Abstract

The nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption phenomena are investigated in BaMgF4 single crystal using the Z-scan technique in the ultraviolet region with a pulsed laser at 400 nm with 1 ps pulse duration. The remarkable nonlinear absorption behavior is identified to be three-photon absorption under the experimental conditions. In addition, both nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption have relatively large values and possess small anisotropy along three different crystallographic axes. The large values of nonlinear refractive index are demonstrated through the self-phase modulation effect.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

J. Chen, X. Chen, A. Wu, H. Li, Y. Zheng, Y. Ma, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

S. C. Buchter, T. Y. Fan, V. Liberman, J. J. Zayhowski, M. Rothschild, E. J. Mason, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, and J. H. Burnett, “Periodically poled BaMgF4 for ultraviolet frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1693–1695 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 15, 237–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Sun, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, C. Zhan, and D. Wang, “Degenerate four-wave mixing and Z-scan measurements of stilbazolium derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1817–1821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Mori, I. Kuroda, S. Nakajima, T. Sasaki, and S. Nakai, “New nonlinear optical crystal: cesium lithium borate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1818–1821 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1987 (1)

S. R. Friberg and P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2089–2094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, “A new type of ultraviolet SHG crystsl—β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. J. Moran, C.-Y. She, and R. L. Carman, “Interferometric measurements of the nonlinear refractive-index coefficient relative to CS2 in laser-system-related materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 259–263 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

P. Maker, R. Terhune, and C. Savage, “Intensity-dependent changes in the refractive index of liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507–509 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

Akozbek, N.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Z.

Becker, A.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buchter, S. C.

Burnett, J. H.

Carman, R. L.

M. J. Moran, C.-Y. She, and R. L. Carman, “Interferometric measurements of the nonlinear refractive-index coefficient relative to CS2 in laser-system-related materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 259–263 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cassanho, A.

Chen, C.

C. Chen, Y. Wu, A. Jiang, B. Wu, G. You, R. Li, and S. Lin, “New nonlinear optical crystal: LiB3O5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 616–621 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, “A new type of ultraviolet SHG crystsl—β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. T.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Ma, Y. Zheng, A. Wu, H. Li, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Measurement of second-order nonlinear optical coefficients of BaMgF4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 665–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, X. Chen, A. Wu, H. Li, Y. Zheng, Y. Ma, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

J. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Ma, Y. Zheng, A. Wu, H. Li, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Measurement of second-order nonlinear optical coefficients of BaMgF4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 665–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, X. Chen, A. Wu, H. Li, Y. Zheng, Y. Ma, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DeSalvo, R.

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

Friberg, S. R.

S. R. Friberg and P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2089–2094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Golubtsov, I. S.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gray, G. M.

W. Sun, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, C. Zhan, and D. Wang, “Degenerate four-wave mixing and Z-scan measurements of stilbazolium derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1817–1821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

He, J.

Hsieh, B.

Ishibashi, H.

Jenssen, H. P.

Ji, W.

J. He, Y. L. Qu, H. P. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 9235–9247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 15, 237–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, A.

C. Chen, Y. Wu, A. Jiang, B. Wu, G. You, R. Li, and S. Lin, “New nonlinear optical crystal: LiB3O5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 616–621 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, “A new type of ultraviolet SHG crystsl—β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

J. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Ma, Y. Zheng, A. Wu, H. Li, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Measurement of second-order nonlinear optical coefficients of BaMgF4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 665–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, X. Chen, A. Wu, H. Li, Y. Zheng, Y. Ma, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kam, C. H.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 15, 237–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, T.

Kanda, T.

Kandidov, V. P.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, I.

Y. Mori, I. Kuroda, S. Nakajima, T. Sasaki, and S. Nakai, “New nonlinear optical crystal: cesium lithium borate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1818–1821 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lam, Y. L.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 15, 237–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, C. M.

W. Sun, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, C. Zhan, and D. Wang, “Degenerate four-wave mixing and Z-scan measurements of stilbazolium derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1817–1821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

J. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Ma, Y. Zheng, A. Wu, H. Li, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Measurement of second-order nonlinear optical coefficients of BaMgF4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 665–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, X. Chen, A. Wu, H. Li, Y. Zheng, Y. Ma, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. P.

J. He, Y. L. Qu, H. P. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 9235–9247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 15, 237–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

Liberman, V.

Lin, S.

Liu, W.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. H.

Luther-Davies, B.

Ma, Y.

J. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Ma, Y. Zheng, A. Wu, H. Li, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Measurement of second-order nonlinear optical coefficients of BaMgF4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 665–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, X. Chen, A. Wu, H. Li, Y. Zheng, Y. Ma, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maker, P.

P. Maker, R. Terhune, and C. Savage, “Intensity-dependent changes in the refractive index of liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507–509 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Mason, E. J.

Mi, J.

