Abstract

This paper presents the design of a multichannel imaging system where the different optical channels have a different angular resolution and field-of-view. Such an imaging system is able to resolve fine details in a small region of interest through the channel that has the highest angular resolution (0.0096°) while controlling the surrounding region through the channel that has the widest field-of-view (2×40°). An interesting feature of such a multichannel, multiresolution imaging system is that various image processing algorithms can be applied at different segments of the image sensor. We have designed a three channel imaging system where each optical channel consists of four aspheric lens surfaces. These three imaging channels share a single image sensor with a resolution of 1440×960 and a 10 μm pixel size. All imaging channels have diffraction-limited performance ensuring good overall image quality.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Kingslake, Optical System Design (Academic, 1983).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Duparré and F. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspiration Biomimetics 1, R1–R16 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Brückner, J. Duparré, R. Leitel, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Thin wafer-level camera lenses inspired by insect compound eyes,” Opt. Express 18, 24379–24394 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Duparré, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Artificial compound eye zoom camera,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 3, 046008 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Bräuer, A. Brückner, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and R. Leitel, “High resolution multichannel imaging systems,” presented at the 17th Microoptics Conference (MOC’11)Sendai, Japan, 30 Oct.–2 Nov. 2011.
  10. E. Moens, Y. Meuret, H. Ottevaere, M. Sarkar, D. S. Segundo Bello, P. Merken, and H. Thienpont, “An insect eye based image sensor with very wide field of view,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162D (2010).
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  11. J. Duparré and R. Völkel, “Novel optics/micro-optics for miniature imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619607 (2006).
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  12. K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312, 557–561 (2006).
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  13. L. Li and A. Y. Yi, “Development of a 3D artificial compound eye,” Opt. Express 18, 18125–18137 (2010).
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  14. G. Druart, N. Guérineau, R. Haïdar, S. Thétas, J. Taboury, S. Rommeluére, J. Primot, and M. Fendler, “Demonstration of an infrared micro-camera inspired by Xenospeckii vision,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3368–3374 (2009).
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  16. S. E. Kemeny, R. Panicacci, B. Pain, L. Matthies, and E. R. Fossum, “Multi-resolution image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Techol. 7, 575–583 (1997).
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  18. L. Marcenaro, L. Marchesotti, and C. S. Regazzoni, “A multi-resolution outdoor dual camera system for robust video-event meta data extraction,” in Proceedings of International Society of Information Fusion (ISIF, 2002), pp. 1184–1189.
  19. N. Bellotto, E. Sommerlade, B. Benfold, C. Bibby, I. Reid, D. Roth, C. Fernández, L. V. Gool, and J. Gonzàlez, “A distributed camera system for multi-resolution surveillance,” in Third ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC, 2009).
  20. M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, T. Schulz, R. Gibbons, R. T. Kolste, J. Carriere, C. Chen, D. Prather, and D. Brady, “Thin infrared imaging systems through multichannel sampling,” Appl. Opt. 47, B1–B10 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, R. T. Kolste, C. Chen, R. Gibbons, and D. J. Brady, “Ultra-thin multiple-channel LWIR imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6294, 629411 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. H. Park, H. M. Oh, and M. G. Kang, “Multi-camera imaging system using super-resolution,” in 23rd International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications (ITC-CSCC, 2008), pp. 465–468.
  23. P. Milojkovic, J. Gill, D. Frattin, K. Coyle, K. Haack, S. Myhr, D. Rajan, S. Douglas, P. Papamichalis, M. Somayaji, M. P. Christensen, K. Krapels, “Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on PANOPTES architecture,” in Computational Optical Sensing and ImagingOSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuB4.
  24. P. Viola and M. Jones, “Robust real-time object detection,” in Second International Workshop on Statistical and Computational Theories of Vision—Modeling, Learning, Computing, and Sampling (2001).
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  26. D. Gerónimo, A. M. López, A. D. Sappa, and T. Graf, “Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 32, 1239–1258 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 886–893.
  28. Q. Zhu, S. Avidan, M. C. Yeh, and K. T. Cheng, “Fast human detection using a cascade of histograms of oriented gradients,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1491–1498.
  29. Y. Freund and R. E. Schapire, “A short introduction to boosting,” J. Japanese Society Artificial Intelligence 14, 771–780 (1999).

