Abstract

We present the results of an investigation regarding a Q-switched mode-locked fiber laser scheme based on a cavity modulation frequency detuning technique. The approach is based on undamped laser relaxation oscillations occurring due to frequency detuning in the fundamental cavity resonance frequency. Through a range of experiments with an erbium-doped, fiber-based, ring-cavity laser, this approach has been shown to be capable of generating high-quality Q-switched mode-locked pulses from an optical fiber-based laser. The maximum frequency detuning range for a stable Q-switched mode-locking operation has been observed to vary depending on the pump power used. We found that the highest pulse peak power was obtained at the frequency detuning threshold at which the operation changed from the mode-locking to the Q-switched mode-locking regime.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. K. Datta, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. K. Das, L. Tartara, A. Agnesi, and V. Degiorgio, “Enhancement of stability and efficiency of a nonlinear mirror mode-locked Nd:YVO4 oscillator by an active Q-switch,” Opt. Express 12, 4041–4046 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Zhao, G. Li, D. Li, K. Yang, Y. Li, M. Li, T. Li, G. Zhang, and K. Cheng, “Numerical simulation of dual-loss-modulated Q-switched and mode-locked laser with an acousto-optic and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1802–1808 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 288–293 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Theobald, M. Weitz, R. Knappe, R. Wallenstein, and J. A. L’huillier, “Stable Q-switch mode-locking of Nd:YVO4 lasers with a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 1–3 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y.-F. Chen and S. W. Tsai, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4-Cr4+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 580–586 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, W. H. Yang, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber by picosecond self Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 413–417 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. K. Jabczyński, W. Zendzian, and J. Kwiatkowski, “Q-switched mode-locking with acousto-optic modulator in a diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 14, 2184–2190 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Cuadrado-Laborde, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Doubly active Q-switching and mode locking of an all-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2709–2711 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. M. Chang, J. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser employing subharmonic cavity modulation,” Opt. Express 19, 26627–26633 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B63–B92 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. S. Jun and B. Y. Kim, “Mode-locking and Q-switching in multi-wavelength fiber ring laser using low frequency phase modulation,” Opt. Express 19, 6290–6295 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Yang and C. X. Yang, “Q-switched mode-locking in an erbium-doped femtosecond fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Laser Phys. 19, 2106–2109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Zhang, F. Lu, and J. Wang, “Self-Q-switching and mode-locking in an all-fiber Er/Yb co-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 263, 47–51 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K.-H. Lin, J.-J. Kang, H.-H. Wu, C.-K. Lee, and G.-R. Lin, “Manipulation of operation states by polarization control in an erbium-doped fiber laser with a hybrid saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 17, 4806–4814 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. J. Eichler, “Q-switching of the CW-mode locked Nd:YAG laser by drive frequency detuning,” Opt. Commun. 56, 351–353 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. M. Jhon and H. J. Kong, “Self Q-switching of a CW mode-locked Nd:YLF laser by cavity length detuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1042–1045 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. M. Chang, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Active Q-switching in an erbium-doped fiber laser using an ultrafast silicon-based variable optical attenuator,” Opt. Express 19, 26911–26916 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J.-H. Lin, H.-R. Chen, H.-H. Hsu, M.-D. Wei, K.-H. Lin, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Stable Q-switched mode-locked Nd3+:LuVO4laser by Cr4+:YAG crystal,” Opt. Express 16, 16538–16545 (2008).
  19. H. J. Eichler, W. Filter, and T. Weider, “Spiking of the CW mode-locked Nd:YAG laser: Mathematical model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1178–1180 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. E. Siegman and D. Kuizenga, “Modulator frequency detuning effects in the FM mode-locked laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 803–808 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

J.-H. Lin, H.-R. Chen, H.-H. Hsu, M.-D. Wei, K.-H. Lin, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Stable Q-switched mode-locked Nd3+:LuVO4laser by Cr4+:YAG crystal,” Opt. Express 16, 16538–16545 (2008).

M. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Theobald, M. Weitz, R. Knappe, R. Wallenstein, and J. A. L’huillier, “Stable Q-switch mode-locking of Nd:YVO4 lasers with a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 1–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, W. H. Yang, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber by picosecond self Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 413–417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. K. Jabczyński, W. Zendzian, and J. Kwiatkowski, “Q-switched mode-locking with acousto-optic modulator in a diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 14, 2184–2190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, F. Lu, and J. Wang, “Self-Q-switching and mode-locking in an all-fiber Er/Yb co-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 263, 47–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

Y.-F. Chen and S. W. Tsai, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4-Cr4+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 580–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Y. M. Jhon and H. J. Kong, “Self Q-switching of a CW mode-locked Nd:YLF laser by cavity length detuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1042–1045 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. J. Eichler, W. Filter, and T. Weider, “Spiking of the CW mode-locked Nd:YAG laser: Mathematical model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1178–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. J. Eichler, “Q-switching of the CW-mode locked Nd:YAG laser by drive frequency detuning,” Opt. Commun. 56, 351–353 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

A. E. Siegman and D. Kuizenga, “Modulator frequency detuning effects in the FM mode-locked laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 803–808 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Agnesi, A.