Moran, M. J.

M. J. Moran, C.-Y. She, and R. L. Carman, “Interferometric measurements of the nonlinear refractive-index coefficient relative to CS2 in laser-system-related materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 259–263 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

Y. Mori, I. Kuroda, S. Nakajima, T. Sasaki, and S. Nakai, “New nonlinear optical crystal: cesium lithium borate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1818–1821 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, S.

Y. Mori, I. Kuroda, S. Nakajima, T. Sasaki, and S. Nakai, “New nonlinear optical crystal: cesium lithium borate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1818–1821 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, S.

Y. Mori, I. Kuroda, S. Nakajima, T. Sasaki, and S. Nakai, “New nonlinear optical crystal: cesium lithium borate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1818–1821 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Qu, Y. L.

Rothschild, M.

Said, A.

Said, A. A.

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, A.

Samoc, M.

Sasaki, T.

Y. Mori, I. Kuroda, S. Nakajima, T. Sasaki, and S. Nakai, “New nonlinear optical crystal: cesium lithium borate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1818–1821 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Savage, C.

P. Maker, R. Terhune, and C. Savage, “Intensity-dependent changes in the refractive index of liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507–509 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

Sekikawa, T.

She, C.-Y.

M. J. Moran, C.-Y. She, and R. L. Carman, “Interferometric measurements of the nonlinear refractive-index coefficient relative to CS2 in laser-system-related materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 259–263 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Said, M. Sheik-bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955–957 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shimamura, K.

Smith, P. W.

S. R. Friberg and P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2089–2094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Suganuma, T.

Sumiya, K.

Sun, W.

W. Sun, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, C. Zhan, and D. Wang, “Degenerate four-wave mixing and Z-scan measurements of stilbazolium derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1817–1821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Terhune, R.

P. Maker, R. Terhune, and C. Savage, “Intensity-dependent changes in the refractive index of liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507–509 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Togashi, T.

Van Stryland, E. W.

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Said, M. Sheik-bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955–957 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Villora, E. G.

Wang, D.

W. Sun, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, C. Zhan, and D. Wang, “Degenerate four-wave mixing and Z-scan measurements of stilbazolium derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1817–1821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. L.

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, X. Y.

Wang, Z. M.

Watanabe, S.

Wu, A.

J. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Ma, Y. Zheng, A. Wu, H. Li, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Measurement of second-order nonlinear optical coefficients of BaMgF4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 665–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, X. Chen, A. Wu, H. Li, Y. Zheng, Y. Ma, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

C. Chen, Y. Wu, A. Jiang, B. Wu, G. You, R. Li, and S. Lin, “New nonlinear optical crystal: LiB3O5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 616–621 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, “A new type of ultraviolet SHG crystsl—β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Xu, J.

J. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Ma, Y. Zheng, A. Wu, H. Li, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Measurement of second-order nonlinear optical coefficients of BaMgF4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 665–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, X. Chen, A. Wu, H. Li, Y. Zheng, Y. Ma, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Y.

You, G.

C. Chen, Y. Wu, A. Jiang, B. Wu, G. You, R. Li, and S. Lin, “New nonlinear optical crystal: LiB3O5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 616–621 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, “A new type of ultraviolet SHG crystsl—β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

Zayhowski, J. J.

Zhan, C.

W. Sun, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, C. Zhan, and D. Wang, “Degenerate four-wave mixing and Z-scan measurements of stilbazolium derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1817–1821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. Q.

Zhang, X.

Zheng, Y.

J. Chen, X. Chen, Y. Ma, Y. Zheng, A. Wu, H. Li, L. Jiang, and J. Xu, “Measurement of second-order nonlinear optical coefficients of BaMgF4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 665–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental schematic diagram for single-beam z-scan technique. The inset shows the photos of the BaMgF4 crystal samples with different crystallographic axes (x-cut, y-cut and z-cut, respectively).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Normalized open aperture (OA) Z-scan curses and the theoretical fits (lines) for OA data by 3PA (solid line) and 2PA (dashed line) along (b) a axis, (c) b axis, and (d) c axis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Normalized closed aperture (CA) and (b) CA/OA transmittance data in BaMgF4 crystal along three different crystallographic axes.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Supercontinuum spectra of BaMgF4 and LiNbO3. The irradiance is approximately 8×1017W/m2 and the beam profile is recorded in the far field.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Measured Results of Nonlinear Optical Parameters of the BaMgF4 Crystal

Equations (5)

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TOA(2PA)(z)=1π1/2q0ln[1+q0exp(x2)]dx,
TOA(3PA)(z)=1π1/2p0ln{[1+p02exp(2x2)]1/2+p0exp(x2)}dx,
ΔΦ0=kn2I00Leff,
ΔTPV=0.406(1S)0.25|ΔΦ0|,
δω(τ)=kzn2×I(τ)τ,

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