Abstract

TiO2 thin films doped with rare-earth samarium were prepared on a quartz plate by the sol-gel/spin-coating technique. The samples were annealed at 700 °C to 1100 °C, and the Raman spectra of the samples were obtained. Analyses of Raman spectra show that samarium doping can inhibit the anatase–rutile phase transition. Samarium doping can refine grains of TiO2 thin films and increase the internal stress, thereby preventing lattice vibration. Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films obviously show the phonon confinement effect, i.e., the blueshift of characteristic Raman peak and full width at half-height increase, and the peak shapes asymmetrically broaden with a decrease in the grain sizes of the samples.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 83, 24–29 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Kiisk, I. Sildos, S. Lange, V. Reedo, T. Tätte, M. Kirm, and J. Aarik, “Photoluminescence characterization of pure and Sm3+-doped thin metaloxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 412–417 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Du, A. Bueno-López, M. Verbaas, A. R. Almeida, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and G. Mul, “The effect of surface OH-population on the photocatalytic activity of rare earth-doped P25-TiO2 in methylene blue degradation,” J. Catal. 260, 75–80 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Mona and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb, “Titanium dioxide nanomaterial doped with trivalent lanthanide ions of Tb, Eu and Sm: preparation, characterization and potential applications,” Inorg. Chim. Acta 360, 2863–2874 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. H. Yang, Z. Q. Ma, F. Li, B. He, J. H. Yuan, and Z. H. Zhang, “Spectrum analysis on phase transformations in TiO2 thin films,” Acta Phys. Chim. Sin. 26, 1349–1354 (2010).
  8. V. Swamy, A. Kuznetsov, L. S. Dubrovinsky, R. A. Caruso, D. G. Shchukin, and B. C. Muddle, “Finite-size and pressure effects on the Raman spectrum of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 184302 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Pighini, D. Aymes, N. Millot, and L. Saviot, “Low-frequency Raman characterization of size-controlled anatase TiO2 nanopowders prepared by continuous hydrothermal syntheses,” J. Nanopart. Res. 9, 309–315 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Tong, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and F. Chen, “Preparation of Ce-TiO2 catalysts by controlled hydrolysis of titanium alkoxide based on esterification reaction and study on its photocatalytic activity,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 315, 382–388 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Sharafat, A. Takahashi, K. Nagasawa, and N. Ghoniem, “A description of stress driven bubble growth of helium implanted tungsten,” J. Nucl. Mater. 389, 203–212 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Kagi and S. Fukura, “Infrared and Raman spectroscopic observations of Central African carbonado and implications for its origin,” Eur. J. Mineral. 20, 387–393 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Q. Li, W. Qiu, H. Tan, J. Guo, and Y. Kang, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy stress measurement method for porous silicon film,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 1119–1125 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. I. A. Alhomoudi and G. Newaz, “Residual stresses and Raman shift relation in anatase TiO2 thin film,” Thin Solid Films 517, 4372–4378 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Kelly, F. H. Pollak, and M. Tomkiewicz, “Raman Spectroscopy as a morphological probe for TiO2 aerogels,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2730–2734 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Bersani, P. P. Lottici, and X. Z. Ding, “Phonon confinement effects in the Raman scattering by TiO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 73–75 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2010

C. H. Yang, Z. Q. Ma, F. Li, B. He, J. H. Yuan, and Z. H. Zhang, “Spectrum analysis on phase transformations in TiO2 thin films,” Acta Phys. Chim. Sin. 26, 1349–1354 (2010).

Q. Li, W. Qiu, H. Tan, J. Guo, and Y. Kang, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy stress measurement method for porous silicon film,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 1119–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

