Abstract

We present the study, characterization, and calibration of the polarization modulation package (PMP) of the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) instrument, a successful Stokes spectropolarimeter on board the SUNRISE balloon project within the NASA Long Duration Balloon program. IMaX was designed to measure the Stokes parameters of incoming light with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 103, using as polarization modulators two nematic liquid-crystal variable retarders (LCVRs). An ad hoc calibration system that reproduced the optical and environmental characteristics of IMaX was designed, assembled, and aligned. The system recreates the optical beam that IMaX receives from SUNRISE with known polarization across the image plane, as well as an optical system with the same characteristics of IMaX. The system was used to calibrate the IMaX PMP in vacuum and at different temperatures, with a thermal control resembling the in-flight one. The efficiencies obtained were very high, near theoretical maximum values: the total efficiency in vacuum calibration at nominal temperature was 0.972 (1 being the theoretical maximum). The condition number of the demodulation matrix of the same calibration was 0.522 (0.577 theoretical maximum). Some inhomogeneities of the LCVRs were clear during the pixel-by-pixel calibration of the PMP, but it can be concluded that the mere information of a pixel-per-pixel calibration is sufficient to maintain high efficiencies in spite of inhomogeneities of the LCVRs.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gandorfer, S. K. Solanki, J. Woch, V. Martínez Pillet, A. Álvarez Herrero, and T. Appourchaux, “The Solar Orbiter Mission and its Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (SO/PHI),” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 271, 012086 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Alvarez-Herrero, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. G. Parejo, J. Vargas, R. L. Heredero, R. Restrepo, V. Martinez-Pillet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, S. Fineschi, G. Capobianco, M. Georges, M. Lopez, G. Boer, and I. Manolis, “Imaging polarimeters based on liquid crystal variable retarders: an emergent technology for space instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Y (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, “Dynamic response of a fast near infra-red mueller matrix ellipsometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1603–1610 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

N. Uribe-Patarroyo and A. Alvarez-Herrero, “Determination of the molecular tilt profile of a liquid crystal under applied electric field by generalized transmission ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1188–1195 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. Jimenez, V. Lopez Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, and The IMaX Team, “IMaX: a polarimeter based on liquid crystal variable retarders for an aerospace mission,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041–1045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. L. Heredero, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, T. Belenguer, G. Ramos, A. Sánchez, M. Reina, V. Martínez-Pillet, and A. Álvarez-Herrero, “Liquid crystal variable retarders for aerospace polarimetry applications,” Appl. Opt. 46, 689–698 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

N. J. Pust and J. A. Shaw, “Dual-field imaging polarimeter using liquid crystal variable retarders,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5470–5478 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014–1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. D. Martino, and B. Drvillon, “Spectroscopic Mueller polarimeter based on liquid crystal devices,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 120–123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Goudail, P. Terrier, Y. Takakura, L. Bigu, F. Galland, and V. DeVlaminck, “Target detection with a liquid-crystal-based passive Stokes polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 43, 274–282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Drouillard, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, “Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders,” Proc. SPIE 5363, 86–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Goudail, P. Terrier, Y. Takakura, L. Bigué, F. Galland, and V. DeVlaminck, “Target detection with a liquid-crystal-based passive stokes polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 43, 274–282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Wolfe and R. A. Chipman, “Reducing symmetric polarization aberrations in a lens by annealing,” Opt. Express 12, 3443–3451 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. de Martino, E. Garcia-Caurel, B. Laude, and B. Drévillon, “General methods for optimized design and calibration of Mueller polarimeters,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 112–119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

J. C. del Toro Iniesta and M. Collados, “Optimum modulation and demodulation matrices for solar polarimetry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1637–1642 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Tyo, “Noise equalization in stokes parameter images obtained by use of variable-retardance polarimeters,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1198–1200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sabatke, M. R. Descour, E. L. Dereniak, W. C. Sweatt, S. A. Kemme, and G. S. Phipps, “Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter,” Opt. Lett. 25, 802–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bernasconi, D. M. Rust, H. A. Eaton, and G. A. Murphy, “Balloon-borne telescope for high-resolution solar imaging and polarimetry,” Proc. SPIE 4014, 214–225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

