davis, R. Olthuis, J. Schneider, and G. White, “Ring laser rotation rate sensor,” Quantum Electronics; Proceedings of the Third International Congress (Dunod, 1964), p. 1313.

Olthuis, R.

W. Macek, D. Davis, R. Olthuis, J. Schneider, and G. White, “Ring laser rotation rate sensor,” Quantum Electronics; Proceedings of the Third International Congress (Dunod, 1964), p. 1313.

Ortolan, A.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Y. Park, G. Giuliani, and R. Byer, “Single axial mode operation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillator by injection seeding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 117–125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Passaquieti, R.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Porzio, A.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, M.

Rabeendran, N.

R. Hurst, G. Stedman, K. Schreiber, R. Thirkettle, R. Graham, N. Rabeendran, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Experiments with a 834  m2 ring laser interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, C.

Ruggiero, M. L.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sagnac, G.

G. Sagnac, “L’éther lumineux démontré par l’effet du vent relatif d’éther dans un interférométre en rotation uniforme,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 157, 708–710 (1913).

Schneider, J.

W. Macek, D. Davis, R. Olthuis, J. Schneider, and G. White, “Ring laser rotation rate sensor,” Quantum Electronics; Proceedings of the Third International Congress (Dunod, 1964), p. 1313.

Schreiber, K.

R. Hurst, G. Stedman, K. Schreiber, R. Thirkettle, R. Graham, N. Rabeendran, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Experiments with a 834  m2 ring laser interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Schreiber, T. Klügel, and G. Stedman, “Earth tide and tilt detection by a ring laser gyroscope,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2132–2137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, K. U.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Hurst, R. W. Dunn, K. U. Schreiber, R. J. Thirkettle, and G. K. MacDonald, “Mode behavior in ultralarge ring lasers,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2337–2346 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, U.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

Solimeno, S.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stedman, G.

R. Hurst, G. Stedman, K. Schreiber, R. Thirkettle, R. Graham, N. Rabeendran, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Experiments with a 834  m2 ring laser interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Schreiber, T. Klügel, and G. Stedman, “Earth tide and tilt detection by a ring laser gyroscope,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2132–2137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Rowe, U. Schreiber, S. Cooper, B. King, M. Poulton, and G. Stedman, “Design and operation of a very large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2516–2523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stedman, G. E.

G. E. Stedman, “Ring-laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stefani, F.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tartaglia, A.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thirkettle, R.

R. Hurst, G. Stedman, K. Schreiber, R. Thirkettle, R. Graham, N. Rabeendran, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Experiments with a 834  m2 ring laser interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thirkettle, R. J.

Wells, J.-P. R.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Hurst, G. Stedman, K. Schreiber, R. Thirkettle, R. Graham, N. Rabeendran, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Experiments with a 834  m2 ring laser interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

White, G.

W. Macek, D. Davis, R. Olthuis, J. Schneider, and G. White, “Ring laser rotation rate sensor,” Quantum Electronics; Proceedings of the Third International Congress (Dunod, 1964), p. 1313.

Zendri, J. P.

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

C. R. Acad. Sci.

G. Sagnac, “L’éther lumineux démontré par l’effet du vent relatif d’éther dans un interférométre en rotation uniforme,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 157, 708–710 (1913).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Y. Park, G. Giuliani, and R. Byer, “Single axial mode operation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillator by injection seeding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 117–125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

D. Allan, “Time and frequency (time-domain) characterization, estimation, and prediction of precision clocks and oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647–654 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. Hurst, G. Stedman, K. Schreiber, R. Thirkettle, R. Graham, N. Rabeendran, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Experiments with a 834  m2 ring laser interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

K. Schreiber, T. Klügel, and G. Stedman, “Earth tide and tilt detection by a ring laser gyroscope,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2132–2137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A

M. S. Longuet-Higgins, “A theory of the origin of microseisms,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 243, 1–35 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D

F. Bosi, G. Cella, A. Di Virgilio, A. Ortolan, A. Porzio, S. Solimeno, M. Cerdonio, J. P. Zendri, M. Allegrini, J. Belfi, N. Beverini, B. Bouhadef, G. Carelli, I. Ferrante, E. Maccioni, R. Passaquieti, F. Stefani, M. L. Ruggiero, A. Tartaglia, K. U. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J.-P. R. Wells, “Measuring gravitomagnetic effects by a multi-ring-laser gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. D 84, 122002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

D. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE

R. Adler, “A study of locking phenomena in oscillators,” Proc. IRE 34, 351–357 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

G. E. Stedman, “Ring-laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Macek, D. Davis, R. Olthuis, J. Schneider, and G. White, “Ring laser rotation rate sensor,” Quantum Electronics; Proceedings of the Third International Congress (Dunod, 1964), p. 1313.

The geometry of the laser is fixed by construction on a base made of materials not especially regarded for stability, in this case the basalt floor of a cavern in Christchurch, New Zealand.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

R. Graham, “New concepts for operating ring laser gyroscopes,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Canterbury, 2010).

Obtaining the exact perimeter from the mode spacing requires a small correction to be made for the Gouy phase shift and refractive index of the gas.

Computer models of tidal tilts show a pseudoperiodic nature with maximum peak-to-peak deviation of around 0.2 rad, corresponding to a Sagnac deviation of around 300 Hz.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of the optical frequencies involved in the alternate-split concept.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Results from the alternate-split experiment. The top and middle panels show a continuous record of perimeter and Sagnac frequency computed from interpolated split-mode beat frequencies. The bottom panel shows the directly measured Sagnac frequency before and after correction for perimeter variation. The mean alternate-split derived Sagnac frequency is 1.3 mHz lower than the mean single-mode Sagnac frequency.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Block diagram of the experimental setup for the alternate-split experiment.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Laser output during the interruption–restart procedure.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Initially single-mode configuration where seeding is successfully demonstrated.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Initially single-mode configuration where seeding is not demonstrated.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δϕ=8πA·Ωλc
fs=4A·ΩλP
fb=fs±Sfax,
fs=12((Sfax+fs)(Sfaxfs)),
fax=12S((Sfax+fs)+(Sfaxfs)).
Ω=((Sfax+fs)(Sfaxfs)(Sfax+fs)+(Sfaxfs))λcS4A.
pr=PiλPexp(td/tr)hc2=6±3,

Metrics