Abstract

This paper describes a new technique to mitigate the effect of beam steering on CARS measurements in turbulent, variable density environments. The new approach combines planar BOXCARS phase-matching with elliptical shaping of one of the beams to generate a signal robust to beam steering, while keeping the same spatial resolution. Numerical and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. One experiment investigates the effect of beam shaping in the presence of a controlled and well quantified displacement of the beams at the focal plane. Another experiment, more qualitative, proves the effectiveness of the technique in the presence of severe beam steering due to turbulence.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: Fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280–306 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byrne, D. P. Capriotti, and R. DeLoach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic termomethry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. J. Anderson and A. C. Eckbreth, “Simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, measurements in hydrogen fueled supersonic combustion,” J. Propuls. and Power 8, 7–15 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. R. Yang, J. R. Zhao, C. J. Sung, and G. Yu, “Multiplex CARS measurements in supersonic H2/air combustion,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 68, 257–265 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. P. Lucht, “Three-laser coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of two species,” Opt. Lett. 12, 78–80 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. O’Byrne, P. M. Danehy, S. A. Tedder, and A. D. Cutler, “Dual pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in supesonic combustor,” AIAA Journal 45, 922–933 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species2nd ed., Combustion Science and Technology Book Series (Taylor and Francis, 1996).
  8. E. J. Jumper and R. J. Hugo, “Quantification of aero-optical phase distortion using the small-aperture beam technique,” AIAA J. 33 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Barille and P. LaPenna, “Multifractality of laser beam spatial intensity in a turbulent medium,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3331–3339 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Hemmerling, “Beam-steering effects in turbulent high-pressure flames,” Proc. SPIE 3108, 32–36 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Attal-Trétout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Péalat, and J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: Prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 51, 17–24 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. N. Klimenko, W. Clauss, M. Oschwald, J. Smith, and W. Mayer, “CARS temperature mapping in a cryogenic LOX—H2 rocket combustion chamber under supercritical conditions,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 900–905 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Hemmerling, R. Bombach, and W. Kreutner, “Measurements of temperature fluctuations in a large-scale turbulent high-pressure flame using CARS,” Proc. SPIE 2506, 94–101 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. C. Herring, R. C. Hart, M. T. Fletcher, J. R. Balla, and B. S. Henderson, “Prospects for nonlinear laser diagnostics in the jet noise laboratory,” TM-2007-214893 (NASA, 2007).
  15. S. A. Tedder, D. Bivolaru, and P. M. Danehy, “Characterization of a combined CARS and interferometric Rayleigh scattering system,” presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting, Reno, Nev., 2007, AIAA 2007-871.
  16. S. A. Tedder, P. M. Danehy, G. Magnotti, and A. D. Cutler, “CARS temperature measurements in a combustor-heated mach 1.6 jet,” presented at the 47th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, Florida, 2009, AIAA-2009-0524.
  17. P. M. Danehy, G. Magnotti, D. Bivolaru, S. A. Tedder, and A. D. Cutler, “Simultaneous temperature and velocity measurements in a large scale supersonic heated jet,” presented at the 55th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting, Boston, Mass., 2008, paper-1193.
  18. A. D. Cutler, G. Magnotti, L. Cantu, E. Gallo, and P. M. Danehy, “Dual-pump CARS measurements in the University of Virginia’s dual-mode scramjet: Configuration “A”,” presented at the 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Nashville, Tenn., 2012, AIAA-2012-114.
  19. K. A. Marko and L. Rimai, “Space- and time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for combustion diagnostics,” Opt. Lett. 4, 211–213 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, and P. A. Tellex, “CARS temperature and species measurements in augmented jet engine exhausts,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1328–1339 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. A. Shirley, R. J. Hall, and A. C. Eckbreth, “Folded BOXCARS for rotational Raman studies,” Opt. Lett. 5, 380–382 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comments on the use of BOXCARS for gas-phase CARS spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectroscopy 14, 150–153 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Singh and F. Yueh, “An evaluation of CARS phase matching techniques for field application,” presented at the 22nd Fluid Dynamics, PlasmaDynamics & Laser Conference, Honolulu, 1991, Hawaii, AIAA-91-1520.
  24. G. Magnotti, “Dual-pump CARS development and application to supersonic combustion,” dissertation (The George Washington University, 2012).
  25. G. Magnotti, A. D. Cutler, G. C. Herring, S. A. Tedder, and P. M. Danehy, “Saturation and Stark broadening effects in dual-pump CARS of N2, O2 and H2,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43, 611–620 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. E. Teets, “CARS signals: phase matching, transverse modes, and optical damage effects,” Appl. Opt. 25, 855–862 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison Wesley Longman, 2001).
  28. D. Bivolaru and G. C. Herring, “Focal plane imaging of crossed beams in non-linear optics experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 056102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. S. Sirazetdinov, “Experimental study and numerical simulation of laser beams propagation through the turbulent aerojet,” Appl. Opt. 47, 975–985 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. Magnotti, A. D. Cutler, and P. M. Danehy, “Development of a dual-pump CARS system for measurements in a supersonic combusting free jet,” presented at the 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 9-12, 2012, AIAA-2012-1193.