E. Compain and B. Drevillon, “High-frequency modulation of the four states of polarization of light with a single phase modulator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1574–1580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

E. Compain and B. Drevillon, “Complete high-frequency measurement of Mueller matrices based on a new coupled-phase modulator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2671–2680(1997).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Two-modulator generalized ellipsometry: experiment and calibration,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8184–8189 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. J. November and L. M. Wilkins, “Liquid crystal polarimeter: a solid state imager for solar vector magnetic fields,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1659–1668 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989

S.-T. Wu and C.-S. Wu, “High-speed liquid-crystal modulators using transient nematic effect,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 527–532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1979

R. A. Gonsalves and R. Chidlaw, “Wavefront sensing by phase retrieval,” Proc. SPIE 207, 32–39 (1979).

1969

S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, “An improved method for high reflectivity ellipsometry based on a new polarization modulation technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761–767 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aas, L. M. S.

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, “Dynamic response of a fast near infra-red mueller matrix ellipsometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1603–1610 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Álvarez Herrero, A.

A. Gandorfer, S. K. Solanki, J. Woch, V. Martínez Pillet, A. Álvarez Herrero, and T. Appourchaux, “The Solar Orbiter Mission and its Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (SO/PHI),” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 271, 012086 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez-Herrero, A.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. G. Parejo, J. Vargas, R. L. Heredero, R. Restrepo, V. Martinez-Pillet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, S. Fineschi, G. Capobianco, M. Georges, M. Lopez, G. Boer, and I. Manolis, “Imaging polarimeters based on liquid crystal variable retarders: an emergent technology for space instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Y (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Uribe-Patarroyo and A. Alvarez-Herrero, “Determination of the molecular tilt profile of a liquid crystal under applied electric field by generalized transmission ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1188–1195 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. Jimenez, V. Lopez Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, and The IMaX Team, “IMaX: a polarimeter based on liquid crystal variable retarders for an aerospace mission,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041–1045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Álvarez-Herrero, A.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Álvarez-Herrero, A.

P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Álvarez-Herrero, A.

R. L. Heredero, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, T. Belenguer, G. Ramos, A. Sánchez, M. Reina, V. Martínez-Pillet, and A. Álvarez-Herrero, “Liquid crystal variable retarders for aerospace polarimetry applications,” Appl. Opt. 46, 689–698 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. H.

T. F. Drouillard, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, “Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders,” Proc. SPIE 5363, 86–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anthony, E. B.

T. F. Drouillard, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, “Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders,” Proc. SPIE 5363, 86–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aparicio, B.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appourchaux, T.

A. Gandorfer, S. K. Solanki, J. Woch, V. Martínez Pillet, A. Álvarez Herrero, and T. Appourchaux, “The Solar Orbiter Mission and its Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (SO/PHI),” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 271, 012086 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

Ax, G. R.

M. H. Smith, J. D. Howe, J. B. Woodruff, M. A. Miller, G. R. Ax, T. E. Petty, and E. A. Sornsin, “Multispectral infrared Stokes imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 137–143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balaguer, M.

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V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
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N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. Jimenez, V. Lopez Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, and The IMaX Team, “IMaX: a polarimeter based on liquid crystal variable retarders for an aerospace mission,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041–1045 (2008).
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P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
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V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
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P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
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P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
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V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
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P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
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Levin, T.

P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
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Lindgren, M.

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, “Dynamic response of a fast near infra-red mueller matrix ellipsometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1603–1610 (2010).
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Lites, B.

