Abstract

We introduce a new polarization conversion system (PCS) based on a liquid-crystal polarization grating (PG) and louvered wave plate. A simple arrangement of these elements laminated between two microlens arrays results in a compact and monolithic element, with the ability to nearly completely convert unpolarized input into linearly polarized output across most of the visible bandwidth. In our first prototypes, this PG-PCS approach manifests nearly 90% conversion efficiency of unpolarized to polarized for ±11° input light divergence, leading to an energy efficient picoprojector that presents high efficacy (12lm/W) with good color uniformity.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. S. Brennesholtz and E. H. Stupp, Projection Displays(Wiley, 2008).
  2. M. F. Weber, O. Benson, S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, A. J. Ouderkirk, D. L. Wortman, and C. A. Stover, “Display with reflective polarizer and randomizing cavity,” U.S. patent 6,025,897 (15February2000).
  3. Y. Itoh and T. Hashizume, “Polarization conversion element, polarization illuminator, display using the same illuminator, and projection type display,” U.S. patent 5,986,809(16November1999).
  4. D. F. Vanderwerf, “Polarized illumination system for LCD projector,” U.S. patent 5,995,284 (30November1999).
  5. M. Duelli and A. T. Taylor, “Novel polarization conversion and integration system for projection displays,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 34, 766–769 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. K. Slack, M. V. Khazova, T. Takatsuka, K. Mitani, K. Inoko, G. J. Woodgate, M. Hara, G. Bourhill, and E. Walton, “Polarization separation element, a polarization conversion system, an optical element, and a projection display system,” U.S. patent 6,621,533 (16September2003).
  7. E. Seo, H. C. Kee, Y. Kim, S. Jeong, H. Choi, S. Lee, J. Kim, R. K. Komanduri, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization conversion system using a polymer polarization grating,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 42, 540–543 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. J. Escuti, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Polarization gratings in mesogenic films,” U.S. patent 8,064,035 (22November2011).
  9. L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, “Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 579–588 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, “Numerical analysis of polarization gratings using the finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043815 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Simplified spectropolarimetry using reactive mesogen polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630207 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical axis gratings in liquid crystals and their use for polarization insensitive optical switching,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 1–47 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. K. Komanduri and M. J. Escuti, “High efficiency reflective liquid crystal polarization gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, “Achromatic diffraction from polarization gratings with high efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2287–2289 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. K. Komanduri, J. Kim, K. F. Lawler, and M. J. Escuti, “Multi-twist retarders for broadband polarization transformation,” Proc. SPIE 8279, 82790E (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

R. K. Komanduri, J. Kim, K. F. Lawler, and M. J. Escuti, “Multi-twist retarders for broadband polarization transformation,” Proc. SPIE 8279, 82790E (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

E. Seo, H. C. Kee, Y. Kim, S. Jeong, H. Choi, S. Lee, J. Kim, R. K. Komanduri, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization conversion system using a polymer polarization grating,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 42, 540–543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical axis gratings in liquid crystals and their use for polarization insensitive optical switching,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 1–47 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Komanduri and M. J. Escuti, “High efficiency reflective liquid crystal polarization gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, “Numerical analysis of polarization gratings using the finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Simplified spectropolarimetry using reactive mesogen polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Duelli and A. T. Taylor, “Novel polarization conversion and integration system for projection displays,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 34, 766–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1984

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, “Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 579–588 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, C.

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Simplified spectropolarimetry using reactive mesogen polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

M. J. Escuti, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Polarization gratings in mesogenic films,” U.S. patent 8,064,035 (22November2011).

Benson, O.

M. F. Weber, O. Benson, S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, A. J. Ouderkirk, D. L. Wortman, and C. A. Stover, “Display with reflective polarizer and randomizing cavity,” U.S. patent 6,025,897 (15February2000).

Bourhill, G.

J. K. Slack, M. V. Khazova, T. Takatsuka, K. Mitani, K. Inoko, G. J. Woodgate, M. Hara, G. Bourhill, and E. Walton, “Polarization separation element, a polarization conversion system, an optical element, and a projection display system,” U.S. patent 6,621,533 (16September2003).

Brennesholtz, M. S.

