Abstract

Optical Q factor measurements are performed on a whispering gallery mode (WGM) disk resonator using a microwave frequency domain approach instead of using an optical domain approach. An absence of hysteretic behavior and a better linearity are obtained when performing linewidth measurements by using a microwave modulation for scanning the resonances instead of the piezoelectric-based frequency tuning capability of the laser. The WGM resonator is then used to stabilize a microwave optoelectronic oscillator. The microwave output of this system generates a 12.48 GHz signal with 94dBc/Hz phase noise at 10 kHz offset.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Cibiel, M. Regis, O. Llopis, A. Rennane, L. Bary, R. Plana, Y. Kersale, and V. Giordano, “Optimization of an ultra low-phase noise sapphire-SiGe HBT oscillator using nonlinear CAD,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 33–41 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Campbell, Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Mobile and Wireless Communications (Academic, 1998).
  3. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “High frequency optical subcarrier generator,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1525–1526 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 449–456 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Modulation response (S21) of the coupled opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 850–856.
  6. A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.
  7. A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Optical resonators with ten million finesse,” Opt. Express 15, 6768–6773 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137, 393–397 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, “Pigtailing the high-Q microsphere cavity: a simple fiber coupler for optical whispering-gallery modes,” Opt. Lett. 24, 723–725 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Cai and K. Vahala, “Highly efficient optical power transfer to whispering-gallery modes by use of a symmetrical dual-coupling configuration,” Opt. Lett. 25, 260–262 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Carmon, T. J. Kippenberg, Y. Lan, R. Hosein, S. Sean, and K. J. Vahala, “Feedback control of ultra-high-Q microcavities: application to micro-Raman lasers and microparametric oscillators,” Opt. Express 13, 3558–3566 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Active frequency stabilization of an ultra-high Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 623–627 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Schmidt, A. Chipouline, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, O. Egorov, F. Lederer, and L. Deych, “Nonlinear thermal effects in optical microspheres at different wavelength sweeping speeds,” Opt. Express 16, 6285–6301 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P.-H. Merrer, A. Bouchier, H. Brahimi, O. Llopis, and G. Cibiel, “High-Q optical resonators for laser stabilization in microwave photonics oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on CLEO Europe (IEEE, 2009), p. 1.
  19. A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes—part I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 12, 3–14 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. B. Leeson, “A simple model of feedback oscillator noise spectrum,” Proc. IEEE 54, 329–330 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Volyanskiy, P. Salzenstein, H. Tavernier, M. Pogurmirskiy, Y. K. Chembo, and L. Larger, “Compact optoelectronic microwave oscillators using ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode disk-resonators and phase modulation,” Opt. Express 18, 22358–22363 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2008

P.-H. Merrer, O. Llopis, and G. Cibiel, “Laser stabilization on a fiber ring resonator and application to RF filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1399–1401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 449–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Schmidt, A. Chipouline, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, O. Egorov, F. Lederer, and L. Deych, “Nonlinear thermal effects in optical microspheres at different wavelength sweeping speeds,” Opt. Express 16, 6285–6301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes—part I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 12, 3–14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Cibiel, M. Regis, O. Llopis, A. Rennane, L. Bary, R. Plana, Y. Kersale, and V. Giordano, “Optimization of an ultra low-phase noise sapphire-SiGe HBT oscillator using nonlinear CAD,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 33–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

1994

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “High frequency optical subcarrier generator,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1525–1526 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137, 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1966

D. B. Leeson, “A simple model of feedback oscillator noise spectrum,” Proc. IEEE 54, 329–330 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bary, L.

G. Cibiel, M. Regis, O. Llopis, A. Rennane, L. Bary, R. Plana, Y. Kersale, and V. Giordano, “Optimization of an ultra low-phase noise sapphire-SiGe HBT oscillator using nonlinear CAD,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 33–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bouchier, A.

P.-H. Merrer, A. Bouchier, H. Brahimi, O. Llopis, and G. Cibiel, “High-Q optical resonators for laser stabilization in microwave photonics oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on CLEO Europe (IEEE, 2009), p. 1.