P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, A.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. G. Parejo, J. Vargas, R. L. Heredero, R. Restrepo, V. Martinez-Pillet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, S. Fineschi, G. Capobianco, M. Georges, M. Lopez, G. Boer, and I. Manolis, “Imaging polarimeters based on liquid crystal variable retarders: an emergent technology for space instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Y (2011).
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Lopez, M.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. G. Parejo, J. Vargas, R. L. Heredero, R. Restrepo, V. Martinez-Pillet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, S. Fineschi, G. Capobianco, M. Georges, M. Lopez, G. Boer, and I. Manolis, “Imaging polarimeters based on liquid crystal variable retarders: an emergent technology for space instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Y (2011).
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Lopez Domingo, V.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. Jimenez, V. Lopez Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, and The IMaX Team, “IMaX: a polarimeter based on liquid crystal variable retarders for an aerospace mission,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041–1045 (2008).
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V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Manescau, A.

V. Mártinez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopez, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. Diaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, and D. Soltau, “LPSP & TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations, and Techniques, Vol. 183 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. R. Rimmele, K. S. Balasubramaniam, and R. R. Radick, eds. (1999), pp. 264–272.

Manolis, I.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. G. Parejo, J. Vargas, R. L. Heredero, R. Restrepo, V. Martinez-Pillet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, S. Fineschi, G. Capobianco, M. Georges, M. Lopez, G. Boer, and I. Manolis, “Imaging polarimeters based on liquid crystal variable retarders: an emergent technology for space instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Y (2011).
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Martínez Pillet, V.

A. Gandorfer, S. K. Solanki, J. Woch, V. Martínez Pillet, A. Álvarez Herrero, and T. Appourchaux, “The Solar Orbiter Mission and its Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (SO/PHI),” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 271, 012086 (2011).
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P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. Jimenez, V. Lopez Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, and The IMaX Team, “IMaX: a polarimeter based on liquid crystal variable retarders for an aerospace mission,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041–1045 (2008).
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Mártinez Pillet, V.

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Martinez-Pillet, V.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. G. Parejo, J. Vargas, R. L. Heredero, R. Restrepo, V. Martinez-Pillet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, S. Fineschi, G. Capobianco, M. Georges, M. Lopez, G. Boer, and I. Manolis, “Imaging polarimeters based on liquid crystal variable retarders: an emergent technology for space instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Y (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martínez-Pillet, V.

R. L. Heredero, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, T. Belenguer, G. Ramos, A. Sánchez, M. Reina, V. Martínez-Pillet, and A. Álvarez-Herrero, “Liquid crystal variable retarders for aerospace polarimetry applications,” Appl. Opt. 46, 689–698 (2007).
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Martino, A. D.

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. D. Martino, and B. Drvillon, “Spectroscopic Mueller polarimeter based on liquid crystal devices,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 120–123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Massone, G.

L. Zangrilli, S. Fineschi, G. Massone, G. Capobianco, F. Porcu, and P. Calcidese, “EKPol: liquid crystal polarimeter for eclipse observations of the K-Corona,” in Solar Physics and Solar Eclipses (SPSE 2006)J. O. Stenflo, ed. (Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno, 2006), pp. 37–45.

Mellado, P.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meller, R.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Menéndez, M.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
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Miller, M. A.

M. H. Smith, J. D. Howe, J. B. Woodruff, M. A. Miller, G. R. Ax, T. E. Petty, and E. A. Sornsin, “Multispectral infrared Stokes imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 137–143 (1999).
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Miura, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014–1019 (2005).
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G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Two-modulator generalized ellipsometry: experiment and calibration,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8184–8189 (1997).
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V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
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Müller, R.

P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
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Murphy, G. A.

P. N. Bernasconi, D. M. Rust, H. A. Eaton, and G. A. Murphy, “Balloon-borne telescope for high-resolution solar imaging and polarimetry,” Proc. SPIE 4014, 214–225 (2000).
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Nelson, P.