M. S. Brennesholtz and E. H. Stupp, Projection Displays(Wiley, 2008).

Broer, D. J.

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Simplified spectropolarimetry using reactive mesogen polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Polarization gratings in mesogenic films,” U.S. patent 8,064,035 (22November2011).

Callan-Jones, A.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

E. Seo, H. C. Kee, Y. Kim, S. Jeong, H. Choi, S. Lee, J. Kim, R. K. Komanduri, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization conversion system using a polymer polarization grating,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 42, 540–543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cobb, S.

M. F. Weber, O. Benson, S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, A. J. Ouderkirk, D. L. Wortman, and C. A. Stover, “Display with reflective polarizer and randomizing cavity,” U.S. patent 6,025,897 (15February2000).

Crawford, G. P.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duelli, M.

M. Duelli and A. T. Taylor, “Novel polarization conversion and integration system for projection displays,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 34, 766–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eakin, J. N.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Escuti, M. J.

R. K. Komanduri, J. Kim, K. F. Lawler, and M. J. Escuti, “Multi-twist retarders for broadband polarization transformation,” Proc. SPIE 8279, 82790E (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Seo, H. C. Kee, Y. Kim, S. Jeong, H. Choi, S. Lee, J. Kim, R. K. Komanduri, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization conversion system using a polymer polarization grating,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 42, 540–543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Komanduri and M. J. Escuti, “High efficiency reflective liquid crystal polarization gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, “Achromatic diffraction from polarization gratings with high efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2287–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, “Numerical analysis of polarization gratings using the finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Simplified spectropolarimetry using reactive mesogen polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Polarization gratings in mesogenic films,” U.S. patent 8,064,035 (22November2011).

Hara, M.

J. K. Slack, M. V. Khazova, T. Takatsuka, K. Mitani, K. Inoko, G. J. Woodgate, M. Hara, G. Bourhill, and E. Walton, “Polarization separation element, a polarization conversion system, an optical element, and a projection display system,” U.S. patent 6,621,533 (16September2003).

Hashizume, T.

Y. Itoh and T. Hashizume, “Polarization conversion element, polarization illuminator, display using the same illuminator, and projection type display,” U.S. patent 5,986,809(16November1999).

Inoko, K.

J. K. Slack, M. V. Khazova, T. Takatsuka, K. Mitani, K. Inoko, G. J. Woodgate, M. Hara, G. Bourhill, and E. Walton, “Polarization separation element, a polarization conversion system, an optical element, and a projection display system,” U.S. patent 6,621,533 (16September2003).

Itoh, Y.

Y. Itoh and T. Hashizume, “Polarization conversion element, polarization illuminator, display using the same illuminator, and projection type display,” U.S. patent 5,986,809(16November1999).

Jeong, S.

E. Seo, H. C. Kee, Y. Kim, S. Jeong, H. Choi, S. Lee, J. Kim, R. K. Komanduri, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization conversion system using a polymer polarization grating,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 42, 540–543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jonza, J. M.

M. F. Weber, O. Benson, S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, A. J. Ouderkirk, D. L. Wortman, and C. A. Stover, “Display with reflective polarizer and randomizing cavity,” U.S. patent 6,025,897 (15February2000).

Kee, H. C.

E. Seo, H. C. Kee, Y. Kim, S. Jeong, H. Choi, S. Lee, J. Kim, R. K. Komanduri, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization conversion system using a polymer polarization grating,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 42, 540–543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khazova, M. V.

J. K. Slack, M. V. Khazova, T. Takatsuka, K. Mitani, K. Inoko, G. J. Woodgate, M. Hara, G. Bourhill, and E. Walton, “Polarization separation element, a polarization conversion system, an optical element, and a projection display system,” U.S. patent 6,621,533 (16September2003).

Kim, J.

R. K. Komanduri, J. Kim, K. F. Lawler, and M. J. Escuti, “Multi-twist retarders for broadband polarization transformation,” Proc. SPIE 8279, 82790E (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Seo, H. C. Kee, Y. Kim, S. Jeong, H. Choi, S. Lee, J. Kim, R. K. Komanduri, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization conversion system using a polymer polarization grating,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 42, 540–543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

E. Seo, H. C. Kee, Y. Kim, S. Jeong, H. Choi, S. Lee, J. Kim, R. K. Komanduri, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization conversion system using a polymer polarization grating,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 42, 540–543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, B. R.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical axis gratings in liquid crystals and their use for polarization insensitive optical switching,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 1–47 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Komanduri, R. K.