An, J.

M. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andrés, M. V.

Chang, Y. M.

Chen, H.-R.

Chen, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Chen and S. W. Tsai, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4-Cr4+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 580–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.

Clarkson, W. A.

Cruz, J. L.

Cuadrado-Laborde, C.

Das, S. K.

Datta, P. K.

Degiorgio, V.

Díez, A.

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, W. Filter, and T. Weider, “Spiking of the CW mode-locked Nd:YAG laser: Mathematical model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1178–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Eichler, “Q-switching of the CW-mode locked Nd:YAG laser by drive frequency detuning,” Opt. Commun. 56, 351–353 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Filter, W.

H. J. Eichler, W. Filter, and T. Weider, “Spiking of the CW mode-locked Nd:YAG laser: Mathematical model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1178–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W.-F.

J.-H. Lin, H.-R. Chen, H.-H. Hsu, M.-D. Wei, K.-H. Lin, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Stable Q-switched mode-locked Nd3+:LuVO4laser by Cr4+:YAG crystal,” Opt. Express 16, 16538–16545 (2008).

J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, W. H. Yang, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber by picosecond self Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 413–417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-C.

J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, W. H. Yang, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber by picosecond self Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 413–417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H.-H.

Jabczynski, J. K.

Jhon, Y. M.

Y. M. Chang, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Active Q-switching in an erbium-doped fiber laser using an ultrafast silicon-based variable optical attenuator,” Opt. Express 19, 26911–26916 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Jhon and H. J. Kong, “Self Q-switching of a CW mode-locked Nd:YLF laser by cavity length detuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1042–1045 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jun, C. S.

Kang, J.-J.

Kim, B. Y.

Knappe, R.

C. Theobald, M. Weitz, R. Knappe, R. Wallenstein, and J. A. L’huillier, “Stable Q-switch mode-locking of Nd:YVO4 lasers with a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 1–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kong, H. J.

Y. M. Jhon and H. J. Kong, “Self Q-switching of a CW mode-locked Nd:YLF laser by cavity length detuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1042–1045 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuizenga, D.

A. E. Siegman and D. Kuizenga, “Modulator frequency detuning effects in the FM mode-locked laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 803–808 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kwiatkowski, J.

L’huillier, J. A.

C. Theobald, M. Weitz, R. Knappe, R. Wallenstein, and J. A. L’huillier, “Stable Q-switch mode-locking of Nd:YVO4 lasers with a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 1–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-K.

Lee, J.

Lee, J. H.

Li, D.

S. Zhao, G. Li, D. Li, K. Yang, Y. Li, M. Li, T. Li, G. Zhang, and K. Cheng, “Numerical simulation of dual-loss-modulated Q-switched and mode-locked laser with an acousto-optic and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1802–1808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

S. Zhao, G. Li, D. Li, K. Yang, Y. Li, M. Li, T. Li, G. Zhang, and K. Cheng, “Numerical simulation of dual-loss-modulated Q-switched and mode-locked laser with an acousto-optic and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1802–1808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

S. Zhao, G. Li, D. Li, K. Yang, Y. Li, M. Li, T. Li, G. Zhang, and K. Cheng, “Numerical simulation of dual-loss-modulated Q-switched and mode-locked laser with an acousto-optic and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1802–1808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

Li, Y.

Lin, G.-R.

Lin, J.-H.

J.-H. Lin, H.-R. Chen, H.-H. Hsu, M.-D. Wei, K.-H. Lin, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Stable Q-switched mode-locked Nd3+:LuVO4laser by Cr4+:YAG crystal,” Opt. Express 16, 16538–16545 (2008).

J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, W. H. Yang, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber by picosecond self Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 413–417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K.-H.

Lu, F.

S. Zhang, F. Lu, and J. Wang, “Self-Q-switching and mode-locking in an all-fiber Er/Yb co-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 263, 47–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mukhopadhyay, S.

Nilsson, J.

Qiao, W.

M. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman and D. Kuizenga, “Modulator frequency detuning effects in the FM mode-locked laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 803–808 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Tartara, L.

Theobald, C.

C. Theobald, M. Weitz, R. Knappe, R. Wallenstein, and J. A. L’huillier, “Stable Q-switch mode-locking of Nd:YVO4 lasers with a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 1–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, S. W.

Y.-F. Chen and S. W. Tsai, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4-Cr4+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 580–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

C. Theobald, M. Weitz, R. Knappe, R. Wallenstein, and J. A. L’huillier, “Stable Q-switch mode-locking of Nd:YVO4 lasers with a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 1–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

M. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, F. Lu, and J. Wang, “Self-Q-switching and mode-locking in an all-fiber Er/Yb co-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 263, 47–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M.-D.