I. A. Alhomoudi and G. Newaz, “Residual stresses and Raman shift relation in anatase TiO2 thin film,” Thin Solid Films 517, 4372–4378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Shi, J. T. Zheng, and P. Wu, “Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activities of holmium-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” J. Hazardous Mater. 161, 416–422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Sharafat, A. Takahashi, K. Nagasawa, and N. Ghoniem, “A description of stress driven bubble growth of helium implanted tungsten,” J. Nucl. Mater. 389, 203–212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Kagi and S. Fukura, “Infrared and Raman spectroscopic observations of Central African carbonado and implications for its origin,” Eur. J. Mineral. 20, 387–393 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 83, 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Du, A. Bueno-López, M. Verbaas, A. R. Almeida, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and G. Mul, “The effect of surface OH-population on the photocatalytic activity of rare earth-doped P25-TiO2 in methylene blue degradation,” J. Catal. 260, 75–80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, K. S. Lee, and C. C. Lee, “Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods,” Appl. Opt. 47, C284–C287 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Tong, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and F. Chen, “Preparation of Ce-TiO2 catalysts by controlled hydrolysis of titanium alkoxide based on esterification reaction and study on its photocatalytic activity,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 315, 382–388 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mona and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb, “Titanium dioxide nanomaterial doped with trivalent lanthanide ions of Tb, Eu and Sm: preparation, characterization and potential applications,” Inorg. Chim. Acta 360, 2863–2874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Aita, “Raman scattering by thin film nanomosaic rutile TiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Pighini, D. Aymes, N. Millot, and L. Saviot, “Low-frequency Raman characterization of size-controlled anatase TiO2 nanopowders prepared by continuous hydrothermal syntheses,” J. Nanopart. Res. 9, 309–315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. C. Choi, Y. M. Jung, and S. B. Kim, “Size effects in the Raman spectra of TiO2 nanoparticles,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 37, 33–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, Q. Yang, C. Xie, W. Yan, Y. Du, Z. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Structure, luminescence properties and photocatalytic activity of europium doped-TiO2 nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 1539–1541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Swamy, A. Kuznetsov, L. S. Dubrovinsky, R. A. Caruso, D. G. Shchukin, and B. C. Muddle, “Finite-size and pressure effects on the Raman spectrum of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 184302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Kiisk, I. Sildos, S. Lange, V. Reedo, T. Tätte, M. Kirm, and J. Aarik, “Photoluminescence characterization of pure and Sm3+-doped thin metaloxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 412–417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

E. L. Crepaldi, G. J. D. A. A. Soler-Illia, D. Grosso, F. Cagnol, F. Ribot, and C. Sanchez, “Controlled formation of highly organized mesoporous titania thin films: from mesostructured hybrids to mesoporous nanoanatase TiO2,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 9770–9786 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Ivanda, S. Musić, M. Gotić, A. Turković, A. M. Tonejc, and O. Gamulin, “The effects of crystal size on the Raman spectra of nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 480-481, 641–644 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Lin and J. C. Yu, “An investigation on photocatalytic activities of mixed TiO2-rare earth oxides for the oxidation of acetone in air,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 116, 63–67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Bersani, P. P. Lottici, and X. Z. Ding, “Phonon confinement effects in the Raman scattering by TiO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 73–75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Kelly, F. H. Pollak, and M. Tomkiewicz, “Raman Spectroscopy as a morphological probe for TiO2 aerogels,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2730–2734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Turković, M. Ivanda, S. Popović, A. Toncjc, M. Gotić, P. Dubček, and S. Musić, “Comparative Raman, XRD, HREM and SAXS studies of grain sizes in nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 410–411, 271–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991

B. O’Regan and M. Grätzel, “A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films,” Nature 353, 737–740 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aarik, J.

V. Kiisk, I. Sildos, S. Lange, V. Reedo, T. Tätte, M. Kirm, and J. Aarik, “Photoluminescence characterization of pure and Sm3+-doped thin metaloxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 412–417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

S. Mona and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb, “Titanium dioxide nanomaterial doped with trivalent lanthanide ions of Tb, Eu and Sm: preparation, characterization and potential applications,” Inorg. Chim. Acta 360, 2863–2874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aita, C. R.

C. R. Aita, “Raman scattering by thin film nanomosaic rutile TiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alhomoudi, I. A.

I. A. Alhomoudi and G. Newaz, “Residual stresses and Raman shift relation in anatase TiO2 thin film,” Thin Solid Films 517, 4372–4378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, A. R.