P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
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L. J. November and L. M. Wilkins, “Liquid crystal polarimeter: a solid state imager for solar vector magnetic fields,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1659–1668 (1995).
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Orozco Suárez, D.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
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Osako, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014–1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paez, E.

V. Mártinez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopez, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. Diaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, and D. Soltau, “LPSP & TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations, and Techniques, Vol. 183 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. R. Rimmele, K. S. Balasubramaniam, and R. R. Radick, eds. (1999), pp. 264–272.

Parejo, P. G.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. G. Parejo, J. Vargas, R. L. Heredero, R. Restrepo, V. Martinez-Pillet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, S. Fineschi, G. Capobianco, M. Georges, M. Lopez, G. Boer, and I. Manolis, “Imaging polarimeters based on liquid crystal variable retarders: an emergent technology for space instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Y (2011).
[CrossRef]

Partington, K.

D. G. Corr, S. R. Cloude, L. Ferro-Famil, D. H. Hoekman, K. Partington, E. Pottier, and A. Rodrigues, “A review of the applications of SAR polarimetry and polarimetric interferometry—an ESA-funded study,” in Applications of SAR Polarimetry and Polarimetric Interferometry, Vol. 529 of ESA Special Publications (2003).

Pastor, C.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pérez Grande, I.

P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petty, T. E.

M. H. Smith, J. D. Howe, J. B. Woodruff, M. A. Miller, G. R. Ax, T. E. Petty, and E. A. Sornsin, “Multispectral infrared Stokes imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 137–143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phipps, G. S.

D. S. Sabatke, M. R. Descour, E. L. Dereniak, W. C. Sweatt, S. A. Kemme, and G. S. Phipps, “Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter,” Opt. Lett. 25, 802–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Piqueras, J.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poirier, S.

Porcu, F.

L. Zangrilli, S. Fineschi, G. Massone, G. Capobianco, F. Porcu, and P. Calcidese, “EKPol: liquid crystal polarimeter for eclipse observations of the K-Corona,” in Solar Physics and Solar Eclipses (SPSE 2006)J. O. Stenflo, ed. (Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno, 2006), pp. 37–45.

Pottier, E.

D. G. Corr, S. R. Cloude, L. Ferro-Famil, D. H. Hoekman, K. Partington, E. Pottier, and A. Rodrigues, “A review of the applications of SAR polarimetry and polarimetric interferometry—an ESA-funded study,” in Applications of SAR Polarimetry and Polarimetric Interferometry, Vol. 529 of ESA Special Publications (2003).

Pust, N. J.

N. J. Pust and J. A. Shaw, “Dual-field imaging polarimeter using liquid crystal variable retarders,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5470–5478 (2006).
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Ramos, G.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Heredero, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, T. Belenguer, G. Ramos, A. Sánchez, M. Reina, V. Martínez-Pillet, and A. Álvarez-Herrero, “Liquid crystal variable retarders for aerospace polarimetry applications,” Appl. Opt. 46, 689–698 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramos, J.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reina, M.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Heredero, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, T. Belenguer, G. Ramos, A. Sánchez, M. Reina, V. Martínez-Pillet, and A. Álvarez-Herrero, “Liquid crystal variable retarders for aerospace polarimetry applications,” Appl. Opt. 46, 689–698 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Restrepo, R.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. G. Parejo, J. Vargas, R. L. Heredero, R. Restrepo, V. Martinez-Pillet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, S. Fineschi, G. Capobianco, M. Georges, M. Lopez, G. Boer, and I. Manolis, “Imaging polarimeters based on liquid crystal variable retarders: an emergent technology for space instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Y (2011).
[CrossRef]

Riethmüller, T.

P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigues, A.

D. G. Corr, S. R. Cloude, L. Ferro-Famil, D. H. Hoekman, K. Partington, E. Pottier, and A. Rodrigues, “A review of the applications of SAR polarimetry and polarimetric interferometry—an ESA-funded study,” in Applications of SAR Polarimetry and Polarimetric Interferometry, Vol. 529 of ESA Special Publications (2003).

