Abstract

The accurate co-alignment of the transmitter to the receiver of the BepiColombo Laser Altimeter is a challenging task for which an original alignment concept had to be developed. We present here the design, construction and testing of a large collimator facility built to fulfill the tight alignment requirements. We describe in detail the solution found to attenuate the high energy of the instrument laser transmitter by an original beam splitting pentaprism group. We list the different steps of the calibration of the alignment facility and estimate the errors made at each of these steps. We finally prove that the current facility is ready for the alignment of the flight instrument. Its angular accuracy is 23 μrad.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. S. Gardner, “Ranging performance of satellite laser altimeters,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 1061–1072 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Wang, R. Shu, W. Chen, J. Jia, B. Wang, G. Huang, Y. Hu, and X. Hou, “Laser altimeter of CE-1 payloads system,” Sci. China G: Phys. Astron. 53, 1914–1920 (2010)
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from kaguya-lalt laser altimetry,” Science 323, 897–900 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

O. S. Barnouin-Jha, A. F. Cheng, T. Mukai, S. Abe, N. Hirata, R. Nakamura, R. W. Gaskell, J. Saito, and B. E. Clark, “Small-scale topography of 25143 Itokawa from the Hayabusa laser altimeter,” Icarus 198, 108–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

L. Ramos-Izquierdo, V. Stanley Scott, S. Schmidt, J. Britt, W. Mamakos, R. Trunzo, J. Cavanaugh, and R. Miller, “Optical system design and integration of the Mercury Laser Altimeter,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1748–1760 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Kamalakar, K. V. S. Bhaskar, A. S. Laxmi Prasad, R. Ranjith, K. A. Lohar, R. Venketeswaran, and T. K. Alex, “Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1,” J. Earth Sys. Sci. 114, 725–731.2005
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. S. Gardner, “Ranging performance of satellite laser altimeters,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 1061–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abe, S.

O. S. Barnouin-Jha, A. F. Cheng, T. Mukai, S. Abe, N. Hirata, R. Nakamura, R. W. Gaskell, J. Saito, and B. E. Clark, “Small-scale topography of 25143 Itokawa from the Hayabusa laser altimeter,” Icarus 198, 108–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Abshire, J. B.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aharonson, O.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alex, T. K.

J. A. Kamalakar, K. V. S. Bhaskar, A. S. Laxmi Prasad, R. Ranjith, K. A. Lohar, R. Venketeswaran, and T. K. Alex, “Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1,” J. Earth Sys. Sci. 114, 725–731.2005
[CrossRef]

Araki, H.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from kaguya-lalt laser altimetry,” Science 323, 897–900 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Banerdt, W. B.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barnouin, O. S.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnouin-Jha, O.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnouin-Jha, O. S.

O. S. Barnouin-Jha, A. F. Cheng, T. Mukai, S. Abe, N. Hirata, R. Nakamura, R. W. Gaskell, J. Saito, and B. E. Clark, “Small-scale topography of 25143 Itokawa from the Hayabusa laser altimeter,” Icarus 198, 108–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barriot, J.-P.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A. E.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benz, W.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berry, D. L.

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beutler, G.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bhaskar, K. V. S.

J. A. Kamalakar, K. V. S. Bhaskar, A. S. Laxmi Prasad, R. Ranjith, K. A. Lohar, R. Venketeswaran, and T. K. Alex, “Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1,” J. Earth Sys. Sci. 114, 725–731.2005
[CrossRef]

Britt, J.

Britt, J. L.

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cavanaugh, J.

Cavanaugh, J. F.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

J. Wang, R. Shu, W. Chen, J. Jia, B. Wang, G. Huang, Y. Hu, and X. Hou, “Laser altimeter of CE-1 payloads system,” Sci. China G: Phys. Astron. 53, 1914–1920 (2010)
[CrossRef]

Cheng, A. F.

O. S. Barnouin-Jha, A. F. Cheng, T. Mukai, S. Abe, N. Hirata, R. Nakamura, R. W. Gaskell, J. Saito, and B. E. Clark, “Small-scale topography of 25143 Itokawa from the Hayabusa laser altimeter,” Icarus 198, 108–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, U.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clark, B. E.

O. S. Barnouin-Jha, A. F. Cheng, T. Mukai, S. Abe, N. Hirata, R. Nakamura, R. W. Gaskell, J. Saito, and B. E. Clark, “Small-scale topography of 25143 Itokawa from the Hayabusa laser altimeter,” Icarus 198, 108–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cole, T. D.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dehant, V.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, P. J.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Duxbury, T. C.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duxbury, T. H.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fallnich, C.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, C. S.