P. Du, A. Bueno-López, M. Verbaas, A. R. Almeida, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and G. Mul, “The effect of surface OH-population on the photocatalytic activity of rare earth-doped P25-TiO2 in methylene blue degradation,” J. Catal. 260, 75–80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aymes, D.

C. Pighini, D. Aymes, N. Millot, and L. Saviot, “Low-frequency Raman characterization of size-controlled anatase TiO2 nanopowders prepared by continuous hydrothermal syntheses,” J. Nanopart. Res. 9, 309–315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bersani, D.

D. Bersani, P. P. Lottici, and X. Z. Ding, “Phonon confinement effects in the Raman scattering by TiO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 73–75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bueno-López, A.

P. Du, A. Bueno-López, M. Verbaas, A. R. Almeida, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and G. Mul, “The effect of surface OH-population on the photocatalytic activity of rare earth-doped P25-TiO2 in methylene blue degradation,” J. Catal. 260, 75–80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cagnol, F.

E. L. Crepaldi, G. J. D. A. A. Soler-Illia, D. Grosso, F. Cagnol, F. Ribot, and C. Sanchez, “Controlled formation of highly organized mesoporous titania thin films: from mesostructured hybrids to mesoporous nanoanatase TiO2,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 9770–9786 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Caruso, R. A.

V. Swamy, A. Kuznetsov, L. S. Dubrovinsky, R. A. Caruso, D. G. Shchukin, and B. C. Muddle, “Finite-size and pressure effects on the Raman spectrum of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 184302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

T. Tong, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and F. Chen, “Preparation of Ce-TiO2 catalysts by controlled hydrolysis of titanium alkoxide based on esterification reaction and study on its photocatalytic activity,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 315, 382–388 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. C.

Choi, H. C.

H. C. Choi, Y. M. Jung, and S. B. Kim, “Size effects in the Raman spectra of TiO2 nanoparticles,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 37, 33–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crepaldi, E. L.

E. L. Crepaldi, G. J. D. A. A. Soler-Illia, D. Grosso, F. Cagnol, F. Ribot, and C. Sanchez, “Controlled formation of highly organized mesoporous titania thin films: from mesostructured hybrids to mesoporous nanoanatase TiO2,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 9770–9786 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ding, X. Z.

D. Bersani, P. P. Lottici, and X. Z. Ding, “Phonon confinement effects in the Raman scattering by TiO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 73–75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Du, P.

P. Du, A. Bueno-López, M. Verbaas, A. R. Almeida, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and G. Mul, “The effect of surface OH-population on the photocatalytic activity of rare earth-doped P25-TiO2 in methylene blue degradation,” J. Catal. 260, 75–80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Du, Y.

Z. Xu, Q. Yang, C. Xie, W. Yan, Y. Du, Z. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Structure, luminescence properties and photocatalytic activity of europium doped-TiO2 nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 1539–1541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dubcek, P.

A. Turković, M. Ivanda, S. Popović, A. Toncjc, M. Gotić, P. Dubček, and S. Musić, “Comparative Raman, XRD, HREM and SAXS studies of grain sizes in nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 410–411, 271–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dubrovinsky, L. S.

V. Swamy, A. Kuznetsov, L. S. Dubrovinsky, R. A. Caruso, D. G. Shchukin, and B. C. Muddle, “Finite-size and pressure effects on the Raman spectrum of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 184302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujishima, A.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 83, 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukura, S.

H. Kagi and S. Fukura, “Infrared and Raman spectroscopic observations of Central African carbonado and implications for its origin,” Eur. J. Mineral. 20, 387–393 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gamulin, O.

M. Ivanda, S. Musić, M. Gotić, A. Turković, A. M. Tonejc, and O. Gamulin, “The effects of crystal size on the Raman spectra of nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 480-481, 641–644 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Z.

Z. Xu, Q. Yang, C. Xie, W. Yan, Y. Du, Z. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Structure, luminescence properties and photocatalytic activity of europium doped-TiO2 nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 1539–1541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ghoniem, N.

S. Sharafat, A. Takahashi, K. Nagasawa, and N. Ghoniem, “A description of stress driven bubble growth of helium implanted tungsten,” J. Nucl. Mater. 389, 203–212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gotic, M.