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

C. Hughes, P. Denny, E. Jones, and M. Glavin, “Accuracy of fish-eye lens models,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3338–3347 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li and A. Y. Yi, “Development of a 3D artificial compound eye,” Opt. Express 18, 18125–18137 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Brückner, J. Duparré, R. Leitel, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Thin wafer-level camera lenses inspired by insect compound eyes,” Opt. Express 18, 24379–24394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Gerónimo, A. M. López, A. D. Sappa, and T. Graf, “Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 32, 1239–1258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Moens, Y. Meuret, H. Ottevaere, M. Sarkar, D. S. Segundo Bello, P. Merken, and H. Thienpont, “An insect eye based image sensor with very wide field of view,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162D (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, T. Schulz, R. Gibbons, R. T. Kolste, J. Carriere, C. Chen, D. Prather, and D. Brady, “Thin infrared imaging systems through multichannel sampling,” Appl. Opt. 47, B1–B10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Y. Lam, “Compact and thin multi-lens system for machine vision applications,” Proc. SPIE 6813, 681305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Duparré, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Artificial compound eye zoom camera,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 3, 046008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. R. Fallah and A. Karimzadeh, “Design and simulation of a high-resolution superposition compound eye,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 67–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

J. Duparré and F. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspiration Biomimetics 1, R1–R16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, R. T. Kolste, C. Chen, R. Gibbons, and D. J. Brady, “Ultra-thin multiple-channel LWIR imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6294, 629411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Duparré and R. Völkel, “Novel optics/micro-optics for miniature imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312, 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Freund and R. E. Schapire, “A short introduction to boosting,” J. Japanese Society Artificial Intelligence 14, 771–780 (1999).

1997 (1)

S. E. Kemeny, R. Panicacci, B. Pain, L. Matthies, and E. R. Fossum, “Multi-resolution image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Techol. 7, 575–583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Avidan, S.

Q. Zhu, S. Avidan, M. C. Yeh, and K. T. Cheng, “Fast human detection using a cascade of histograms of oriented gradients,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1491–1498.

Bellotto, N.

N. Bellotto, E. Sommerlade, B. Benfold, C. Bibby, I. Reid, D. Roth, C. Fernández, L. V. Gool, and J. Gonzàlez, “A distributed camera system for multi-resolution surveillance,” in Third ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC, 2009).

Benfold, B.

N. Bellotto, E. Sommerlade, B. Benfold, C. Bibby, I. Reid, D. Roth, C. Fernández, L. V. Gool, and J. Gonzàlez, “A distributed camera system for multi-resolution surveillance,” in Third ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC, 2009).

Bibby, C.

N. Bellotto, E. Sommerlade, B. Benfold, C. Bibby, I. Reid, D. Roth, C. Fernández, L. V. Gool, and J. Gonzàlez, “A distributed camera system for multi-resolution surveillance,” in Third ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC, 2009).

Brady, D.

Brady, D. J.

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, R. T. Kolste, C. Chen, R. Gibbons, and D. J. Brady, “Ultra-thin multiple-channel LWIR imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6294, 629411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, A.

A. Brückner, J. Duparré, R. Leitel, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Thin wafer-level camera lenses inspired by insect compound eyes,” Opt. Express 18, 24379–24394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Duparré, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Artificial compound eye zoom camera,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 3, 046008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bräuer, A. Brückner, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and R. Leitel, “High resolution multichannel imaging systems,” presented at the 17th Microoptics Conference (MOC’11)Sendai, Japan, 30 Oct.–2 Nov. 2011.

Brückner, A.