Rodríguez, P.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
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Rommel, S. D.

T. F. Drouillard, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, “Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders,” Proc. SPIE 5363, 86–97 (2004).
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Rust, D. M.

P. N. Bernasconi, D. M. Rust, H. A. Eaton, and G. A. Murphy, “Balloon-borne telescope for high-resolution solar imaging and polarimetry,” Proc. SPIE 4014, 214–225 (2000).
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Rutten, R. J.

F. Snik, F. C. M. Bettonvil, A. P. L. Jägers, R. H. Hammerschlag, R. J. Rutten, and C. U. Keller, “The Ba II 4554/Hβ imaging polarimeter for the Dutch Open Telescope,” in Solar Polarization 4, Vol. 358 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, R. Casini and B. W. Lites, ed. (2006), pp. 205–208.

Sabatke, D. S.

D. S. Sabatke, M. R. Descour, E. L. Dereniak, W. C. Sweatt, S. A. Kemme, and G. S. Phipps, “Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter,” Opt. Lett. 25, 802–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sabau-Graziati, L.

P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
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V. Martínez Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J. L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L. R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R. Heredero, M. Herranz, J. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S. Solanki, and S. Vargas Domínguez, “The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory,” Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011).
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V. Mártinez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopez, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. Diaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, and D. Soltau, “LPSP & TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations, and Techniques, Vol. 183 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. R. Rimmele, K. S. Balasubramaniam, and R. R. Radick, eds. (1999), pp. 264–272.

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V. Mártinez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopez, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. Diaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, and D. Soltau, “LPSP & TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations, and Techniques, Vol. 183 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. R. Rimmele, K. S. Balasubramaniam, and R. R. Radick, eds. (1999), pp. 264–272.

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P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
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V. Mártinez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopez, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. Diaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, and D. Soltau, “LPSP & TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations, and Techniques, Vol. 183 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. R. Rimmele, K. S. Balasubramaniam, and R. R. Radick, eds. (1999), pp. 264–272.

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P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
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P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, S. Solanki, M. Schüssler, B. Chares, W. Curdt, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, D. Germerott, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, R. Meller, R. Müller, T. Riethmüller, G. Tomasch, M. Knölker, B. Lites, G. Card, D. Elmore, J. Fox, A. Lecinski, P. Nelson, R. Summers, A. Watt, V. Martínez Pillet, J. Bonet, W. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, A. Title, V. Domingo, J. Gasent Blesa, J. del Toro Iniesta, A. López Jiménez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, C. Widani, P. Haberler, K. Härtel, D. Kampf, T. Levin, I. Pérez Grande, A. Sanz-Andrés, and E. Schmidt, “The Sunrise mission,” Sol. Phys. 268, 1–34 (2011).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

IMaX instrument optical design. The LCVRs are at the start of the light path, after F4. The two cameras are visible after the polarizing beam splitter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic IMaX polarization detection. Incoming light Stokes vector S is transformed into S x by the Mueller matrix of X , analyzed by A and, finally, the intensity I o of S o is detected.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Ideal calibration system.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calibration system PSG. Above, the lengths (specified in Table 2) and below, the Stokes vector at each stage.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calibration system PSA. Above, the lengths (specified in Table 2) and below, the Stokes vector at each stage.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calibration of the system’s C wave-plate retardance δ . Mean value is 90.29 deg, with a standard deviation of 0.03 deg.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Calibration of the system’s lens Lb. Image corresponds to the value of c Lb in degrees, thus | c Lb | 1 deg and the approximation used is valid.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured Mueller matrix elements M 12 and M 13 for W1 and A at 0 deg, normalized with respect to M 11 . The values are within the approximation of a small retardance introduced by W1, Eq. (16).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured Mueller matrix element M 14 for W1 and A at 0 deg, normalized with respect to M 11 . It implies W1 indeed presents a very small birefringence, according to Eq. (16).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Measured Mueller matrix elements M 12 and M 13 for W1 and A at 45 deg, normalized with respect to M 11 . The values are within the approximation of a small retardance introduced by W1, Eq. (16).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Measured Mueller matrix element M 14 for W1 and A at 45 deg, normalized with respect to M 11 . In this element the small birefringence is more evident.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Measured modulation matrix for the IMaX PMP, at 35.0 °C and ambient pressure. To ease interpretation, positive elements in the second, third, and fourth columns have a green scale and negative elements have a red scale. All elements have the same color-scale range of 0.25, but each element has its range centered at its mean value, to facilitate interpretation of the inhomogeneities in each element.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Efficiencies for the demodulation matrix for the IMaX PMP, at 35.0 °C and ambient pressure. All elements have the same color-scale range of 0.14, and the last three efficiencies are shown within the same color range to facilitate interpretation of the inhomogeneities in each element and the overall efficiency differencies.

