Abstract

In this work, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique is used to determine the quality or adulteration of tequila beverages. Graphic analyses of the position and width of the SPR curve are related to the complex refractive index of the sample, showing differentiated regions where one can easily and unambiguously identify white, aged, or extra-aged tequilas, and even adulterated or low quality tequilas. The curves generated by aged and extra-aged tequilas, with respect to those obtained from white tequilas, are wider, while the resonant peak shifts towards larger angles. This behavior should be attributed to the aging process. The resonance curve is generated in 20 s, minimizing the variations of the SPR curve parameters due to temperature fluctuations.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

J. Raty, I. Niskanen, R. Myllyla, and K. E. Peiponen, “Light transmission model for determination of the refractive index of solid particles in suspensions: an immersion study,” Appl. Spectrosc. 65, 557–560 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Martinez-Lopez, D. Luna-Moreno, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and R. Valdivia-Hernandez, “Optical method to differentiate tequilas based on angular modulation surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Laser Technol. 49, 675–679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

A. Nooke, U. Beck, A. Hertwig, A. Krause, H. Krüger, V. Lohse, D. Negendank, and J. Steinbach, “On the application of gold based SPR sensors for the detection of hazardous gases,” Sens. Actuators B 149, 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and H. S. Pattanaik, “Design considerations for surface plasmon resonance based detection of human blood group in near infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 034701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. G. Ceballos-Magaña, M. Jurado, J. M. María, and F. Pablos, “Quantification of twelve metals in tequila and mescal spirits as authenticity parameters,” J. Agr. Food Sci. 57, 1372–1376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. C. Muñoz-Muñoz, A. C. Grenier, H. Gutierrez-Pulido, and J. Cervantez-Martinez, “Development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array method for the determination of aging markers in tequila,” J. Chromatogr. 1213, 218–223 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

H. M. Hiep, T. Endo, K. Kerman, M. Chikae, D.-K. Kim, S. Yamamura, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, “A localized surface plasmon resonance based immunosensor for the detection of casein in milk,” Sci. Tech. Adv. Mater. 8, 331–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Barbosa-Garcia, G. Ramos-Ortiz, J. L. Maldonado, J. L. Pichardo-Molina, M. A. Meneses-Nava, J. E. A. Landgrave, and J. Cervantes-Martinez, “UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and multivariate analysis as a method to discriminate tequila,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 66, 129–134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Fraustro-Reyes, C. Medina-Gutierrez, R. Sato-Berru, and L. R. Sahagun, “Quantitative study of ethanol content in tequilas by Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61, 2657–2662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

M. J. Navas and A. M. Jimenez, “Chemilumininescent methods in alcoholic beverage analysis,” J. Agr. Food Sci. 47, 183–189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. H. Meeten, “Refractive index errors in the critical-angle and Brewster-angle methods to absorbing and heterogeneous materials,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 728–733(1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance—how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

E. Fontana and R. H. Pantell, “Characterization of multilayer by use of surface-plasmon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 3164–3182 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

Barbosa-Garcia, O.

O. Barbosa-Garcia, G. Ramos-Ortiz, J. L. Maldonado, J. L. Pichardo-Molina, M. A. Meneses-Nava, J. E. A. Landgrave, and J. Cervantes-Martinez, “UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and multivariate analysis as a method to discriminate tequila,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 66, 129–134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beck, U.

A. Nooke, U. Beck, A. Hertwig, A. Krause, H. Krüger, V. Lohse, D. Negendank, and J. Steinbach, “On the application of gold based SPR sensors for the detection of hazardous gases,” Sens. Actuators B 149, 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benramdane, N.

Brujin, H. E.

Ceballos-Magaña, S. G.

S. G. Ceballos-Magaña, M. Jurado, J. M. María, and F. Pablos, “Quantification of twelve metals in tequila and mescal spirits as authenticity parameters,” J. Agr. Food Sci. 57, 1372–1376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cervantes-Martinez, J.

O. Barbosa-Garcia, G. Ramos-Ortiz, J. L. Maldonado, J. L. Pichardo-Molina, M. A. Meneses-Nava, J. E. A. Landgrave, and J. Cervantes-Martinez, “UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and multivariate analysis as a method to discriminate tequila,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 66, 129–134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cervantez-Martinez, J.

A. C. Muñoz-Muñoz, A. C. Grenier, H. Gutierrez-Pulido, and J. Cervantez-Martinez, “Development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array method for the determination of aging markers in tequila,” J. Chromatogr. 1213, 218–223 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. M.

Chen, W. P.

Chikae, M.