M. Ivanda, S. Musić, M. Gotić, A. Turković, A. M. Tonejc, and O. Gamulin, “The effects of crystal size on the Raman spectra of nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 480-481, 641–644 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Turković, M. Ivanda, S. Popović, A. Toncjc, M. Gotić, P. Dubček, and S. Musić, “Comparative Raman, XRD, HREM and SAXS studies of grain sizes in nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 410–411, 271–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grätzel, M.

B. O’Regan and M. Grätzel, “A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films,” Nature 353, 737–740 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grosso, D.

E. L. Crepaldi, G. J. D. A. A. Soler-Illia, D. Grosso, F. Cagnol, F. Ribot, and C. Sanchez, “Controlled formation of highly organized mesoporous titania thin films: from mesostructured hybrids to mesoporous nanoanatase TiO2,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 9770–9786 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

Q. Li, W. Qiu, H. Tan, J. Guo, and Y. Kang, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy stress measurement method for porous silicon film,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 1119–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, B.

C. H. Yang, Z. Q. Ma, F. Li, B. He, J. H. Yuan, and Z. H. Zhang, “Spectrum analysis on phase transformations in TiO2 thin films,” Acta Phys. Chim. Sin. 26, 1349–1354 (2010).

He, J. L.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 83, 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ivanda, M.

M. Ivanda, S. Musić, M. Gotić, A. Turković, A. M. Tonejc, and O. Gamulin, “The effects of crystal size on the Raman spectra of nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 480-481, 641–644 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Turković, M. Ivanda, S. Popović, A. Toncjc, M. Gotić, P. Dubček, and S. Musić, “Comparative Raman, XRD, HREM and SAXS studies of grain sizes in nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 410–411, 271–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 83, 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y. M.

H. C. Choi, Y. M. Jung, and S. B. Kim, “Size effects in the Raman spectra of TiO2 nanoparticles,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 37, 33–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kagi, H.

H. Kagi and S. Fukura, “Infrared and Raman spectroscopic observations of Central African carbonado and implications for its origin,” Eur. J. Mineral. 20, 387–393 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y.

Q. Li, W. Qiu, H. Tan, J. Guo, and Y. Kang, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy stress measurement method for porous silicon film,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 1119–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, S.

S. Kelly, F. H. Pollak, and M. Tomkiewicz, “Raman Spectroscopy as a morphological probe for TiO2 aerogels,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2730–2734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kiisk, V.

V. Kiisk, I. Sildos, S. Lange, V. Reedo, T. Tätte, M. Kirm, and J. Aarik, “Photoluminescence characterization of pure and Sm3+-doped thin metaloxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 412–417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. B.

H. C. Choi, Y. M. Jung, and S. B. Kim, “Size effects in the Raman spectra of TiO2 nanoparticles,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 37, 33–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kirm, M.

V. Kiisk, I. Sildos, S. Lange, V. Reedo, T. Tätte, M. Kirm, and J. Aarik, “Photoluminescence characterization of pure and Sm3+-doped thin metaloxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 412–417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, A.

V. Swamy, A. Kuznetsov, L. S. Dubrovinsky, R. A. Caruso, D. G. Shchukin, and B. C. Muddle, “Finite-size and pressure effects on the Raman spectrum of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 184302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lange, S.

V. Kiisk, I. Sildos, S. Lange, V. Reedo, T. Tätte, M. Kirm, and J. Aarik, “Photoluminescence characterization of pure and Sm3+-doped thin metaloxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 412–417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

Lee, K. S.

Li, F.

C. H. Yang, Z. Q. Ma, F. Li, B. He, J. H. Yuan, and Z. H. Zhang, “Spectrum analysis on phase transformations in TiO2 thin films,” Acta Phys. Chim. Sin. 26, 1349–1354 (2010).

Li, Q.

Q. Li, W. Qiu, H. Tan, J. Guo, and Y. Kang, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy stress measurement method for porous silicon film,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 1119–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

J. Lin and J. C. Yu, “An investigation on photocatalytic activities of mixed TiO2-rare earth oxides for the oxidation of acetone in air,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 116, 63–67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. Y.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 83, 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lottici, P. P.