A. Brückner, J. Duparré, R. Leitel, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Thin wafer-level camera lenses inspired by insect compound eyes,” Opt. Express 18, 24379–24394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bräuer, A. Brückner, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and R. Leitel, “High resolution multichannel imaging systems,” presented at the 17th Microoptics Conference (MOC’11)Sendai, Japan, 30 Oct.–2 Nov. 2011.

Camacho, P.

P. Camacho, F. Coslado, M. Gonzalez, and F. Sandoval, “Adaptive multiresolution imager based on FPGAs,” in X European Signal Processing Conference (2000), pp. 1449–1452.

Carriere, J.

Chen, C.

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, T. Schulz, R. Gibbons, R. T. Kolste, J. Carriere, C. Chen, D. Prather, and D. Brady, “Thin infrared imaging systems through multichannel sampling,” Appl. Opt. 47, B1–B10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, R. T. Kolste, C. Chen, R. Gibbons, and D. J. Brady, “Ultra-thin multiple-channel LWIR imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6294, 629411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K. T.

Q. Zhu, S. Avidan, M. C. Yeh, and K. T. Cheng, “Fast human detection using a cascade of histograms of oriented gradients,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1491–1498.

Christensen, M. P.

P. Milojkovic, J. Gill, D. Frattin, K. Coyle, K. Haack, S. Myhr, D. Rajan, S. Douglas, P. Papamichalis, M. Somayaji, M. P. Christensen, K. Krapels, “Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on PANOPTES architecture,” in Computational Optical Sensing and ImagingOSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuB4.

Clark, J. I. W.

A. J. Lipton, J. I. W. Clark, B. Thompson, G. Myers, Z. Zhang, S. Titus, and P. L. Venetianer, “The intelligent vision sensor: turning video into information,” in IEEE Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS, 2007), pp. 63–68.

Coslado, F.

P. Camacho, F. Coslado, M. Gonzalez, and F. Sandoval, “Adaptive multiresolution imager based on FPGAs,” in X European Signal Processing Conference (2000), pp. 1449–1452.

Coyle, K.

P. Milojkovic, J. Gill, D. Frattin, K. Coyle, K. Haack, S. Myhr, D. Rajan, S. Douglas, P. Papamichalis, M. Somayaji, M. P. Christensen, K. Krapels, “Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on PANOPTES architecture,” in Computational Optical Sensing and ImagingOSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuB4.

Dalal, N.

N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 886–893.

Dannberg, P.

A. Brückner, J. Duparré, R. Leitel, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Thin wafer-level camera lenses inspired by insect compound eyes,” Opt. Express 18, 24379–24394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Duparré, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Artificial compound eye zoom camera,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 3, 046008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bräuer, A. Brückner, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and R. Leitel, “High resolution multichannel imaging systems,” presented at the 17th Microoptics Conference (MOC’11)Sendai, Japan, 30 Oct.–2 Nov. 2011.

Denny, P.

Douglas, S.

P. Milojkovic, J. Gill, D. Frattin, K. Coyle, K. Haack, S. Myhr, D. Rajan, S. Douglas, P. Papamichalis, M. Somayaji, M. P. Christensen, K. Krapels, “Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on PANOPTES architecture,” in Computational Optical Sensing and ImagingOSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuB4.

Druart, G.

Duparré, J.

A. Brückner, J. Duparré, R. Leitel, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Thin wafer-level camera lenses inspired by insect compound eyes,” Opt. Express 18, 24379–24394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Duparré, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Artificial compound eye zoom camera,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 3, 046008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Duparré and R. Völkel, “Novel optics/micro-optics for miniature imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Duparré and F. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspiration Biomimetics 1, R1–R16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fallah, H. R.

H. R. Fallah and A. Karimzadeh, “Design and simulation of a high-resolution superposition compound eye,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 67–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fendler, M.

Fernández, C.

N. Bellotto, E. Sommerlade, B. Benfold, C. Bibby, I. Reid, D. Roth, C. Fernández, L. V. Gool, and J. Gonzàlez, “A distributed camera system for multi-resolution surveillance,” in Third ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC, 2009).