R. K. Komanduri, J. Kim, K. F. Lawler, and M. J. Escuti, “Multi-twist retarders for broadband polarization transformation,” Proc. SPIE 8279, 82790E (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Seo, H. C. Kee, Y. Kim, S. Jeong, H. Choi, S. Lee, J. Kim, R. K. Komanduri, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization conversion system using a polymer polarization grating,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 42, 540–543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Komanduri and M. J. Escuti, “High efficiency reflective liquid crystal polarization gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lawler, K. F.

R. K. Komanduri, J. Kim, K. F. Lawler, and M. J. Escuti, “Multi-twist retarders for broadband polarization transformation,” Proc. SPIE 8279, 82790E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

E. Seo, H. C. Kee, Y. Kim, S. Jeong, H. Choi, S. Lee, J. Kim, R. K. Komanduri, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization conversion system using a polymer polarization grating,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 42, 540–543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mitani, K.

J. K. Slack, M. V. Khazova, T. Takatsuka, K. Mitani, K. Inoko, G. J. Woodgate, M. Hara, G. Bourhill, and E. Walton, “Polarization separation element, a polarization conversion system, an optical element, and a projection display system,” U.S. patent 6,621,533 (16September2003).

Nersisyan, S. R.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical axis gratings in liquid crystals and their use for polarization insensitive optical switching,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 1–47 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, “Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 579–588 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Oh, C.

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, “Achromatic diffraction from polarization gratings with high efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2287–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, “Numerical analysis of polarization gratings using the finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Simplified spectropolarimetry using reactive mesogen polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ouderkirk, A. J.

M. F. Weber, O. Benson, S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, A. J. Ouderkirk, D. L. Wortman, and C. A. Stover, “Display with reflective polarizer and randomizing cavity,” U.S. patent 6,025,897 (15February2000).

Pelcovits, R. A.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Radcliffe, M. D.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, C.

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Simplified spectropolarimetry using reactive mesogen polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Polarization gratings in mesogenic films,” U.S. patent 8,064,035 (22November2011).

Seo, E.

E. Seo, H. C. Kee, Y. Kim, S. Jeong, H. Choi, S. Lee, J. Kim, R. K. Komanduri, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization conversion system using a polymer polarization grating,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 42, 540–543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Slack, J. K.

J. K. Slack, M. V. Khazova, T. Takatsuka, K. Mitani, K. Inoko, G. J. Woodgate, M. Hara, G. Bourhill, and E. Walton, “Polarization separation element, a polarization conversion system, an optical element, and a projection display system,” U.S. patent 6,621,533 (16September2003).

Steeves, D. M.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical axis gratings in liquid crystals and their use for polarization insensitive optical switching,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 1–47 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stover, C. A.

M. F. Weber, O. Benson, S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, A. J. Ouderkirk, D. L. Wortman, and C. A. Stover, “Display with reflective polarizer and randomizing cavity,” U.S. patent 6,025,897 (15February2000).

Stupp, E. H.

M. S. Brennesholtz and E. H. Stupp, Projection Displays(Wiley, 2008).

Tabiryan, N. V.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical axis gratings in liquid crystals and their use for polarization insensitive optical switching,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 1–47 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takatsuka, T.

J. K. Slack, M. V. Khazova, T. Takatsuka, K. Mitani, K. Inoko, G. J. Woodgate, M. Hara, G. Bourhill, and E. Walton, “Polarization separation element, a polarization conversion system, an optical element, and a projection display system,” U.S. patent 6,621,533 (16September2003).

Taylor, A. T.

M. Duelli and A. T. Taylor, “Novel polarization conversion and integration system for projection displays,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 34, 766–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, T.

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, “Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 579–588 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vanderwerf, D. F.

D. F. Vanderwerf, “Polarized illumination system for LCD projector,” U.S. patent 5,995,284 (30November1999).

Walton, E.