C. S. Gardner, “Ranging performance of satellite laser altimeters,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 1061–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Garvin, J. B.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaskell, R. W.

O. S. Barnouin-Jha, A. F. Cheng, T. Mukai, S. Abe, N. Hirata, R. Nakamura, R. W. Gaskell, J. Saito, and B. E. Clark, “Small-scale topography of 25143 Itokawa from the Hayabusa laser altimeter,” Icarus 198, 108–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giardini, D.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goossens, S.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from kaguya-lalt laser altimetry,” Science 323, 897–900 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Groussin, O.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gunderson, K.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, J. K.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hauber, E.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hauck, S. A.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Head, J. W.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hilchenbach, M.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirata, N.

O. S. Barnouin-Jha, A. F. Cheng, T. Mukai, S. Abe, N. Hirata, R. Nakamura, R. W. Gaskell, J. Saito, and B. E. Clark, “Small-scale topography of 25143 Itokawa from the Hayabusa laser altimeter,” Icarus 198, 108–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X.

J. Wang, R. Shu, W. Chen, J. Jia, B. Wang, G. Huang, Y. Hu, and X. Hou, “Laser altimeter of CE-1 payloads system,” Sci. China G: Phys. Astron. 53, 1914–1920 (2010)
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

J. Wang, R. Shu, W. Chen, J. Jia, B. Wang, G. Huang, Y. Hu, and X. Hou, “Laser altimeter of CE-1 payloads system,” Sci. China G: Phys. Astron. 53, 1914–1920 (2010)
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

J. Wang, R. Shu, W. Chen, J. Jia, B. Wang, G. Huang, Y. Hu, and X. Hou, “Laser altimeter of CE-1 payloads system,” Sci. China G: Phys. Astron. 53, 1914–1920 (2010)
[CrossRef]

Iess, L.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, Y.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from kaguya-lalt laser altimetry,” Science 323, 897–900 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A. B.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jia, J.

J. Wang, R. Shu, W. Chen, J. Jia, B. Wang, G. Huang, Y. Hu, and X. Hou, “Laser altimeter of CE-1 payloads system,” Sci. China G: Phys. Astron. 53, 1914–1920 (2010)
[CrossRef]

Kamalakar, J. A.

J. A. Kamalakar, K. V. S. Bhaskar, A. S. Laxmi Prasad, R. Ranjith, K. A. Lohar, R. Venketeswaran, and T. K. Alex, “Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1,” J. Earth Sys. Sci. 114, 725–731.2005
[CrossRef]

Kamiya, I.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from kaguya-lalt laser altimetry,” Science 323, 897–900 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karsh, J.

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katz, R. B.

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, N.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from kaguya-lalt laser altimetry,” Science 323, 897–900 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, D. J.

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lamy, P.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lara, L.-M.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laxmi Prasad, A. S.

J. A. Kamalakar, K. V. S. Bhaskar, A. S. Laxmi Prasad, R. Ranjith, K. A. Lohar, R. Venketeswaran, and T. K. Alex, “Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1,” J. Earth Sys. Sci. 114, 725–731.2005
[CrossRef]

Lemoine, F. G.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liiva, P.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lognonné, P.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lohar, K. A.

J. A. Kamalakar, K. V. S. Bhaskar, A. S. Laxmi Prasad, R. Ranjith, K. A. Lohar, R. Venketeswaran, and T. K. Alex, “Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1,” J. Earth Sys. Sci. 114, 725–731.2005
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Moreno, J. J.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lucey, P. G.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lukemire, A. T.

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mamakos, W.

Mao, D. d.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mazarico, E.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McGarry, J. F.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McGovern, P. J.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McNutt, R. L.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, H.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R.

Muhleman, D. O.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

O. S. Barnouin-Jha, A. F. Cheng, T. Mukai, S. Abe, N. Hirata, R. Nakamura, R. W. Gaskell, J. Saito, and B. E. Clark, “Small-scale topography of 25143 Itokawa from the Hayabusa laser altimeter,” Icarus 198, 108–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, R.

O. S. Barnouin-Jha, A. F. Cheng, T. Mukai, S. Abe, N. Hirata, R. Nakamura, R. W. Gaskell, J. Saito, and B. E. Clark, “Small-scale topography of 25143 Itokawa from the Hayabusa laser altimeter,” Icarus 198, 108–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, G. A.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noda, H.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from kaguya-lalt laser altimetry,” Science 323, 897–900 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novo-Gradac, A. M.