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137, 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brahimi, H.

P.-H. Merrer, A. Bouchier, H. Brahimi, O. Llopis, and G. Cibiel, “High-Q optical resonators for laser stabilization in microwave photonics oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on CLEO Europe (IEEE, 2009), p. 1.

Byrd, J.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

Cai, M.

Campbell, C.

C. Campbell, Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Mobile and Wireless Communications (Academic, 1998).

Carmon, T.

Chembo, Y. K.

Chipouline, A.

Cibiel, G.

P.-H. Merrer, O. Llopis, and G. Cibiel, “Laser stabilization on a fiber ring resonator and application to RF filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1399–1401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Cibiel, M. Regis, O. Llopis, A. Rennane, L. Bary, R. Plana, Y. Kersale, and V. Giordano, “Optimization of an ultra low-phase noise sapphire-SiGe HBT oscillator using nonlinear CAD,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 33–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Merrer, A. Bouchier, H. Brahimi, O. Llopis, and G. Cibiel, “High-Q optical resonators for laser stabilization in microwave photonics oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on CLEO Europe (IEEE, 2009), p. 1.

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deych, L.

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Egorov, O.

Eliyahu, D.

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 449–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Modulation response (S21) of the coupled opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 850–856.

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, V.

G. Cibiel, M. Regis, O. Llopis, A. Rennane, L. Bary, R. Plana, Y. Kersale, and V. Giordano, “Optimization of an ultra low-phase noise sapphire-SiGe HBT oscillator using nonlinear CAD,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 33–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137, 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hosein, R.

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Optical resonators with ten million finesse,” Opt. Express 15, 6768–6773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes—part I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 12, 3–14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, “Pigtailing the high-Q microsphere cavity: a simple fiber coupler for optical whispering-gallery modes,” Opt. Lett. 24, 723–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137, 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

Kersale, Y.

G. Cibiel, M. Regis, O. Llopis, A. Rennane, L. Bary, R. Plana, Y. Kersale, and V. Giordano, “Optimization of an ultra low-phase noise sapphire-SiGe HBT oscillator using nonlinear CAD,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 33–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Carmon, T. J. Kippenberg, Y. Lan, R. Hosein, S. Sean, and K. J. Vahala, “Feedback control of ultra-high-Q microcavities: application to micro-Raman lasers and microparametric oscillators,” Opt. Express 13, 3558–3566 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y.

Larger, L.

Lederer, F.

Leeson, D. B.

D. B. Leeson, “A simple model of feedback oscillator noise spectrum,” Proc. IEEE 54, 329–330 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

Llopis, O.

P.-H. Merrer, O. Llopis, and G. Cibiel, “Laser stabilization on a fiber ring resonator and application to RF filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1399–1401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Cibiel, M. Regis, O. Llopis, A. Rennane, L. Bary, R. Plana, Y. Kersale, and V. Giordano, “Optimization of an ultra low-phase noise sapphire-SiGe HBT oscillator using nonlinear CAD,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 33–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Merrer, A. Bouchier, H. Brahimi, O. Llopis, and G. Cibiel, “High-Q optical resonators for laser stabilization in microwave photonics oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on CLEO Europe (IEEE, 2009), p. 1.

Maleki, L.

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 449–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Optical resonators with ten million finesse,” Opt. Express 15, 6768–6773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, “Pigtailing the high-Q microsphere cavity: a simple fiber coupler for optical whispering-gallery modes,” Opt. Lett. 24, 723–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “High frequency optical subcarrier generator,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1525–1526 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Modulation response (S21) of the coupled opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 850–856.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

Matsko, A. B.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Optical resonators with ten million finesse,” Opt. Express 15, 6768–6773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes—part I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 12, 3–14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

Merrer, P.-H.

P.-H. Merrer, O. Llopis, and G. Cibiel, “Laser stabilization on a fiber ring resonator and application to RF filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1399–1401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Merrer, A. Bouchier, H. Brahimi, O. Llopis, and G. Cibiel, “High-Q optical resonators for laser stabilization in microwave photonics oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on CLEO Europe (IEEE, 2009), p. 1.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, D.