2012 (1)

G. Magnotti, A. D. Cutler, G. C. Herring, S. A. Tedder, and P. M. Danehy, “Saturation and Stark broadening effects in dual-pump CARS of N2, O2 and H2,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43, 611–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: Fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

D. Bivolaru and G. C. Herring, “Focal plane imaging of crossed beams in non-linear optics experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 056102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. O’Byrne, P. M. Danehy, S. A. Tedder, and A. D. Cutler, “Dual pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in supesonic combustor,” AIAA Journal 45, 922–933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byrne, D. P. Capriotti, and R. DeLoach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic termomethry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. N. Klimenko, W. Clauss, M. Oschwald, J. Smith, and W. Mayer, “CARS temperature mapping in a cryogenic LOX—H2 rocket combustion chamber under supercritical conditions,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. R. Yang, J. R. Zhao, C. J. Sung, and G. Yu, “Multiplex CARS measurements in supersonic H2/air combustion,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 68, 257–265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Hemmerling, “Beam-steering effects in turbulent high-pressure flames,” Proc. SPIE 3108, 32–36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

B. Hemmerling, R. Bombach, and W. Kreutner, “Measurements of temperature fluctuations in a large-scale turbulent high-pressure flame using CARS,” Proc. SPIE 2506, 94–101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Jumper and R. J. Hugo, “Quantification of aero-optical phase distortion using the small-aperture beam technique,” AIAA J. 33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. J. Anderson and A. C. Eckbreth, “Simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, measurements in hydrogen fueled supersonic combustion,” J. Propuls. and Power 8, 7–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

B. Attal-Trétout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Péalat, and J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: Prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comments on the use of BOXCARS for gas-phase CARS spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectroscopy 14, 150–153 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

Anderson, T. J.

T. J. Anderson and A. C. Eckbreth, “Simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, measurements in hydrogen fueled supersonic combustion,” J. Propuls. and Power 8, 7–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Attal-Trétout, B.

B. Attal-Trétout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Péalat, and J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: Prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Balla, J. R.

G. C. Herring, R. C. Hart, M. T. Fletcher, J. R. Balla, and B. S. Henderson, “Prospects for nonlinear laser diagnostics in the jet noise laboratory,” TM-2007-214893 (NASA, 2007).

Barille, R.

Bivolaru, D.

D. Bivolaru and G. C. Herring, “Focal plane imaging of crossed beams in non-linear optics experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 056102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Tedder, D. Bivolaru, and P. M. Danehy, “Characterization of a combined CARS and interferometric Rayleigh scattering system,” presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting, Reno, Nev., 2007, AIAA 2007-871.

P. M. Danehy, G. Magnotti, D. Bivolaru, S. A. Tedder, and A. D. Cutler, “Simultaneous temperature and velocity measurements in a large scale supersonic heated jet,” presented at the 55th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting, Boston, Mass., 2008, paper-1193.

Bombach, R.