D. Bersani, P. P. Lottici, and X. Z. Ding, “Phonon confinement effects in the Raman scattering by TiO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 73–75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z. Q.

C. H. Yang, Z. Q. Ma, F. Li, B. He, J. H. Yuan, and Z. H. Zhang, “Spectrum analysis on phase transformations in TiO2 thin films,” Acta Phys. Chim. Sin. 26, 1349–1354 (2010).

Makkee, M.

P. Du, A. Bueno-López, M. Verbaas, A. R. Almeida, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and G. Mul, “The effect of surface OH-population on the photocatalytic activity of rare earth-doped P25-TiO2 in methylene blue degradation,” J. Catal. 260, 75–80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Millot, N.

C. Pighini, D. Aymes, N. Millot, and L. Saviot, “Low-frequency Raman characterization of size-controlled anatase TiO2 nanopowders prepared by continuous hydrothermal syntheses,” J. Nanopart. Res. 9, 309–315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mona, S.

S. Mona and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb, “Titanium dioxide nanomaterial doped with trivalent lanthanide ions of Tb, Eu and Sm: preparation, characterization and potential applications,” Inorg. Chim. Acta 360, 2863–2874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moulijn, J. A.

P. Du, A. Bueno-López, M. Verbaas, A. R. Almeida, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and G. Mul, “The effect of surface OH-population on the photocatalytic activity of rare earth-doped P25-TiO2 in methylene blue degradation,” J. Catal. 260, 75–80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Muddle, B. C.

V. Swamy, A. Kuznetsov, L. S. Dubrovinsky, R. A. Caruso, D. G. Shchukin, and B. C. Muddle, “Finite-size and pressure effects on the Raman spectrum of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 184302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mul, G.

P. Du, A. Bueno-López, M. Verbaas, A. R. Almeida, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and G. Mul, “The effect of surface OH-population on the photocatalytic activity of rare earth-doped P25-TiO2 in methylene blue degradation,” J. Catal. 260, 75–80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, T.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 83, 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Music, S.

M. Ivanda, S. Musić, M. Gotić, A. Turković, A. M. Tonejc, and O. Gamulin, “The effects of crystal size on the Raman spectra of nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 480-481, 641–644 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Turković, M. Ivanda, S. Popović, A. Toncjc, M. Gotić, P. Dubček, and S. Musić, “Comparative Raman, XRD, HREM and SAXS studies of grain sizes in nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 410–411, 271–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nagasawa, K.

S. Sharafat, A. Takahashi, K. Nagasawa, and N. Ghoniem, “A description of stress driven bubble growth of helium implanted tungsten,” J. Nucl. Mater. 389, 203–212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Newaz, G.

I. A. Alhomoudi and G. Newaz, “Residual stresses and Raman shift relation in anatase TiO2 thin film,” Thin Solid Films 517, 4372–4378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishimoto, S.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 83, 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Regan, B.

B. O’Regan and M. Grätzel, “A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films,” Nature 353, 737–740 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pighini, C.

C. Pighini, D. Aymes, N. Millot, and L. Saviot, “Low-frequency Raman characterization of size-controlled anatase TiO2 nanopowders prepared by continuous hydrothermal syntheses,” J. Nanopart. Res. 9, 309–315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, F. H.

S. Kelly, F. H. Pollak, and M. Tomkiewicz, “Raman Spectroscopy as a morphological probe for TiO2 aerogels,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2730–2734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, S.

A. Turković, M. Ivanda, S. Popović, A. Toncjc, M. Gotić, P. Dubček, and S. Musić, “Comparative Raman, XRD, HREM and SAXS studies of grain sizes in nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 410–411, 271–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, W.

Q. Li, W. Qiu, H. Tan, J. Guo, and Y. Kang, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy stress measurement method for porous silicon film,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 1119–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reedo, V.

V. Kiisk, I. Sildos, S. Lange, V. Reedo, T. Tätte, M. Kirm, and J. Aarik, “Photoluminescence characterization of pure and Sm3+-doped thin metaloxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 412–417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ribot, F.