H. M. Hiep, T. Endo, K. Kerman, M. Chikae, D.-K. Kim, S. Yamamura, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, “A localized surface plasmon resonance based immunosensor for the detection of casein in milk,” Sci. Tech. Adv. Mater. 8, 331–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiker, F.

de Brujin, H. E.

Endo, T.

H. M. Hiep, T. Endo, K. Kerman, M. Chikae, D.-K. Kim, S. Yamamura, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, “A localized surface plasmon resonance based immunosensor for the detection of casein in milk,” Sci. Tech. Adv. Mater. 8, 331–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fontana, E.

E. Fontana and R. H. Pantell, “Characterization of multilayer by use of surface-plasmon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 3164–3182 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fraustro-Reyes, C.

C. Fraustro-Reyes, C. Medina-Gutierrez, R. Sato-Berru, and L. R. Sahagun, “Quantitative study of ethanol content in tequilas by Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61, 2657–2662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gershon, P. D.

Grenier, A. C.

A. C. Muñoz-Muñoz, A. C. Grenier, H. Gutierrez-Pulido, and J. Cervantez-Martinez, “Development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array method for the determination of aging markers in tequila,” J. Chromatogr. 1213, 218–223 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

Gutierrez-Pulido, H.

A. C. Muñoz-Muñoz, A. C. Grenier, H. Gutierrez-Pulido, and J. Cervantez-Martinez, “Development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array method for the determination of aging markers in tequila,” J. Chromatogr. 1213, 218–223 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hertwig, A.

A. Nooke, U. Beck, A. Hertwig, A. Krause, H. Krüger, V. Lohse, D. Negendank, and J. Steinbach, “On the application of gold based SPR sensors for the detection of hazardous gases,” Sens. Actuators B 149, 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hiep, H. M.

H. M. Hiep, T. Endo, K. Kerman, M. Chikae, D.-K. Kim, S. Yamamura, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, “A localized surface plasmon resonance based immunosensor for the detection of casein in milk,” Sci. Tech. Adv. Mater. 8, 331–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Electromagnetic theory of surface plasmons,” in Chemical Sensor Biosensor, J. Homola, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2006), pp. 25–32.

Jha, R.

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and H. S. Pattanaik, “Design considerations for surface plasmon resonance based detection of human blood group in near infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 034701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, A. M.

M. J. Navas and A. M. Jimenez, “Chemilumininescent methods in alcoholic beverage analysis,” J. Agr. Food Sci. 47, 183–189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jurado, M.

S. G. Ceballos-Magaña, M. Jurado, J. M. María, and F. Pablos, “Quantification of twelve metals in tequila and mescal spirits as authenticity parameters,” J. Agr. Food Sci. 57, 1372–1376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

Kawata, S.

Kebbab, Z.

Kerman, K.

H. M. Hiep, T. Endo, K. Kerman, M. Chikae, D.-K. Kim, S. Yamamura, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, “A localized surface plasmon resonance based immunosensor for the detection of casein in milk,” Sci. Tech. Adv. Mater. 8, 331–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khadraoui, M.

Kim, D.-K.

H. M. Hiep, T. Endo, K. Kerman, M. Chikae, D.-K. Kim, S. Yamamura, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, “A localized surface plasmon resonance based immunosensor for the detection of casein in milk,” Sci. Tech. Adv. Mater. 8, 331–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kolomenskii, A. A.

Kooyman, R. H.

Kooyman, R. P. H.

Krause, A.

A. Nooke, U. Beck, A. Hertwig, A. Krause, H. Krüger, V. Lohse, D. Negendank, and J. Steinbach, “On the application of gold based SPR sensors for the detection of hazardous gases,” Sens. Actuators B 149, 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, H.

A. Nooke, U. Beck, A. Hertwig, A. Krause, H. Krüger, V. Lohse, D. Negendank, and J. Steinbach, “On the application of gold based SPR sensors for the detection of hazardous gases,” Sens. Actuators B 149, 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Landgrave, J. E. A.

O. Barbosa-Garcia, G. Ramos-Ortiz, J. L. Maldonado, J. L. Pichardo-Molina, M. A. Meneses-Nava, J. E. A. Landgrave, and J. Cervantes-Martinez, “UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and multivariate analysis as a method to discriminate tequila,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 66, 129–134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leupacher, W.

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance—how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lohse, V.

A. Nooke, U. Beck, A. Hertwig, A. Krause, H. Krüger, V. Lohse, D. Negendank, and J. Steinbach, “On the application of gold based SPR sensors for the detection of hazardous gases,” Sens. Actuators B 149, 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luna-Moreno, D.