Tables (13)

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Table 1. IMaX LCVRs Retardances Scheme

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Table 2. Lengths for the Optical Model of the Illumination and Detection Systems

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Table 3. W1 Calibration Mean and Standard Deviation Values

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Table 4. IMaX LCVRs Dynamic Calibration Voltages and Equivalent Effective Retardances a

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Table 5. IMaX PMP Mean Dynamic Calibration Modulation Matrix from Fig. 12, and its Standard Deviation Across the Image Plane, at 35.0 °C and Ambient Pressure

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Table 6. IMaX PMP Mean Demodulation Matrix and Efficiencies and its Standard Deviations Across the Image Plane, at 35.0 °C and Ambient Pressure

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Table 7. IMaX PMP Mean Dynamic Calibration Modulation Matrix in Vacuum ( 9 · 10 2 mbar ) at 35.0 °C, and its Standard Deviation Across the Image Plane

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Table 8. IMaX PMP Demodulation Matrix and Efficiencies Calculated from the Dynamic Calibration Modulation Matrix in Vacuum ( 9 · 10 2 mbar ) at 35.0 °C, and its Standard Deviations Across the Image Plane

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Table 9. IMaX PMP Mean Dynamic Calibration Modulation Matrix Change in Vacuum ( 9 · 10 2 mbar ) with Respect to Ambient Pressure, at 35.0 °C

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Table 10. IMaX PMP Mean Dynamic Calibration Modulation Matrix in Vacuum ( 9 · 10 2 mbar ) at 37.0 °C, and its Standard Deviation Across the Image Plane

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Table 11. IMaX PMP Demodulation Matrix and Efficiencies Calculated from the Dynamic Calibration Modulation Matrix in Vacuum ( 9 · 10 2 mbar ) at 37.0 °C, and its Standard Deviations Across the Image Plane

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Table 12. IMaX PMP Mean Dynamic Calibration Modulation Matrix in Vacuum ( 9 · 10 2 mbar ) at 30.0 °C, and its Standard Deviation Across the Image Plane

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Table 13. IMaX PMP Demodulation Matrix and Efficiencies Calculated from the Dynamic Calibration Modulation Matrix in Vacuum ( 9 · 10 2 mbar ) at 30.0 °C, and its Standard Deviations Across the Image Plane

Equations (35)