Fossum, E. R.

S. E. Kemeny, R. Panicacci, B. Pain, L. Matthies, and E. R. Fossum, “Multi-resolution image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Techol. 7, 575–583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frattin, D.

P. Milojkovic, J. Gill, D. Frattin, K. Coyle, K. Haack, S. Myhr, D. Rajan, S. Douglas, P. Papamichalis, M. Somayaji, M. P. Christensen, K. Krapels, “Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on PANOPTES architecture,” in Computational Optical Sensing and ImagingOSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuB4.

Freund, Y.

Y. Freund and R. E. Schapire, “A short introduction to boosting,” J. Japanese Society Artificial Intelligence 14, 771–780 (1999).

Fryskowska, A.

M. Kedzierski and A. Fryskowska, “Precise method of fisheye lens calibration,” in The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XXXVII, 765–768 (2008).

Gerónimo, D.

D. Gerónimo, A. M. López, A. D. Sappa, and T. Graf, “Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 32, 1239–1258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gibbons, R.

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, T. Schulz, R. Gibbons, R. T. Kolste, J. Carriere, C. Chen, D. Prather, and D. Brady, “Thin infrared imaging systems through multichannel sampling,” Appl. Opt. 47, B1–B10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, R. T. Kolste, C. Chen, R. Gibbons, and D. J. Brady, “Ultra-thin multiple-channel LWIR imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6294, 629411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gill, J.

P. Milojkovic, J. Gill, D. Frattin, K. Coyle, K. Haack, S. Myhr, D. Rajan, S. Douglas, P. Papamichalis, M. Somayaji, M. P. Christensen, K. Krapels, “Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on PANOPTES architecture,” in Computational Optical Sensing and ImagingOSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuB4.

Glavin, M.

Gonzalez, M.

P. Camacho, F. Coslado, M. Gonzalez, and F. Sandoval, “Adaptive multiresolution imager based on FPGAs,” in X European Signal Processing Conference (2000), pp. 1449–1452.

Gonzàlez, J.

N. Bellotto, E. Sommerlade, B. Benfold, C. Bibby, I. Reid, D. Roth, C. Fernández, L. V. Gool, and J. Gonzàlez, “A distributed camera system for multi-resolution surveillance,” in Third ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC, 2009).

Gool, L. V.

N. Bellotto, E. Sommerlade, B. Benfold, C. Bibby, I. Reid, D. Roth, C. Fernández, L. V. Gool, and J. Gonzàlez, “A distributed camera system for multi-resolution surveillance,” in Third ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC, 2009).

Graf, T.

D. Gerónimo, A. M. López, A. D. Sappa, and T. Graf, “Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 32, 1239–1258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guérineau, N.

Haack, K.

P. Milojkovic, J. Gill, D. Frattin, K. Coyle, K. Haack, S. Myhr, D. Rajan, S. Douglas, P. Papamichalis, M. Somayaji, M. P. Christensen, K. Krapels, “Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on PANOPTES architecture,” in Computational Optical Sensing and ImagingOSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuB4.

Haïdar, R.

Hughes, C.

Jeong, K. H.

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312, 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, E.

Jones, M.

P. Viola and M. Jones, “Robust real-time object detection,” in Second International Workshop on Statistical and Computational Theories of Vision—Modeling, Learning, Computing, and Sampling (2001).

Kang, M. G.

J. H. Park, H. M. Oh, and M. G. Kang, “Multi-camera imaging system using super-resolution,” in 23rd International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications (ITC-CSCC, 2008), pp. 465–468.

Karimzadeh, A.

H. R. Fallah and A. Karimzadeh, “Design and simulation of a high-resolution superposition compound eye,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 67–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kedzierski, M.

M. Kedzierski and A. Fryskowska, “Precise method of fisheye lens calibration,” in The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XXXVII, 765–768 (2008).

Kemeny, S. E.

S. E. Kemeny, R. Panicacci, B. Pain, L. Matthies, and E. R. Fossum, “Multi-resolution image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Techol. 7, 575–583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312, 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kingslake, R.