B. Hemmerling, R. Bombach, and W. Kreutner, “Measurements of temperature fluctuations in a large-scale turbulent high-pressure flame using CARS,” Proc. SPIE 2506, 94–101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bouchardy, P.

B. Attal-Trétout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Péalat, and J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: Prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cantu, L.

A. D. Cutler, G. Magnotti, L. Cantu, E. Gallo, and P. M. Danehy, “Dual-pump CARS measurements in the University of Virginia’s dual-mode scramjet: Configuration “A”,” presented at the 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Nashville, Tenn., 2012, AIAA-2012-114.

Capriotti, D. P.

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byrne, D. P. Capriotti, and R. DeLoach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic termomethry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clauss, W.

D. N. Klimenko, W. Clauss, M. Oschwald, J. Smith, and W. Mayer, “CARS temperature mapping in a cryogenic LOX—H2 rocket combustion chamber under supercritical conditions,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cutler, A. D.

G. Magnotti, A. D. Cutler, G. C. Herring, S. A. Tedder, and P. M. Danehy, “Saturation and Stark broadening effects in dual-pump CARS of N2, O2 and H2,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43, 611–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. O’Byrne, P. M. Danehy, S. A. Tedder, and A. D. Cutler, “Dual pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in supesonic combustor,” AIAA Journal 45, 922–933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byrne, D. P. Capriotti, and R. DeLoach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic termomethry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Tedder, P. M. Danehy, G. Magnotti, and A. D. Cutler, “CARS temperature measurements in a combustor-heated mach 1.6 jet,” presented at the 47th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, Florida, 2009, AIAA-2009-0524.

G. Magnotti, A. D. Cutler, and P. M. Danehy, “Development of a dual-pump CARS system for measurements in a supersonic combusting free jet,” presented at the 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 9-12, 2012, AIAA-2012-1193.

P. M. Danehy, G. Magnotti, D. Bivolaru, S. A. Tedder, and A. D. Cutler, “Simultaneous temperature and velocity measurements in a large scale supersonic heated jet,” presented at the 55th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting, Boston, Mass., 2008, paper-1193.

A. D. Cutler, G. Magnotti, L. Cantu, E. Gallo, and P. M. Danehy, “Dual-pump CARS measurements in the University of Virginia’s dual-mode scramjet: Configuration “A”,” presented at the 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Nashville, Tenn., 2012, AIAA-2012-114.

Danehy, P. M.

G. Magnotti, A. D. Cutler, G. C. Herring, S. A. Tedder, and P. M. Danehy, “Saturation and Stark broadening effects in dual-pump CARS of N2, O2 and H2,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43, 611–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. O’Byrne, P. M. Danehy, S. A. Tedder, and A. D. Cutler, “Dual pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in supesonic combustor,” AIAA Journal 45, 922–933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byrne, D. P. Capriotti, and R. DeLoach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic termomethry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Tedder, P. M. Danehy, G. Magnotti, and A. D. Cutler, “CARS temperature measurements in a combustor-heated mach 1.6 jet,” presented at the 47th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, Florida, 2009, AIAA-2009-0524.

G. Magnotti, A. D. Cutler, and P. M. Danehy, “Development of a dual-pump CARS system for measurements in a supersonic combusting free jet,” presented at the 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 9-12, 2012, AIAA-2012-1193.

S. A. Tedder, D. Bivolaru, and P. M. Danehy, “Characterization of a combined CARS and interferometric Rayleigh scattering system,” presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting, Reno, Nev., 2007, AIAA 2007-871.

P. M. Danehy, G. Magnotti, D. Bivolaru, S. A. Tedder, and A. D. Cutler, “Simultaneous temperature and velocity measurements in a large scale supersonic heated jet,” presented at the 55th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting, Boston, Mass., 2008, paper-1193.

A. D. Cutler, G. Magnotti, L. Cantu, E. Gallo, and P. M. Danehy, “Dual-pump CARS measurements in the University of Virginia’s dual-mode scramjet: Configuration “A”,” presented at the 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Nashville, Tenn., 2012, AIAA-2012-114.