J. K. Slack, M. V. Khazova, T. Takatsuka, K. Mitani, K. Inoko, G. J. Woodgate, M. Hara, G. Bourhill, and E. Walton, “Polarization separation element, a polarization conversion system, an optical element, and a projection display system,” U.S. patent 6,621,533 (16September2003).

Weber, M. F.

M. F. Weber, O. Benson, S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, A. J. Ouderkirk, D. L. Wortman, and C. A. Stover, “Display with reflective polarizer and randomizing cavity,” U.S. patent 6,025,897 (15February2000).

Woodgate, G. J.

J. K. Slack, M. V. Khazova, T. Takatsuka, K. Mitani, K. Inoko, G. J. Woodgate, M. Hara, G. Bourhill, and E. Walton, “Polarization separation element, a polarization conversion system, an optical element, and a projection display system,” U.S. patent 6,621,533 (16September2003).

Wortman, D. L.

M. F. Weber, O. Benson, S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, A. J. Ouderkirk, D. L. Wortman, and C. A. Stover, “Display with reflective polarizer and randomizing cavity,” U.S. patent 6,025,897 (15February2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. K. Komanduri and M. J. Escuti, “High efficiency reflective liquid crystal polarization gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical axis gratings in liquid crystals and their use for polarization insensitive optical switching,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 1–47 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, “Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 579–588 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, “Numerical analysis of polarization gratings using the finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Simplified spectropolarimetry using reactive mesogen polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Komanduri, J. Kim, K. F. Lawler, and M. J. Escuti, “Multi-twist retarders for broadband polarization transformation,” Proc. SPIE 8279, 82790E (2012).
[CrossRef]

SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.

M. Duelli and A. T. Taylor, “Novel polarization conversion and integration system for projection displays,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 34, 766–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Seo, H. C. Kee, Y. Kim, S. Jeong, H. Choi, S. Lee, J. Kim, R. K. Komanduri, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization conversion system using a polymer polarization grating,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 42, 540–543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. J. Escuti, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Polarization gratings in mesogenic films,” U.S. patent 8,064,035 (22November2011).

J. K. Slack, M. V. Khazova, T. Takatsuka, K. Mitani, K. Inoko, G. J. Woodgate, M. Hara, G. Bourhill, and E. Walton, “Polarization separation element, a polarization conversion system, an optical element, and a projection display system,” U.S. patent 6,621,533 (16September2003).

M. S. Brennesholtz and E. H. Stupp, Projection Displays(Wiley, 2008).

M. F. Weber, O. Benson, S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, A. J. Ouderkirk, D. L. Wortman, and C. A. Stover, “Display with reflective polarizer and randomizing cavity,” U.S. patent 6,025,897 (15February2000).

Y. Itoh and T. Hashizume, “Polarization conversion element, polarization illuminator, display using the same illuminator, and projection type display,” U.S. patent 5,986,809(16November1999).

D. F. Vanderwerf, “Polarized illumination system for LCD projector,” U.S. patent 5,995,284 (30November1999).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) PG behavior and geometry; (b) macroscopic concept of polarization conversion from unpolarized to linearly polarized using a lens, PG, and two quarter-wave plates (QWPs); and (c) our monolithic PG-PCS concept, with two microlens arrays (MLAs). ±θDIV is the divergence angle of the light.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

PG characterization: first-order diffraction efficiency (η+1+η1) spectrum of a PG with a 3.6 μm grating period for various input light divergence in visible range; (inset) a photograph of unpolarized, white LED light diffracted by a PG.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

LWP characterization: polarization conversion efficiency of an LWP converting circular polarization into linear polarization; (inset) picture of the LWP placed between crossed polarizers. A second nonlouvered QWP was inserted between the LWP and polarizer to show the contrast between the two LWP zones.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured PCS performance showing 90% correct polarization transmittance in most of the visible range, (inset) layout of the PCS characterization setup. (b) Illumination of the PCS on a screen, (inset) a photograph of the PCS.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

PCS transmittance of the correct polarization for various input divergence angles.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Optical layout of the prototype picoprojector based on PG-PCS. (b) Photograph of the picoprojector.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Photographs of images projected by the prototype picoprojector using the PG-PCS.

Equations (1)

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Λ=λsin(tan1(D/4f)).

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