R. Kingslake, Optical System Design (Academic, 1983).

Kolste, R. T.

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, T. Schulz, R. Gibbons, R. T. Kolste, J. Carriere, C. Chen, D. Prather, and D. Brady, “Thin infrared imaging systems through multichannel sampling,” Appl. Opt. 47, B1–B10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, R. T. Kolste, C. Chen, R. Gibbons, and D. J. Brady, “Ultra-thin multiple-channel LWIR imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6294, 629411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krapels, K.

P. Milojkovic, J. Gill, D. Frattin, K. Coyle, K. Haack, S. Myhr, D. Rajan, S. Douglas, P. Papamichalis, M. Somayaji, M. P. Christensen, K. Krapels, “Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on PANOPTES architecture,” in Computational Optical Sensing and ImagingOSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuB4.

Lam, E. Y.

E. Y. Lam, “Compact and thin multi-lens system for machine vision applications,” Proc. SPIE 6813, 681305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312, 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leitel, R.

A. Brückner, J. Duparré, R. Leitel, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Thin wafer-level camera lenses inspired by insect compound eyes,” Opt. Express 18, 24379–24394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bräuer, A. Brückner, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and R. Leitel, “High resolution multichannel imaging systems,” presented at the 17th Microoptics Conference (MOC’11)Sendai, Japan, 30 Oct.–2 Nov. 2011.

Li, L.

Lipton, A. J.

A. J. Lipton, J. I. W. Clark, B. Thompson, G. Myers, Z. Zhang, S. Titus, and P. L. Venetianer, “The intelligent vision sensor: turning video into information,” in IEEE Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS, 2007), pp. 63–68.

López, A. M.

D. Gerónimo, A. M. López, A. D. Sappa, and T. Graf, “Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 32, 1239–1258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marcenaro, L.

L. Marcenaro, L. Marchesotti, and C. S. Regazzoni, “A multi-resolution outdoor dual camera system for robust video-event meta data extraction,” in Proceedings of International Society of Information Fusion (ISIF, 2002), pp. 1184–1189.

Marchesotti, L.

L. Marcenaro, L. Marchesotti, and C. S. Regazzoni, “A multi-resolution outdoor dual camera system for robust video-event meta data extraction,” in Proceedings of International Society of Information Fusion (ISIF, 2002), pp. 1184–1189.

Matthies, L.

S. E. Kemeny, R. Panicacci, B. Pain, L. Matthies, and E. R. Fossum, “Multi-resolution image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Techol. 7, 575–583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Merken, P.

E. Moens, Y. Meuret, H. Ottevaere, M. Sarkar, D. S. Segundo Bello, P. Merken, and H. Thienpont, “An insect eye based image sensor with very wide field of view,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162D (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meuret, Y.

E. Moens, Y. Meuret, H. Ottevaere, M. Sarkar, D. S. Segundo Bello, P. Merken, and H. Thienpont, “An insect eye based image sensor with very wide field of view,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162D (2010).
[CrossRef]

Milojkovic, P.

P. Milojkovic, J. Gill, D. Frattin, K. Coyle, K. Haack, S. Myhr, D. Rajan, S. Douglas, P. Papamichalis, M. Somayaji, M. P. Christensen, K. Krapels, “Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on PANOPTES architecture,” in Computational Optical Sensing and ImagingOSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuB4.

Moens, E.

E. Moens, Y. Meuret, H. Ottevaere, M. Sarkar, D. S. Segundo Bello, P. Merken, and H. Thienpont, “An insect eye based image sensor with very wide field of view,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162D (2010).
[CrossRef]

Myers, G.

A. J. Lipton, J. I. W. Clark, B. Thompson, G. Myers, Z. Zhang, S. Titus, and P. L. Venetianer, “The intelligent vision sensor: turning video into information,” in IEEE Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS, 2007), pp. 63–68.

Myhr, S.