D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Active frequency stabilization of an ultra-high Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 623–627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

Plana, R.

G. Cibiel, M. Regis, O. Llopis, A. Rennane, L. Bary, R. Plana, Y. Kersale, and V. Giordano, “Optimization of an ultra low-phase noise sapphire-SiGe HBT oscillator using nonlinear CAD,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 33–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pogurmirskiy, M.

Rauschenbeutel, A.

D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Active frequency stabilization of an ultra-high Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 623–627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Regis, M.

G. Cibiel, M. Regis, O. Llopis, A. Rennane, L. Bary, R. Plana, Y. Kersale, and V. Giordano, “Optimization of an ultra low-phase noise sapphire-SiGe HBT oscillator using nonlinear CAD,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 33–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rennane, A.

G. Cibiel, M. Regis, O. Llopis, A. Rennane, L. Bary, R. Plana, Y. Kersale, and V. Giordano, “Optimization of an ultra low-phase noise sapphire-SiGe HBT oscillator using nonlinear CAD,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 33–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rettenmaier, A.

D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Active frequency stabilization of an ultra-high Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 623–627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salzenstein, P.

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Optical resonators with ten million finesse,” Opt. Express 15, 6768–6773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C.

Sean, S.

Seidel, D.

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 449–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

Tavernier, H.

Tünnermann, A.

Vahala, K.

Vahala, K. J.

Volyanskiy, K.

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Yao, X. S.

Appl. Phys. B

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Active frequency stabilization of an ultra-high Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 623–627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “High frequency optical subcarrier generator,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1525–1526 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes—part I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 12, 3–14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P.-H. Merrer, O. Llopis, and G. Cibiel, “Laser stabilization on a fiber ring resonator and application to RF filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1399–1401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 449–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

G. Cibiel, M. Regis, O. Llopis, A. Rennane, L. Bary, R. Plana, Y. Kersale, and V. Giordano, “Optimization of an ultra low-phase noise sapphire-SiGe HBT oscillator using nonlinear CAD,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 33–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett. A

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137, 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

D. B. Leeson, “A simple model of feedback oscillator noise spectrum,” Proc. IEEE 54, 329–330 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other

P.-H. Merrer, A. Bouchier, H. Brahimi, O. Llopis, and G. Cibiel, “High-Q optical resonators for laser stabilization in microwave photonics oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on CLEO Europe (IEEE, 2009), p. 1.

C. Campbell, Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Mobile and Wireless Communications (Academic, 1998).

D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Modulation response (S21) of the coupled opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 850–856.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Monocrystalline disk polishing station with the CaF2 disk, magnified in the inset.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Picture and (b) scheme of the dual-coupling system with tapered fibers symmetrically coupled to the CaF2 disk.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup of the microwave characterization technique used to measure the Q factor of high-quality resonators. OI, optical isolator; MZM: Mach–Zehnder modulator; PC, polarization controller; PD, photodiode; VNA, vector network analyzer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

MZM frequency response obtained with 40 GHz network analyzer. The measured bandwidth is around 20 GHz, which is larger than the FSR of the CaF2 disk. The linear fit of the frequency response S21 is obtained by a calibration of the VNA.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Hysteretic behavior of our Koheras Adjustik laser tuning mechanism based on a piezoelectric component.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Measured spectrum of a CaF2 disk at the through port using the microwave approach, (b) a focus on the fundamental mode, (c) main resonance at the drop port, which gives a Q factor of 8.4×107.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental setup of the WGM-based OEO. A, microwave amplifier; Att, microwave attenuator.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Simulated phase noise spectrum (dashed curve) for the white frequency noise contribution area and experimental result (solid curve). Measurement performed on an Agilent E5052B signal source analyzer.

Equations (4)

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L(fm)=20log(v22Qfm)+10log(2(SRIN+Sth+Sshot)Pm2R(λ)2m2),
Sth=4kBTR,
Sshot=2qR(λ)Pm,
SRIN=Pm2R(λ)2RIN,

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