DeLoach, R.

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byrne, D. P. Capriotti, and R. DeLoach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic termomethry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, G. M.

Eckbreth, A. C.

T. J. Anderson and A. C. Eckbreth, “Simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, measurements in hydrogen fueled supersonic combustion,” J. Propuls. and Power 8, 7–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, and P. A. Tellex, “CARS temperature and species measurements in augmented jet engine exhausts,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1328–1339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shirley, R. J. Hall, and A. C. Eckbreth, “Folded BOXCARS for rotational Raman studies,” Opt. Lett. 5, 380–382 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species2nd ed., Combustion Science and Technology Book Series (Taylor and Francis, 1996).

Fletcher, M. T.

G. C. Herring, R. C. Hart, M. T. Fletcher, J. R. Balla, and B. S. Henderson, “Prospects for nonlinear laser diagnostics in the jet noise laboratory,” TM-2007-214893 (NASA, 2007).

Gallo, E.

A. D. Cutler, G. Magnotti, L. Cantu, E. Gallo, and P. M. Danehy, “Dual-pump CARS measurements in the University of Virginia’s dual-mode scramjet: Configuration “A”,” presented at the 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Nashville, Tenn., 2012, AIAA-2012-114.

Gord, J. R.

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: Fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Greenhalgh, D. A.

D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comments on the use of BOXCARS for gas-phase CARS spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectroscopy 14, 150–153 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hall, R. J.

Hart, R. C.

G. C. Herring, R. C. Hart, M. T. Fletcher, J. R. Balla, and B. S. Henderson, “Prospects for nonlinear laser diagnostics in the jet noise laboratory,” TM-2007-214893 (NASA, 2007).

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison Wesley Longman, 2001).

Hemmerling, B.

B. Hemmerling, “Beam-steering effects in turbulent high-pressure flames,” Proc. SPIE 3108, 32–36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hemmerling, R. Bombach, and W. Kreutner, “Measurements of temperature fluctuations in a large-scale turbulent high-pressure flame using CARS,” Proc. SPIE 2506, 94–101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, B. S.

G. C. Herring, R. C. Hart, M. T. Fletcher, J. R. Balla, and B. S. Henderson, “Prospects for nonlinear laser diagnostics in the jet noise laboratory,” TM-2007-214893 (NASA, 2007).

Herring, G. C.

G. Magnotti, A. D. Cutler, G. C. Herring, S. A. Tedder, and P. M. Danehy, “Saturation and Stark broadening effects in dual-pump CARS of N2, O2 and H2,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43, 611–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Bivolaru and G. C. Herring, “Focal plane imaging of crossed beams in non-linear optics experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 056102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Herring, R. C. Hart, M. T. Fletcher, J. R. Balla, and B. S. Henderson, “Prospects for nonlinear laser diagnostics in the jet noise laboratory,” TM-2007-214893 (NASA, 2007).

Hugo, R. J.

E. J. Jumper and R. J. Hugo, “Quantification of aero-optical phase distortion using the small-aperture beam technique,” AIAA J. 33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jumper, E. J.

E. J. Jumper and R. J. Hugo, “Quantification of aero-optical phase distortion using the small-aperture beam technique,” AIAA J. 33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klimenko, D. N.

D. N. Klimenko, W. Clauss, M. Oschwald, J. Smith, and W. Mayer, “CARS temperature mapping in a cryogenic LOX—H2 rocket combustion chamber under supercritical conditions,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kreutner, W.

B. Hemmerling, R. Bombach, and W. Kreutner, “Measurements of temperature fluctuations in a large-scale turbulent high-pressure flame using CARS,” Proc. SPIE 2506, 94–101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

LaPenna, P.

Lucht, R. P.

Magnotti, G.

G. Magnotti, A. D. Cutler, G. C. Herring, S. A. Tedder, and P. M. Danehy, “Saturation and Stark broadening effects in dual-pump CARS of N2, O2 and H2,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43, 611–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Danehy, G. Magnotti, D. Bivolaru, S. A. Tedder, and A. D. Cutler, “Simultaneous temperature and velocity measurements in a large scale supersonic heated jet,” presented at the 55th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting, Boston, Mass., 2008, paper-1193.