G. Martinez-Lopez, D. Luna-Moreno, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and R. Valdivia-Hernandez, “Optical method to differentiate tequilas based on angular modulation surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Laser Technol. 49, 675–679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lundstrom, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance—how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Institute of Physics, 2001).

Maldonado, J. L.

O. Barbosa-Garcia, G. Ramos-Ortiz, J. L. Maldonado, J. L. Pichardo-Molina, M. A. Meneses-Nava, J. E. A. Landgrave, and J. Cervantes-Martinez, “UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and multivariate analysis as a method to discriminate tequila,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 66, 129–134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

María, J. M.

S. G. Ceballos-Magaña, M. Jurado, J. M. María, and F. Pablos, “Quantification of twelve metals in tequila and mescal spirits as authenticity parameters,” J. Agr. Food Sci. 57, 1372–1376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Lopez, G.

G. Martinez-Lopez, D. Luna-Moreno, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and R. Valdivia-Hernandez, “Optical method to differentiate tequilas based on angular modulation surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Laser Technol. 49, 675–679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Medina-Gutierrez, C.

C. Fraustro-Reyes, C. Medina-Gutierrez, R. Sato-Berru, and L. R. Sahagun, “Quantitative study of ethanol content in tequilas by Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61, 2657–2662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meeten, G. H.

G. H. Meeten, “Refractive index errors in the critical-angle and Brewster-angle methods to absorbing and heterogeneous materials,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 728–733(1997).
[CrossRef]

Meneses-Nava, M. A.

O. Barbosa-Garcia, G. Ramos-Ortiz, J. L. Maldonado, J. L. Pichardo-Molina, M. A. Meneses-Nava, J. E. A. Landgrave, and J. Cervantes-Martinez, “UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and multivariate analysis as a method to discriminate tequila,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 66, 129–134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miloua, R.

Monzon-Hernandez, D.

G. Martinez-Lopez, D. Luna-Moreno, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and R. Valdivia-Hernandez, “Optical method to differentiate tequilas based on angular modulation surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Laser Technol. 49, 675–679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz-Muñoz, A. C.

A. C. Muñoz-Muñoz, A. C. Grenier, H. Gutierrez-Pulido, and J. Cervantez-Martinez, “Development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array method for the determination of aging markers in tequila,” J. Chromatogr. 1213, 218–223 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Myllyla, R.

Navas, M. J.

M. J. Navas and A. M. Jimenez, “Chemilumininescent methods in alcoholic beverage analysis,” J. Agr. Food Sci. 47, 183–189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Negendank, D.

A. Nooke, U. Beck, A. Hertwig, A. Krause, H. Krüger, V. Lohse, D. Negendank, and J. Steinbach, “On the application of gold based SPR sensors for the detection of hazardous gases,” Sens. Actuators B 149, 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Niskanen, I.

Nooke, A.

A. Nooke, U. Beck, A. Hertwig, A. Krause, H. Krüger, V. Lohse, D. Negendank, and J. Steinbach, “On the application of gold based SPR sensors for the detection of hazardous gases,” Sens. Actuators B 149, 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance—how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pablos, F.

S. G. Ceballos-Magaña, M. Jurado, J. M. María, and F. Pablos, “Quantification of twelve metals in tequila and mescal spirits as authenticity parameters,” J. Agr. Food Sci. 57, 1372–1376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pantell, R. H.

E. Fontana and R. H. Pantell, “Characterization of multilayer by use of surface-plasmon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 3164–3182 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pattanaik, H. S.

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and H. S. Pattanaik, “Design considerations for surface plasmon resonance based detection of human blood group in near infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 034701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peiponen, K. E.

Penzkofer, A.

Pichardo-Molina, J. L.

O. Barbosa-Garcia, G. Ramos-Ortiz, J. L. Maldonado, J. L. Pichardo-Molina, M. A. Meneses-Nava, J. E. A. Landgrave, and J. Cervantes-Martinez, “UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and multivariate analysis as a method to discriminate tequila,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 66, 129–134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramos-Ortiz, G.

O. Barbosa-Garcia, G. Ramos-Ortiz, J. L. Maldonado, J. L. Pichardo-Molina, M. A. Meneses-Nava, J. E. A. Landgrave, and J. Cervantes-Martinez, “UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and multivariate analysis as a method to discriminate tequila,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 66, 129–134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raty, J.

Roy, D.

Sahagun, L. R.

C. Fraustro-Reyes, C. Medina-Gutierrez, R. Sato-Berru, and L. R. Sahagun, “Quantitative study of ethanol content in tequilas by Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61, 2657–2662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sahraoui, K.

Sato-Berru, R.

C. Fraustro-Reyes, C. Medina-Gutierrez, R. Sato-Berru, and L. R. Sahagun, “Quantitative study of ethanol content in tequilas by Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61, 2657–2662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuessler, H. A.