P. Milojkovic, J. Gill, D. Frattin, K. Coyle, K. Haack, S. Myhr, D. Rajan, S. Douglas, P. Papamichalis, M. Somayaji, M. P. Christensen, K. Krapels, “Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on PANOPTES architecture,” in Computational Optical Sensing and ImagingOSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuB4.

Oh, H. M.

J. H. Park, H. M. Oh, and M. G. Kang, “Multi-camera imaging system using super-resolution,” in 23rd International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications (ITC-CSCC, 2008), pp. 465–468.

Ottevaere, H.

E. Moens, Y. Meuret, H. Ottevaere, M. Sarkar, D. S. Segundo Bello, P. Merken, and H. Thienpont, “An insect eye based image sensor with very wide field of view,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162D (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pain, B.

S. E. Kemeny, R. Panicacci, B. Pain, L. Matthies, and E. R. Fossum, “Multi-resolution image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Techol. 7, 575–583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Panicacci, R.

S. E. Kemeny, R. Panicacci, B. Pain, L. Matthies, and E. R. Fossum, “Multi-resolution image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Techol. 7, 575–583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Papamichalis, P.

P. Milojkovic, J. Gill, D. Frattin, K. Coyle, K. Haack, S. Myhr, D. Rajan, S. Douglas, P. Papamichalis, M. Somayaji, M. P. Christensen, K. Krapels, “Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on PANOPTES architecture,” in Computational Optical Sensing and ImagingOSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuB4.

Parent, J.

Park, J. H.

J. H. Park, H. M. Oh, and M. G. Kang, “Multi-camera imaging system using super-resolution,” in 23rd International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications (ITC-CSCC, 2008), pp. 465–468.

Pitsianis, N.

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, T. Schulz, R. Gibbons, R. T. Kolste, J. Carriere, C. Chen, D. Prather, and D. Brady, “Thin infrared imaging systems through multichannel sampling,” Appl. Opt. 47, B1–B10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, R. T. Kolste, C. Chen, R. Gibbons, and D. J. Brady, “Ultra-thin multiple-channel LWIR imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6294, 629411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D.

Primot, J.

Rajan, D.

P. Milojkovic, J. Gill, D. Frattin, K. Coyle, K. Haack, S. Myhr, D. Rajan, S. Douglas, P. Papamichalis, M. Somayaji, M. P. Christensen, K. Krapels, “Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on PANOPTES architecture,” in Computational Optical Sensing and ImagingOSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuB4.

Regazzoni, C. S.

L. Marcenaro, L. Marchesotti, and C. S. Regazzoni, “A multi-resolution outdoor dual camera system for robust video-event meta data extraction,” in Proceedings of International Society of Information Fusion (ISIF, 2002), pp. 1184–1189.

Reid, I.

N. Bellotto, E. Sommerlade, B. Benfold, C. Bibby, I. Reid, D. Roth, C. Fernández, L. V. Gool, and J. Gonzàlez, “A distributed camera system for multi-resolution surveillance,” in Third ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC, 2009).

Rommeluére, S.

Roth, D.

N. Bellotto, E. Sommerlade, B. Benfold, C. Bibby, I. Reid, D. Roth, C. Fernández, L. V. Gool, and J. Gonzàlez, “A distributed camera system for multi-resolution surveillance,” in Third ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC, 2009).

Sandoval, F.

P. Camacho, F. Coslado, M. Gonzalez, and F. Sandoval, “Adaptive multiresolution imager based on FPGAs,” in X European Signal Processing Conference (2000), pp. 1449–1452.

Sappa, A. D.

D. Gerónimo, A. M. López, A. D. Sappa, and T. Graf, “Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 32, 1239–1258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sarkar, M.

E. Moens, Y. Meuret, H. Ottevaere, M. Sarkar, D. S. Segundo Bello, P. Merken, and H. Thienpont, “An insect eye based image sensor with very wide field of view,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162D (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schapire, R. E.

Y. Freund and R. E. Schapire, “A short introduction to boosting,” J. Japanese Society Artificial Intelligence 14, 771–780 (1999).