A. D. Cutler, G. Magnotti, L. Cantu, E. Gallo, and P. M. Danehy, “Dual-pump CARS measurements in the University of Virginia’s dual-mode scramjet: Configuration “A”,” presented at the 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Nashville, Tenn., 2012, AIAA-2012-114.

G. Magnotti, A. D. Cutler, and P. M. Danehy, “Development of a dual-pump CARS system for measurements in a supersonic combusting free jet,” presented at the 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 9-12, 2012, AIAA-2012-1193.

S. A. Tedder, P. M. Danehy, G. Magnotti, and A. D. Cutler, “CARS temperature measurements in a combustor-heated mach 1.6 jet,” presented at the 47th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, Florida, 2009, AIAA-2009-0524.

G. Magnotti, “Dual-pump CARS development and application to supersonic combustion,” dissertation (The George Washington University, 2012).

Magre, P.

B. Attal-Trétout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Péalat, and J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: Prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marko, K. A.

Mayer, W.

D. N. Klimenko, W. Clauss, M. Oschwald, J. Smith, and W. Mayer, “CARS temperature mapping in a cryogenic LOX—H2 rocket combustion chamber under supercritical conditions,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O’Byrne, S.

S. O’Byrne, P. M. Danehy, S. A. Tedder, and A. D. Cutler, “Dual pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in supesonic combustor,” AIAA Journal 45, 922–933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byrne, D. P. Capriotti, and R. DeLoach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic termomethry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oschwald, M.

D. N. Klimenko, W. Clauss, M. Oschwald, J. Smith, and W. Mayer, “CARS temperature mapping in a cryogenic LOX—H2 rocket combustion chamber under supercritical conditions,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Patnaik, A. K.

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: Fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Péalat, M.

B. Attal-Trétout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Péalat, and J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: Prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rimai, L.

Roy, S.

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: Fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shirley, J. A.

Singh, G.

G. Singh and F. Yueh, “An evaluation of CARS phase matching techniques for field application,” presented at the 22nd Fluid Dynamics, PlasmaDynamics & Laser Conference, Honolulu, 1991, Hawaii, AIAA-91-1520.

Sirazetdinov, V. S.

Smith, J.

D. N. Klimenko, W. Clauss, M. Oschwald, J. Smith, and W. Mayer, “CARS temperature mapping in a cryogenic LOX—H2 rocket combustion chamber under supercritical conditions,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Springer, R. R.

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byrne, D. P. Capriotti, and R. DeLoach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic termomethry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stufflebeam, J. H.

Sung, C. J.

S. R. Yang, J. R. Zhao, C. J. Sung, and G. Yu, “Multiplex CARS measurements in supersonic H2/air combustion,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 68, 257–265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taran, J. P.

B. Attal-Trétout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Péalat, and J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: Prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tedder, S. A.

G. Magnotti, A. D. Cutler, G. C. Herring, S. A. Tedder, and P. M. Danehy, “Saturation and Stark broadening effects in dual-pump CARS of N2, O2 and H2,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43, 611–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. O’Byrne, P. M. Danehy, S. A. Tedder, and A. D. Cutler, “Dual pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in supesonic combustor,” AIAA Journal 45, 922–933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Danehy, G. Magnotti, D. Bivolaru, S. A. Tedder, and A. D. Cutler, “Simultaneous temperature and velocity measurements in a large scale supersonic heated jet,” presented at the 55th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting, Boston, Mass., 2008, paper-1193.

S. A. Tedder, D. Bivolaru, and P. M. Danehy, “Characterization of a combined CARS and interferometric Rayleigh scattering system,” presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting, Reno, Nev., 2007, AIAA 2007-871.

S. A. Tedder, P. M. Danehy, G. Magnotti, and A. D. Cutler, “CARS temperature measurements in a combustor-heated mach 1.6 jet,” presented at the 47th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, Florida, 2009, AIAA-2009-0524.