Sharma, A. K.

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and H. S. Pattanaik, “Design considerations for surface plasmon resonance based detection of human blood group in near infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 034701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steinbach, J.

A. Nooke, U. Beck, A. Hertwig, A. Krause, H. Krüger, V. Lohse, D. Negendank, and J. Steinbach, “On the application of gold based SPR sensors for the detection of hazardous gases,” Sens. Actuators B 149, 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takamura, Y.

H. M. Hiep, T. Endo, K. Kerman, M. Chikae, D.-K. Kim, S. Yamamura, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, “A localized surface plasmon resonance based immunosensor for the detection of casein in milk,” Sci. Tech. Adv. Mater. 8, 331–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tamiya, E.

H. M. Hiep, T. Endo, K. Kerman, M. Chikae, D.-K. Kim, S. Yamamura, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, “A localized surface plasmon resonance based immunosensor for the detection of casein in milk,” Sci. Tech. Adv. Mater. 8, 331–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Valdivia-Hernandez, R.

G. Martinez-Lopez, D. Luna-Moreno, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and R. Valdivia-Hernandez, “Optical method to differentiate tequilas based on angular modulation surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Laser Technol. 49, 675–679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamamura, S.

H. M. Hiep, T. Endo, K. Kerman, M. Chikae, D.-K. Kim, S. Yamamura, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, “A localized surface plasmon resonance based immunosensor for the detection of casein in milk,” Sci. Tech. Adv. Mater. 8, 331–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance—how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Agr. Food Sci. (2)

S. G. Ceballos-Magaña, M. Jurado, J. M. María, and F. Pablos, “Quantification of twelve metals in tequila and mescal spirits as authenticity parameters,” J. Agr. Food Sci. 57, 1372–1376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Navas and A. M. Jimenez, “Chemilumininescent methods in alcoholic beverage analysis,” J. Agr. Food Sci. 47, 183–189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and H. S. Pattanaik, “Design considerations for surface plasmon resonance based detection of human blood group in near infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 034701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chromatogr. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup to excite and detect SPR. A light of HeNe laser with p polarization is incident in a hemicylindrical BK7 prism, which is mounted on a rotatory stage, and is reflected towards an optical photodetector mounted in a second rotatory stage. The photodetector signal and motion control are driven by the custom data acquisition. The signal is recorded and analyzed by a computer with Labview software.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Curves of the SPR obtained for twelve samples from the four well-known trademarks, in the three presentations of white, aged, and extra-aged with alcohol contents from 35% to 46%. The SPR curve with the lowest resonant angle corresponds to CEB with a 35% of alcohol content, while the SPR curve with the highest resonant angle correspond to HB with a 46% of alcohol content.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental data of the width (FWHM) values of the SPR curves from all samples according to the alcohol contents. White tequilas are located at the bottom, aged tequilas are located in the middle, and extra-aged tequilas are located at the top of the graph. The increase in the width of the curves is concerned with the increase in the aging process and, consequently, with the complex refractive index.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SPR curves of the DJB, DJR, and DJA from the same trademark and the same alcohol contents (38%). (a) SPR curves of DJR and DJA shifted to the position of the resonant angle of DJB for showing different widths, and (b) the same SPR curves in the normal position. It is noted that the increase in the resonant angle is in accordance with the aging process.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Theoretical SPR curves of silver/distilled water for different k (imaginary part of the refractive index of the distilled water) to show the influence of the complex refractive index in the best fitting method of the SPR technique.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Graph of the width versus resonant angle corresponding to the SPR curves from all samples. A notable differentiation of the different types of tequilas can be seen, also tequilas with a 35% alcohol content are completely differentiated from the others aged tequilas. Relicario, TO, and fake DJR appear on the left end of the graph, meaning that adulterated DJR should have an alcohol content of about 24%.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Graph of the n versus k refractive index is obtained by least squares fitting of the theoretical with the experimental SPR curves from all samples. The increase in the real part of the refractive index is related to the resonant angle and the alcohol content. The increase in the imaginary part is related to the increase in the width of the SPR curve and the aging process. Notice that HR has more alcohol content that the corresponding aged tequilas from other trademarks and is located closer to the extra aged tequilas.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Data Used in Our Studya

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ksp=2πλεmε1εm+ε1=2πλ(nef+iγi),
k0ε01/2sinθsp=k0Reεmε1εm+ε1=nef,
[BC]=[cosδisinδηiηsinδcosδ][1ηs],
r=η0Yη0+Y,
R=|r|2=|η0Yη0+Y|2,

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