E. L. Crepaldi, G. J. D. A. A. Soler-Illia, D. Grosso, F. Cagnol, F. Ribot, and C. Sanchez, “Controlled formation of highly organized mesoporous titania thin films: from mesostructured hybrids to mesoporous nanoanatase TiO2,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 9770–9786 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, C.

E. L. Crepaldi, G. J. D. A. A. Soler-Illia, D. Grosso, F. Cagnol, F. Ribot, and C. Sanchez, “Controlled formation of highly organized mesoporous titania thin films: from mesostructured hybrids to mesoporous nanoanatase TiO2,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 9770–9786 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saviot, L.

C. Pighini, D. Aymes, N. Millot, and L. Saviot, “Low-frequency Raman characterization of size-controlled anatase TiO2 nanopowders prepared by continuous hydrothermal syntheses,” J. Nanopart. Res. 9, 309–315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharafat, S.

S. Sharafat, A. Takahashi, K. Nagasawa, and N. Ghoniem, “A description of stress driven bubble growth of helium implanted tungsten,” J. Nucl. Mater. 389, 203–212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shchukin, D. G.

V. Swamy, A. Kuznetsov, L. S. Dubrovinsky, R. A. Caruso, D. G. Shchukin, and B. C. Muddle, “Finite-size and pressure effects on the Raman spectrum of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 184302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J. W.

J. W. Shi, J. T. Zheng, and P. Wu, “Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activities of holmium-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” J. Hazardous Mater. 161, 416–422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sildos, I.

V. Kiisk, I. Sildos, S. Lange, V. Reedo, T. Tätte, M. Kirm, and J. Aarik, “Photoluminescence characterization of pure and Sm3+-doped thin metaloxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 412–417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soler-Illia, G. J. D. A. A.

E. L. Crepaldi, G. J. D. A. A. Soler-Illia, D. Grosso, F. Cagnol, F. Ribot, and C. Sanchez, “Controlled formation of highly organized mesoporous titania thin films: from mesostructured hybrids to mesoporous nanoanatase TiO2,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 9770–9786 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Swamy, V.

V. Swamy, A. Kuznetsov, L. S. Dubrovinsky, R. A. Caruso, D. G. Shchukin, and B. C. Muddle, “Finite-size and pressure effects on the Raman spectrum of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 184302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, A.

S. Sharafat, A. Takahashi, K. Nagasawa, and N. Ghoniem, “A description of stress driven bubble growth of helium implanted tungsten,” J. Nucl. Mater. 389, 203–212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H.

Q. Li, W. Qiu, H. Tan, J. Guo, and Y. Kang, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy stress measurement method for porous silicon film,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 1119–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tätte, T.

V. Kiisk, I. Sildos, S. Lange, V. Reedo, T. Tätte, M. Kirm, and J. Aarik, “Photoluminescence characterization of pure and Sm3+-doped thin metaloxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 412–417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tian, B.

T. Tong, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and F. Chen, “Preparation of Ce-TiO2 catalysts by controlled hydrolysis of titanium alkoxide based on esterification reaction and study on its photocatalytic activity,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 315, 382–388 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tomkiewicz, M.

S. Kelly, F. H. Pollak, and M. Tomkiewicz, “Raman Spectroscopy as a morphological probe for TiO2 aerogels,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2730–2734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Toncjc, A.

A. Turković, M. Ivanda, S. Popović, A. Toncjc, M. Gotić, P. Dubček, and S. Musić, “Comparative Raman, XRD, HREM and SAXS studies of grain sizes in nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 410–411, 271–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tonejc, A. M.

M. Ivanda, S. Musić, M. Gotić, A. Turković, A. M. Tonejc, and O. Gamulin, “The effects of crystal size on the Raman spectra of nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 480-481, 641–644 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tong, T.

T. Tong, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and F. Chen, “Preparation of Ce-TiO2 catalysts by controlled hydrolysis of titanium alkoxide based on esterification reaction and study on its photocatalytic activity,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 315, 382–388 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turkovic, A.