Teets, R. E.

Tellex, P. A.

Yang, S. R.

S. R. Yang, J. R. Zhao, C. J. Sung, and G. Yu, “Multiplex CARS measurements in supersonic H2/air combustion,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 68, 257–265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

S. R. Yang, J. R. Zhao, C. J. Sung, and G. Yu, “Multiplex CARS measurements in supersonic H2/air combustion,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 68, 257–265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yueh, F.

G. Singh and F. Yueh, “An evaluation of CARS phase matching techniques for field application,” presented at the 22nd Fluid Dynamics, PlasmaDynamics & Laser Conference, Honolulu, 1991, Hawaii, AIAA-91-1520.

Zhao, J. R.

S. R. Yang, J. R. Zhao, C. J. Sung, and G. Yu, “Multiplex CARS measurements in supersonic H2/air combustion,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 68, 257–265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (2)

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byrne, D. P. Capriotti, and R. DeLoach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic termomethry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Jumper and R. J. Hugo, “Quantification of aero-optical phase distortion using the small-aperture beam technique,” AIAA J. 33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

AIAA Journal (1)

S. O’Byrne, P. M. Danehy, S. A. Tedder, and A. D. Cutler, “Dual pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in supesonic combustor,” AIAA Journal 45, 922–933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (2)

S. R. Yang, J. R. Zhao, C. J. Sung, and G. Yu, “Multiplex CARS measurements in supersonic H2/air combustion,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 68, 257–265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Attal-Trétout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Péalat, and J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: Prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Propuls. and Power (1)

T. J. Anderson and A. C. Eckbreth, “Simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, measurements in hydrogen fueled supersonic combustion,” J. Propuls. and Power 8, 7–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (2)

D. N. Klimenko, W. Clauss, M. Oschwald, J. Smith, and W. Mayer, “CARS temperature mapping in a cryogenic LOX—H2 rocket combustion chamber under supercritical conditions,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Magnotti, A. D. Cutler, G. C. Herring, S. A. Tedder, and P. M. Danehy, “Saturation and Stark broadening effects in dual-pump CARS of N2, O2 and H2,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43, 611–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectroscopy (1)

D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comments on the use of BOXCARS for gas-phase CARS spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectroscopy 14, 150–153 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (2)

B. Hemmerling, R. Bombach, and W. Kreutner, “Measurements of temperature fluctuations in a large-scale turbulent high-pressure flame using CARS,” Proc. SPIE 2506, 94–101 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Hemmerling, “Beam-steering effects in turbulent high-pressure flames,” Proc. SPIE 3108, 32–36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: Fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. Bivolaru and G. C. Herring, “Focal plane imaging of crossed beams in non-linear optics experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 056102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

G. Magnotti, A. D. Cutler, and P. M. Danehy, “Development of a dual-pump CARS system for measurements in a supersonic combusting free jet,” presented at the 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 9-12, 2012, AIAA-2012-1193.

G. Singh and F. Yueh, “An evaluation of CARS phase matching techniques for field application,” presented at the 22nd Fluid Dynamics, PlasmaDynamics & Laser Conference, Honolulu, 1991, Hawaii, AIAA-91-1520.

G. Magnotti, “Dual-pump CARS development and application to supersonic combustion,” dissertation (The George Washington University, 2012).

E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison Wesley Longman, 2001).

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species2nd ed., Combustion Science and Technology Book Series (Taylor and Francis, 1996).

G. C. Herring, R. C. Hart, M. T. Fletcher, J. R. Balla, and B. S. Henderson, “Prospects for nonlinear laser diagnostics in the jet noise laboratory,” TM-2007-214893 (NASA, 2007).

S. A. Tedder, D. Bivolaru, and P. M. Danehy, “Characterization of a combined CARS and interferometric Rayleigh scattering system,” presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting, Reno, Nev., 2007, AIAA 2007-871.

S. A. Tedder, P. M. Danehy, G. Magnotti, and A. D. Cutler, “CARS temperature measurements in a combustor-heated mach 1.6 jet,” presented at the 47th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, Florida, 2009, AIAA-2009-0524.