Schulz, T.

Segundo Bello, D. S.

E. Moens, Y. Meuret, H. Ottevaere, M. Sarkar, D. S. Segundo Bello, P. Merken, and H. Thienpont, “An insect eye based image sensor with very wide field of view,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162D (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shankar, M.

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, T. Schulz, R. Gibbons, R. T. Kolste, J. Carriere, C. Chen, D. Prather, and D. Brady, “Thin infrared imaging systems through multichannel sampling,” Appl. Opt. 47, B1–B10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, R. T. Kolste, C. Chen, R. Gibbons, and D. J. Brady, “Ultra-thin multiple-channel LWIR imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6294, 629411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Somayaji, M.

P. Milojkovic, J. Gill, D. Frattin, K. Coyle, K. Haack, S. Myhr, D. Rajan, S. Douglas, P. Papamichalis, M. Somayaji, M. P. Christensen, K. Krapels, “Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on PANOPTES architecture,” in Computational Optical Sensing and ImagingOSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuB4.

Sommerlade, E.

N. Bellotto, E. Sommerlade, B. Benfold, C. Bibby, I. Reid, D. Roth, C. Fernández, L. V. Gool, and J. Gonzàlez, “A distributed camera system for multi-resolution surveillance,” in Third ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC, 2009).

Taboury, J.

Thétas, S.

Thibault, S.

Thienpont, H.

E. Moens, Y. Meuret, H. Ottevaere, M. Sarkar, D. S. Segundo Bello, P. Merken, and H. Thienpont, “An insect eye based image sensor with very wide field of view,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162D (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B.

A. J. Lipton, J. I. W. Clark, B. Thompson, G. Myers, Z. Zhang, S. Titus, and P. L. Venetianer, “The intelligent vision sensor: turning video into information,” in IEEE Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS, 2007), pp. 63–68.

Titus, S.

A. J. Lipton, J. I. W. Clark, B. Thompson, G. Myers, Z. Zhang, S. Titus, and P. L. Venetianer, “The intelligent vision sensor: turning video into information,” in IEEE Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS, 2007), pp. 63–68.

Triggs, B.

N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 886–893.

Tünnermann, A.

Venetianer, P. L.

A. J. Lipton, J. I. W. Clark, B. Thompson, G. Myers, Z. Zhang, S. Titus, and P. L. Venetianer, “The intelligent vision sensor: turning video into information,” in IEEE Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS, 2007), pp. 63–68.

Viola, P.

P. Viola and M. Jones, “Robust real-time object detection,” in Second International Workshop on Statistical and Computational Theories of Vision—Modeling, Learning, Computing, and Sampling (2001).

Völkel, R.

J. Duparré and R. Völkel, “Novel optics/micro-optics for miniature imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willett, R.

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, T. Schulz, R. Gibbons, R. T. Kolste, J. Carriere, C. Chen, D. Prather, and D. Brady, “Thin infrared imaging systems through multichannel sampling,” Appl. Opt. 47, B1–B10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, R. T. Kolste, C. Chen, R. Gibbons, and D. J. Brady, “Ultra-thin multiple-channel LWIR imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6294, 629411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wippermann, F.

J. Duparré, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Artificial compound eye zoom camera,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 3, 046008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Duparré and F. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspiration Biomimetics 1, R1–R16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bräuer, A. Brückner, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and R. Leitel, “High resolution multichannel imaging systems,” presented at the 17th Microoptics Conference (MOC’11)Sendai, Japan, 30 Oct.–2 Nov. 2011.

Yeh, M. C.

Q. Zhu, S. Avidan, M. C. Yeh, and K. T. Cheng, “Fast human detection using a cascade of histograms of oriented gradients,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1491–1498.

Yi, A. Y.

Zhang, Z.

A. J. Lipton, J. I. W. Clark, B. Thompson, G. Myers, Z. Zhang, S. Titus, and P. L. Venetianer, “The intelligent vision sensor: turning video into information,” in IEEE Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS, 2007), pp. 63–68.