M. Ivanda, S. Musić, M. Gotić, A. Turković, A. M. Tonejc, and O. Gamulin, “The effects of crystal size on the Raman spectra of nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 480-481, 641–644 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Turković, M. Ivanda, S. Popović, A. Toncjc, M. Gotić, P. Dubček, and S. Musić, “Comparative Raman, XRD, HREM and SAXS studies of grain sizes in nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 410–411, 271–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verbaas, M.

P. Du, A. Bueno-López, M. Verbaas, A. R. Almeida, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and G. Mul, “The effect of surface OH-population on the photocatalytic activity of rare earth-doped P25-TiO2 in methylene blue degradation,” J. Catal. 260, 75–80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P.

J. W. Shi, J. T. Zheng, and P. Wu, “Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activities of holmium-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” J. Hazardous Mater. 161, 416–422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

Z. Xu, Q. Yang, C. Xie, W. Yan, Y. Du, Z. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Structure, luminescence properties and photocatalytic activity of europium doped-TiO2 nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 1539–1541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu, Q. Yang, C. Xie, W. Yan, Y. Du, Z. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Structure, luminescence properties and photocatalytic activity of europium doped-TiO2 nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 1539–1541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W.

Z. Xu, Q. Yang, C. Xie, W. Yan, Y. Du, Z. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Structure, luminescence properties and photocatalytic activity of europium doped-TiO2 nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 1539–1541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

C. H. Yang, Z. Q. Ma, F. Li, B. He, J. H. Yuan, and Z. H. Zhang, “Spectrum analysis on phase transformations in TiO2 thin films,” Acta Phys. Chim. Sin. 26, 1349–1354 (2010).

Yang, Q.

Z. Xu, Q. Yang, C. Xie, W. Yan, Y. Du, Z. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Structure, luminescence properties and photocatalytic activity of europium doped-TiO2 nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 1539–1541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. C.

J. Lin and J. C. Yu, “An investigation on photocatalytic activities of mixed TiO2-rare earth oxides for the oxidation of acetone in air,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 116, 63–67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, J. H.

C. H. Yang, Z. Q. Ma, F. Li, B. He, J. H. Yuan, and Z. H. Zhang, “Spectrum analysis on phase transformations in TiO2 thin films,” Acta Phys. Chim. Sin. 26, 1349–1354 (2010).

Zhai, J.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 83, 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T. Tong, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and F. Chen, “Preparation of Ce-TiO2 catalysts by controlled hydrolysis of titanium alkoxide based on esterification reaction and study on its photocatalytic activity,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 315, 382–388 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, Q. Yang, C. Xie, W. Yan, Y. Du, Z. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Structure, luminescence properties and photocatalytic activity of europium doped-TiO2 nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 1539–1541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. T.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 83, 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. H.

C. H. Yang, Z. Q. Ma, F. Li, B. He, J. H. Yuan, and Z. H. Zhang, “Spectrum analysis on phase transformations in TiO2 thin films,” Acta Phys. Chim. Sin. 26, 1349–1354 (2010).

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 83, 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J. T.

J. W. Shi, J. T. Zheng, and P. Wu, “Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activities of holmium-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” J. Hazardous Mater. 161, 416–422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 83, 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Acta Phys. Chim. Sin.

C. H. Yang, Z. Q. Ma, F. Li, B. He, J. H. Yuan, and Z. H. Zhang, “Spectrum analysis on phase transformations in TiO2 thin films,” Acta Phys. Chim. Sin. 26, 1349–1354 (2010).

Appl. Catal. B: Environ.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 83, 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Bersani, P. P. Lottici, and X. Z. Ding, “Phonon confinement effects in the Raman scattering by TiO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 73–75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Aita, “Raman scattering by thin film nanomosaic rutile TiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

V. Kiisk, I. Sildos, S. Lange, V. Reedo, T. Tätte, M. Kirm, and J. Aarik, “Photoluminescence characterization of pure and Sm3+-doped thin metaloxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 412–417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Mineral.