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oberst, J.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from kaguya-lalt laser altimetry,” Science 323, 897–900 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Otake, H.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from kaguya-lalt laser altimetry,” Science 323, 897–900 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peale, S. J.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pettengill, G. H.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. J.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ramos-Izquierdo, L.

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Ramos-Izquierdo, V. Stanley Scott, S. Schmidt, J. Britt, W. Mamakos, R. Trunzo, J. Cavanaugh, and R. Miller, “Optical system design and integration of the Mercury Laser Altimeter,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1748–1760 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ranjith, R.

J. A. Kamalakar, K. V. S. Bhaskar, A. S. Laxmi Prasad, R. Ranjith, K. A. Lohar, R. Venketeswaran, and T. K. Alex, “Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1,” J. Earth Sys. Sci. 114, 725–731.2005
[CrossRef]

Resendes, D.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, J.-L.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, M. S.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, R.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rowlands, D. D.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saito, J.

O. S. Barnouin-Jha, A. F. Cheng, T. Mukai, S. Abe, N. Hirata, R. Nakamura, R. W. Gaskell, J. Saito, and B. E. Clark, “Small-scale topography of 25143 Itokawa from the Hayabusa laser altimeter,” Icarus 198, 108–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, S.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from kaguya-lalt laser altimetry,” Science 323, 897–900 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, S.

Seiferlin, K.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shu, R.

J. Wang, R. Shu, W. Chen, J. Jia, B. Wang, G. Huang, Y. Hu, and X. Hou, “Laser altimeter of CE-1 payloads system,” Sci. China G: Phys. Astron. 53, 1914–1920 (2010)
[CrossRef]

Shum, C.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from kaguya-lalt laser altimetry,” Science 323, 897–900 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. E.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. C.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S. C.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spohn, T.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stanley Scott, V.

Sun, X.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Swinski, J. P.

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Szymkiewicz, R.

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tazawa, S.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from kaguya-lalt laser altimetry,” Science 323, 897–900 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, N.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torrence, M. H.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trunzo, R.

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Ramos-Izquierdo, V. Stanley Scott, S. Schmidt, J. Britt, W. Mamakos, R. Trunzo, J. Cavanaugh, and R. Miller, “Optical system design and integration of the Mercury Laser Altimeter,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1748–1760 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Venketeswaran, R.

J. A. Kamalakar, K. V. S. Bhaskar, A. S. Laxmi Prasad, R. Ranjith, K. A. Lohar, R. Venketeswaran, and T. K. Alex, “Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1,” J. Earth Sys. Sci. 114, 725–731.2005
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

J. Wang, R. Shu, W. Chen, J. Jia, B. Wang, G. Huang, Y. Hu, and X. Hou, “Laser altimeter of CE-1 payloads system,” Sci. China G: Phys. Astron. 53, 1914–1920 (2010)
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, R. Shu, W. Chen, J. Jia, B. Wang, G. Huang, Y. Hu, and X. Hou, “Laser altimeter of CE-1 payloads system,” Sci. China G: Phys. Astron. 53, 1914–1920 (2010)
[CrossRef]

Whitby, J.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wieczorek, M.

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zemax,

Zemax, “Optical design program user’s guide” (2007).

Zuber, M. T.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zuber, T. M.

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zwally, H. J.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, E. Mazarico, M. H. Torrence, J. F. McGarry, D. D. Rowlands, J. W. Head, T. H. Duxbury, O. Aharonson, P. G. Lucey, M. S. Robinson, O. S. Barnouin, J. F. Cavanaugh, X. Sun, P. Liiva, D. d. Mao, J. C. Smith, and A. E. Bartels, “Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L18204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (1)

O. S. Barnouin-Jha, A. F. Cheng, T. Mukai, S. Abe, N. Hirata, R. Nakamura, R. W. Gaskell, J. Saito, and B. E. Clark, “Small-scale topography of 25143 Itokawa from the Hayabusa laser altimeter,” Icarus 198, 108–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

C. S. Gardner, “Ranging performance of satellite laser altimeters,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 1061–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Earth Sys. Sci. (1)

J. A. Kamalakar, K. V. S. Bhaskar, A. S. Laxmi Prasad, R. Ranjith, K. A. Lohar, R. Venketeswaran, and T. K. Alex, “Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1,” J. Earth Sys. Sci. 114, 725–731.2005
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