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[ I o Q o U o V o ] = A X [ I Q U V ] .
I o = [ M 11 M 12 M 13 M 14 ] × [ I Q U V ] ,
[ I o ( 1 ) I o ( 2 ) I o ( n ) ] = [ M 11 ( 1 ) M 12 ( 1 ) M 13 ( 1 ) M 14 ( 1 ) M 11 ( 2 ) M 12 ( 2 ) M 13 ( 2 ) M 14 ( 2 ) M 11 ( n ) M 12 ( n ) M 13 ( n ) M 14 ( n ) ] × [ I Q U V ] O S ,
S = O 1 [ I o ( 1 ) I o ( 2 ) I o ( n ) ] D I ,
[ I 1 i I 2 i I n i ] = [ 1 Q 1 U 1 V 1 1 Q 2 U 2 V 2 1 Q n U n V n ] [ O i 1 O i 2 O i 3 O i 4 ] I i = S O i ,
O i = S 1 I i .
S 2 = [ 1 ( cos 2 2 α + sin 2 2 α cos δ ) cos 2 α sin 2 α ( 1 cos δ ) sin 2 α sin δ ] .
S a = [ 1 1 0 0 ] ,
S b ( x , y ) = [ 1 1 0 δ Lb ( x , y ) sin 2 α Lb ( x , y ) ] .
S c = [ I c Q c U c V c ] = [ 1 ( cos 2 2 α + sin 2 2 α cos δ ) + δ Lb sin 2 α Lb sin 2 α sin δ cos 2 α sin 2 α ( 1 cos δ ) δ Lb sin 2 α Lb cos 2 α sin δ sin 2 α sin δ + δ Lb sin 2 α Lb cos δ ] ,
a I c ( α ) = a [ I c ( α ) Q c ( α ) ] = 1 + cos 2 2 α + sin 2 2 α cos δ δ Lb sin 2 α Lb sin 2 α sin δ ,
W 1 = [ 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 δ W 1 sin 2 α W 1 0 0 1 δ W 1 cos 2 α W 1 0 δ W 1 sin 2 α W 1 δ W 1 cos 2 α W 1 1 ] ,
S d = [ 1 Q c V c δ W 1 sin 2 α W 1 U c + V c δ W 1 cos 2 α W 1 V c + Q c δ W 1 sin 2 α W 1 U c δ W 1 cos 2 α W 1 ] .
[ I d , 1 I d , 2 I d , n ] I d = [ 1 Q c , 1 U c , 1 V c , 1 1 Q c , 2 U c , 2 V c , 2 1 Q c , n U c , n V c , n ] ( ( A ( γ ) W 1 ) | 1 ) t = S c ( M | 1 ) t ,
M | 1 = ( S c 1 I d ) t .
( A ( 0 deg ) W 1 ) | 1 = [ 1 1 0 δ W 1 sin 2 α W 1 ] M ,
( A ( 45 deg ) W 1 ) | 1 = [ 1 0 1 δ W 1 cos 2 α W 1 ] M ,
S = O 1 I ,
S = ( O + Δ O ) 1 ( I + Δ I ) .
Δ S S c Δ I I ,
Δ S S c Δ O O .
σ j 2 = σ 2 k = 1 n D j k 2 ,
σ ¯ j 2 = n σ 2 k = 1 n D j k 2 ,
σ ¯ j 2 = σ 2 ( n k = 1 n D j k 2 ) σ 2 ϵ j 2 ,
σ j = 1 n σ ϵ j .
ϵ 1 1 ,
ϵ T 2 j = 2 n ϵ j 2 1 ,
O = [ 1 cos σ 1 sin σ 1 sin ρ 1 sin σ 1 cos ρ 1 1 cos σ 4 sin σ 4 sin ρ 4 sin σ 4 cos ρ 4 ] = 1 3 [ 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 ] [ 1 0.577 0.577 0.577 1 0.577 0.577 0.577 1 0.577 0.577 0.577 1 0.577 0.577 0.577 ] ,
D = 3 4 [ 1 / 3 1 / 3 1 / 3 1 / 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ] [ 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.433 0.433 0.433 0.433 0.433 0.433 0.433 0.433 0.433 0.433 0.433 0.433 ] .
A B C D A ,
A B C D D C B A A .
S i = [ D i 1 D i 2 D i 3 D i 4 ] [ I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 ] .
δ S i = j = 1 n δ D i j I j S 1 .
δ S i j = 1 n δ D i j ,
σ i 2 = j = 1 4 I j 2 σ D i j 2 + σ 2 n ϵ i 2 .

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