P. M. Danehy, G. Magnotti, D. Bivolaru, S. A. Tedder, and A. D. Cutler, “Simultaneous temperature and velocity measurements in a large scale supersonic heated jet,” presented at the 55th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting, Boston, Mass., 2008, paper-1193.

A. D. Cutler, G. Magnotti, L. Cantu, E. Gallo, and P. M. Danehy, “Dual-pump CARS measurements in the University of Virginia’s dual-mode scramjet: Configuration “A”,” presented at the 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Nashville, Tenn., 2012, AIAA-2012-114.

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Planar BOXCARS.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effect of “in-plane” beam motion: (a) beams sectioned by the x-z plane; the dashed red line around the overlapped dye lasers indicates the beam displaced by the beam steering; (b) beams sectioned by the focal plane (x-y) without beam steering; and (c) with “in-plane” beam steering.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) No beam steering, optimal beam overlap and maximum CARS signal; (b) effect of “out-of-plane” beam motion when using a round Nd:YAG beam; and (c) an elliptical Nd:YAG beam. The dye lasers are overlapped in all three cases.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized CARS signal as function of the axis ratio of the Nd:YAG beam. Results are normalized dividing by the values obtained for round beam. Red dots are experimental results.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Images of the Nd:YAG pump beam at the “in-plane” focus, for different lens rotation angle. The numbers are the axis ratios.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

FWHM diameter of the Nd:YAG pump beam at the “in-plane” focus, as function of the lens rotation angle.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Three images of the beams at the focal plane, with circular and elliptical configurations of the Nd:YAG.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Sensitivity of the CARS signal to displacement of the overlapped dye lasers relative to the Nd:YAG beam; signal normalized by the peak signal, displacement expressed in narrowband dye laser diameters. Solid lines are a Gaussian fit.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Sensitivity to “out-of-plane” beam displacement for round and elliptical Nd:YAG beam; signal normalized by dividing by the peak signal for round Nd:YAG beam. Solid lines are a Gaussian fit.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Sensitivity to “out-of-plane” displacement for round and elliptical Nd:YAG beam; signal normalized by the peak signal. Solid lines are a Gaussian fit.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Sensitivity to combined “out-of-plane” and “in-plane” displacement for an elliptical Nd:YAG beam. Solid lines are a Gaussian fit.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Nd:YAG beam at the location of the beam crossing where the crossing point is moved by in-plane displacement; for several values of “in-plane” displacement.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Sensitivity to “out-of-plane” displacement for round and elliptical Nd:YAG beam. The signal is normalized dividing by the peak signal. Continuous curves are Gaussian fits, dotted curves are obtained by numerical simulation.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Schematic of the helium jet used to generate beam steering.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

(a) Centroid position of the narrowband dye laser with and without the turbulent helium jet; (b) images of the narrowband dye laser at the focal plane. The image on the left, upper corner is obtained without the helium jet.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Histograms of the CARS signal for various axis ratios without the helium jet.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Comparison between the histograms of the CARS signal and the products of the laser intensities.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Histograms of the CARS signal for various axis ratios with the helium jet.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Histograms of the CARS signal computed with the helium jet, neglecting beam spreading.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Histograms of the CARS signal with the helium jet from experiments and numerical simulations including beam spreading.

Equations (11)

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PCARS=(2πωCARSc)4|(Ip1Ip2IS)1/2χ(3)dz|2dxdy,
I(x,y,z)=P2πσxσyexp{12[(xμx)2σx2+(yμy)2σy2]}.
μx=z·tanα,
σ=σ0(1+z2/zR2)1/2,
BD=(BDx,BDy)=(lxr,lyr),
μy=BDyr
SCARS=FP3·exp(BDy22σe2).
D=(Dx,Dy)=(σx(turbulent)σx,σy(turbulent)σy),
SCARS=FP3·PCARS.
(μx,μy)=(tan(α)BDx·r,BDy·r),
(σx(turbulent),σy(turbulent))=(Dx·σx,Dy·σy).

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