N. Thomas, T. Spohn, J.-P. Barriot, W. Benz, G. Beutler, U. Christensen, V. Dehant, C. Fallnich, D. Giardini, O. Groussin, K. Gunderson, E. Hauber, M. Hilchenbach, L. Iess, P. Lamy, L.-M. Lara, P. Lognonné, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, D. Resendes, J.-L. Reynaud, R. Rodrigo, S. Sasaki, K. Seiferlin, M. Wieczorek, and J. Whitby, “The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA): Concept and baseline design,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1398–1413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sci. China G: Phys. Astron. (1)

J. Wang, R. Shu, W. Chen, J. Jia, B. Wang, G. Huang, Y. Hu, and X. Hou, “Laser altimeter of CE-1 payloads system,” Sci. China G: Phys. Astron. 53, 1914–1920 (2010)
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, A. F. Cheng, J. B. Garvin, O. Aharonson, T. D. Cole, P. J. Dunn, Y. Guo, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and M. H. Torrence, “The shape of 433 Eros from near-shoemaker laser rangefinder,” Science 289, 2097–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from kaguya-lalt laser altimetry,” Science 323, 897–900 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, W. B. Banerdt, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, J. B. Abshire, O. Aharonson, D. Brown, S. A. Hauck, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Zwally, and T. C. Duxbury, “The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution,” Science 284, 1495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, S. J. Peale, J. W. Head, S. A. Hauck, R. L. McNutt, J. Oberst, G. A. Neumann, F. G. Lemoine, X. Sun, O. Barnouin-Jha, and J. K. Harmon, “Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby,” Science 321, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

J. F. Cavanaugh, J. C. Smith, X. Sun, A. E. Bartels, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. J. Krebs, J. F. McGarry, R. Trunzo, A. M. Novo-Gradac, J. L. Britt, J. Karsh, R. B. Katz, A. T. Lukemire, R. Szymkiewicz, D. L. Berry, J. P. Swinski, G. A. Neumann, T. M. Zuber, and D. E. Smith, “The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 131, 451–479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Zemax, “Optical design program user’s guide” (2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

CAD/CAM of the BELA instrument.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sketch of the different setups used in the “Star Simulator” laboratory. The three dashed boxes indicate three different possible configurations while the rest of the setup is fixed. Configuration 1: Verification of the tilt angle measurement linearity. Configuration 2: Fiber alignment to the focus of the off-axis parabolic mirror (OPM). Configuration 3: Tx-Rx co-alignment. PM, primary mirror; SM, secondary mirror; PPG, pentaprism group; WFS, wavefront sensor; FM, folding mirror.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Sketch (a) and picture (b) of the pentaprism group used for attenuation and beam splitting.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Wavefront error calculated with the Zemax model of the alignment setup. The wavefront error is plotted against the fiber decenter along the optical axis z(*) and perpendicular to the optical axis y(+). Tip, tilt, and defocus of the detector are not considered in the wavefront error calculation. A diffraction limited system requires wavefront error smaller than 49 nm for λ=635nm. The resolution of the wavefront sensor (WFS) is λ/50=12.7nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Wavefront error was measured with a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor while the fiber light source was adjusted to the focus of the off axis parabolic mirror. RMS wavefront error is plotted for different fiber positions, where y (a) is the horizontal and x (b) is the vertical displacement. First the y axis was scanned to find the optimal horizontal position of the fiber and then the x axis was scanned with the y position set at optimum. The RMS error between the measured wavefront and the Zernike fit is 30 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Mirror tilt angle measurement from the autocollimator plotted against the CCD measurement for vertical (top) and horizontal (bottom) tilt. The measured points are shown as “x” and the error on the CCD measurement is indicated by a vertical line through the “x.” The errors on the autocollimator measurements are in the range of 0.1 μrad and thus too small to appear on the plots. The dashed line represents the position of the ideal measurements.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

CAD sketch of the Tx and Rx mounted in vertical position facing downward. A folding mirror tilted to 45° reflects the light toward the OPM. At the front is the light source on a xyz-table.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1. BELA Characteristics

Tables Icon

Table 2. Alignment Error Budget

Tables Icon

Table 3. Alignment Requirements for BELA and MLA [11] Integration

Tables Icon

Table 4. Equipment List of the Star Simulator Laboratory

Tables Icon

Table 5. Summary of Error Sources in the Alignment Setup for a Field Angle of 1 mrad

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α=12arctan(y/feff),
feff=fOPM2+o2/2+o4/16fOPM2,
φRx=arctan(1feff·(xRxx0)2+(yRxy0)2),

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