Weider, T.

H. J. Eichler, W. Filter, and T. Weider, “Spiking of the CW mode-locked Nd:YAG laser: Mathematical model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1178–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, M.

C. Theobald, M. Weitz, R. Knappe, R. Wallenstein, and J. A. L’huillier, “Stable Q-switch mode-locking of Nd:YVO4 lasers with a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 1–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.-H.

Yang, C. X.

X. Yang and C. X. Yang, “Q-switched mode-locking in an erbium-doped femtosecond fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Laser Phys. 19, 2106–2109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.

S. Zhao, G. Li, D. Li, K. Yang, Y. Li, M. Li, T. Li, G. Zhang, and K. Cheng, “Numerical simulation of dual-loss-modulated Q-switched and mode-locked laser with an acousto-optic and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1802–1808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. H.

J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, W. H. Yang, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber by picosecond self Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 413–417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Yang and C. X. Yang, “Q-switched mode-locking in an erbium-doped femtosecond fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Laser Phys. 19, 2106–2109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zendzian, W.

Zhang, G.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, F. Lu, and J. Wang, “Self-Q-switching and mode-locking in an all-fiber Er/Yb co-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 263, 47–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S.

S. Zhao, G. Li, D. Li, K. Yang, Y. Li, M. Li, T. Li, G. Zhang, and K. Cheng, “Numerical simulation of dual-loss-modulated Q-switched and mode-locked laser with an acousto-optic and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1802–1808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Theobald, M. Weitz, R. Knappe, R. Wallenstein, and J. A. L’huillier, “Stable Q-switch mode-locking of Nd:YVO4 lasers with a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 1–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

Y.-F. Chen and S. W. Tsai, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4-Cr4+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 580–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Wang, J. An, and W. Qiao, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 288–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Jhon and H. J. Kong, “Self Q-switching of a CW mode-locked Nd:YLF laser by cavity length detuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1042–1045 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Eichler, W. Filter, and T. Weider, “Spiking of the CW mode-locked Nd:YAG laser: Mathematical model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1178–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman and D. Kuizenga, “Modulator frequency detuning effects in the FM mode-locked laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 803–808 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. (1)

X. Yang and C. X. Yang, “Q-switched mode-locking in an erbium-doped femtosecond fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Laser Phys. 19, 2106–2109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, W. H. Yang, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber by picosecond self Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 413–417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. Zhang, F. Lu, and J. Wang, “Self-Q-switching and mode-locking in an all-fiber Er/Yb co-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 263, 47–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Eichler, “Q-switching of the CW-mode locked Nd:YAG laser by drive frequency detuning,” Opt. Commun. 56, 351–353 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of our Q-switched, mode-locked EDF laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured output spectrum and (b) average output power of the laser output at a modulation frequency with a frequency detuning of 6 kHz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured oscilloscope traces of the output pulse train emitted from the laser for various modulation frequencies (fundamental resonance frequency with a frequency detuning): (a) with no frequency detuning; (b) with a frequency detuning of 6 kHz; (c) with a frequency detuning of 18 kHz; and (d) with a frequency detuning of 26 kHz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured electrical spectra of the output pulse train emitted from the laser for various modulation frequencies (fundamental resonance frequency with a frequency detuning): (a) with no frequency detuning; (b) with a frequency detuning of 6 kHz; (c) with a frequency detuning of 18 kHz; and (d) with a frequency detuning of 26 kHz.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Magnified view of the Q-switched mode-locked pulse; fitted curve of the Q-switching envelope is also shown. (b) Close-up view of a mode-locked pulse under the Q-switching envelope.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured repetition rates of Q-switching envelope as a function of the applied frequency detuning for pump powers of (a) 79 and (b) 113 mW, respectively.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured and theoretically fitted ratio between the repetition rate of the Q-switching envelope and frequency detuning (fenv/|Δfm|) as a function of the frequency detuning (|Δfm|) for pump powers of (a) 79 and (b) 113 mW respectively.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured and theoretically fitted ratio between the repetition rate of the Q-switching envelope and frequency detuning (fenv/|Δfm|) as a function of the frequency detuning (|Δfm|) for various cavity lengths. The pump power was fixed at 79 mW.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Variation of the main pulse width and the Q-switched envelope width with increasing frequency detuning under a pump power of 79 mW.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Variation of the average optical power and the main pulse peak power with increasing frequency detuning under a pump power of 79 mW.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P(t)=a(exp(1.76*t/t1)+exp(1.76*t/t2))2,
fenv=n|Δfm|,
fenv/Δfm=8.1871.102Δfm+0.071Δfm2+0.002Δfm3+2×105Δfm4.

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