Zhu, Q.

Q. Zhu, S. Avidan, M. C. Yeh, and K. T. Cheng, “Fast human detection using a cascade of histograms of oriented gradients,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1491–1498.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bioinspir. Biomim. (1)

J. Duparré, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Artificial compound eye zoom camera,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 3, 046008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bioinspiration Biomimetics (1)

J. Duparré and F. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspiration Biomimetics 1, R1–R16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Techol. (1)

S. E. Kemeny, R. Panicacci, B. Pain, L. Matthies, and E. R. Fossum, “Multi-resolution image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Techol. 7, 575–583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. (1)

D. Gerónimo, A. M. López, A. D. Sappa, and T. Graf, “Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 32, 1239–1258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Japanese Society Artificial Intelligence (1)

Y. Freund and R. E. Schapire, “A short introduction to boosting,” J. Japanese Society Artificial Intelligence 14, 771–780 (1999).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. R. Fallah and A. Karimzadeh, “Design and simulation of a high-resolution superposition compound eye,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 67–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. SPIE (4)

E. Y. Lam, “Compact and thin multi-lens system for machine vision applications,” Proc. SPIE 6813, 681305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Moens, Y. Meuret, H. Ottevaere, M. Sarkar, D. S. Segundo Bello, P. Merken, and H. Thienpont, “An insect eye based image sensor with very wide field of view,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162D (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Duparré and R. Völkel, “Novel optics/micro-optics for miniature imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Shankar, R. Willett, N. Pitsianis, R. T. Kolste, C. Chen, R. Gibbons, and D. J. Brady, “Ultra-thin multiple-channel LWIR imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6294, 629411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312, 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

L. Marcenaro, L. Marchesotti, and C. S. Regazzoni, “A multi-resolution outdoor dual camera system for robust video-event meta data extraction,” in Proceedings of International Society of Information Fusion (ISIF, 2002), pp. 1184–1189.

N. Bellotto, E. Sommerlade, B. Benfold, C. Bibby, I. Reid, D. Roth, C. Fernández, L. V. Gool, and J. Gonzàlez, “A distributed camera system for multi-resolution surveillance,” in Third ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC, 2009).

R. Kingslake, Optical System Design (Academic, 1983).

M. Kedzierski and A. Fryskowska, “Precise method of fisheye lens calibration,” in The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XXXVII, 765–768 (2008).

A. Bräuer, A. Brückner, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and R. Leitel, “High resolution multichannel imaging systems,” presented at the 17th Microoptics Conference (MOC’11)Sendai, Japan, 30 Oct.–2 Nov. 2011.

J. H. Park, H. M. Oh, and M. G. Kang, “Multi-camera imaging system using super-resolution,” in 23rd International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications (ITC-CSCC, 2008), pp. 465–468.

P. Milojkovic, J. Gill, D. Frattin, K. Coyle, K. Haack, S. Myhr, D. Rajan, S. Douglas, P. Papamichalis, M. Somayaji, M. P. Christensen, K. Krapels, “Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on PANOPTES architecture,” in Computational Optical Sensing and ImagingOSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuB4.

P. Viola and M. Jones, “Robust real-time object detection,” in Second International Workshop on Statistical and Computational Theories of Vision—Modeling, Learning, Computing, and Sampling (2001).

A. J. Lipton, J. I. W. Clark, B. Thompson, G. Myers, Z. Zhang, S. Titus, and P. L. Venetianer, “The intelligent vision sensor: turning video into information,” in IEEE Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS, 2007), pp. 63–68.

N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 886–893.

Q. Zhu, S. Avidan, M. C. Yeh, and K. T. Cheng, “Fast human detection using a cascade of histograms of oriented gradients,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1491–1498.

P. Camacho, F. Coslado, M. Gonzalez, and F. Sandoval, “Adaptive multiresolution imager based on FPGAs,” in X European Signal Processing Conference (2000), pp. 1449–1452.

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