H. Kagi and S. Fukura, “Infrared and Raman spectroscopic observations of Central African carbonado and implications for its origin,” Eur. J. Mineral. 20, 387–393 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chim. Acta

S. Mona and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb, “Titanium dioxide nanomaterial doped with trivalent lanthanide ions of Tb, Eu and Sm: preparation, characterization and potential applications,” Inorg. Chim. Acta 360, 2863–2874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

E. L. Crepaldi, G. J. D. A. A. Soler-Illia, D. Grosso, F. Cagnol, F. Ribot, and C. Sanchez, “Controlled formation of highly organized mesoporous titania thin films: from mesostructured hybrids to mesoporous nanoanatase TiO2,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 9770–9786 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Catal.

P. Du, A. Bueno-López, M. Verbaas, A. R. Almeida, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and G. Mul, “The effect of surface OH-population on the photocatalytic activity of rare earth-doped P25-TiO2 in methylene blue degradation,” J. Catal. 260, 75–80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci.

T. Tong, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and F. Chen, “Preparation of Ce-TiO2 catalysts by controlled hydrolysis of titanium alkoxide based on esterification reaction and study on its photocatalytic activity,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 315, 382–388 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hazardous Mater.

J. W. Shi, J. T. Zheng, and P. Wu, “Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activities of holmium-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” J. Hazardous Mater. 161, 416–422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.

Z. Xu, Q. Yang, C. Xie, W. Yan, Y. Du, Z. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Structure, luminescence properties and photocatalytic activity of europium doped-TiO2 nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 1539–1541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct.

A. Turković, M. Ivanda, S. Popović, A. Toncjc, M. Gotić, P. Dubček, and S. Musić, “Comparative Raman, XRD, HREM and SAXS studies of grain sizes in nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 410–411, 271–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ivanda, S. Musić, M. Gotić, A. Turković, A. M. Tonejc, and O. Gamulin, “The effects of crystal size on the Raman spectra of nanophase TiO2,” J. Mol. Struct. 480-481, 641–644 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanopart. Res.

C. Pighini, D. Aymes, N. Millot, and L. Saviot, “Low-frequency Raman characterization of size-controlled anatase TiO2 nanopowders prepared by continuous hydrothermal syntheses,” J. Nanopart. Res. 9, 309–315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Mater.

S. Sharafat, A. Takahashi, K. Nagasawa, and N. Ghoniem, “A description of stress driven bubble growth of helium implanted tungsten,” J. Nucl. Mater. 389, 203–212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol., A

J. Lin and J. C. Yu, “An investigation on photocatalytic activities of mixed TiO2-rare earth oxides for the oxidation of acetone in air,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 116, 63–67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

S. Kelly, F. H. Pollak, and M. Tomkiewicz, “Raman Spectroscopy as a morphological probe for TiO2 aerogels,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2730–2734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature

B. O’Regan and M. Grätzel, “A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films,” Nature 353, 737–740 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng.

Q. Li, W. Qiu, H. Tan, J. Guo, and Y. Kang, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy stress measurement method for porous silicon film,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 1119–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

V. Swamy, A. Kuznetsov, L. S. Dubrovinsky, R. A. Caruso, D. G. Shchukin, and B. C. Muddle, “Finite-size and pressure effects on the Raman spectrum of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 184302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

I. A. Alhomoudi and G. Newaz, “Residual stresses and Raman shift relation in anatase TiO2 thin film,” Thin Solid Films 517, 4372–4378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vibr. Spectrosc.

H. C. Choi, Y. M. Jung, and S. B. Kim, “Size effects in the Raman spectra of TiO2 nanoparticles,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 37, 33–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Raman spectra of the phase transitions of (a) pure TiO2 thin films and (b) Sm3+-doped TiO2 thin films at different annealing temperatures in air.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM image of TiO2 thin films annealed at 800 °C.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the anatase Eg(1) Raman mode of undoped and Sm3+-doped TiO2 thin films annealed at 700 °C.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of the anatase Eg(1) Raman modes of Sm3+-doped TiO2 thin films at different annealing temperatures of 700, 900, and 1100 °C.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Raman Shift (ν) and FWHM (Γ) Data of the Anatase Eg(1) Modes at Different Annealing Temperatures (t)

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ν0.7vL/dc,
p=2γ/r,

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