Abstract

A terahertz modulator based on the insulator–metal transition (IMT) in a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) coated by vanadium dioxide (VO2) film is proposed. The numerical simulations show that a dielectric state and a metallic state with quite different photonic band structures and transmission properties in the proposed PCW are reciprocally converted because of the IMT of VO2, and the pass-bands of this PCW are greatly shifted from 0.68 to 0.8 and 1.02 to 1.25 THz to 0.8–1.45 THz. This PCW significantly enhances the modulation depth and sensitivity compared with bare VO2 film. Extensive investigation demonstrates that the thickness of VO2 film greatly affects the IMT process in the PCW, and limits the ultimate modulation depth of the device. The proposed modulation scheme will be of great significance for potential THz applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3555–3557 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Fekete, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and H. Němec, “Ultrafast opto-terahertz photonic crystal modulator,” Opt. Lett. 32, 680–682 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. T. Chen, J. F O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 295–298 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photon. 3, 148–151 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. G. Zhao and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz demonstrations of effectively two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1534–1536 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Fan, Z. Guo, J. J. Bai, X. H. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “Magnetic photonic crystals for terahertz tunable filter and multifunctional polarization controller,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 697–702 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Zhang, P. Guo, P. Chen, S. J. Chang, and J. H. Yuan, “Liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal for terahertz switch and filter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 101–106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 226401 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys 6, 52 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, S. Choi, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and H. T. Kim, “Micrometer X-ray diffraction study of VO2 films: separation between metal-insulator transition and structural phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235401 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. M. Briggs, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Compact silicon photonic waveguide modulator based on the vanadium dioxide metal-insulator phase transition,” Opt. Express 18, 11192 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Xiao, K. W. Kim, and J. M. Zavada, “Electrically programmable photonic crystal slab based on the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 106102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Subpicosecond shifting of the photonic band gap in a three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041114 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Mandal, A. Speck, C. Ko, and S. Ramanathan, “Terahertz spectroscopy studies on epitaxial vanadium dioxide thin films across the metal-insulator transition,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1927–1929 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. H. Chen, Y. H. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Y. Wang, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Rozen, R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Two-dimensional current percolation in nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081902 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Q. Y. Wen, H. W. Zhang, Q. H. Yang, Y. S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y. L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021111(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. G. Jeong, H. Bernien, J. S. Kyoung, H. R. Park, H. S. Kim, J. W. Choi, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 19, 21211–21216 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011907 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film.” Opt. Express 18, 16452–16459 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Pashkin, C. Kubler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 195120 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. B. Choi, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. X. B. Wei, Z. M. Wu, X. D. Xu, T. Wang, J. J. Tang, W. Z. Li, and Y. D. Jiang, “Growth mode and texture study in vanadium dioxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 055303 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. E. I. Smirnova, C. Chen, and M. A. Shapiro, “Simulation of photonic band gaps in metal rod lattices for microwave applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 960–968 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. F. Fan, S. J. Chang, and Y. Hou, “Metallic photonic crystals for terahertz tunable filters,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 55, 72–78(2012).
  31. K. Sakoda, N. Kawai, T. Ito, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photonic bands of metallic systems. I. Principle of calculation and accuracy,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045116 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. Liu, J. Q. Yao, D. G. Xu, and P. Wang, “Propagation characteristics of two-dimensional photonic crystals in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 57–63 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

F. Fan, S. J. Chang, and Y. Hou, “Metallic photonic crystals for terahertz tunable filters,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 55, 72–78(2012).

2011 (5)

F. Fan, Z. Guo, J. J. Bai, X. H. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “Magnetic photonic crystals for terahertz tunable filter and multifunctional polarization controller,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 697–702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Mandal, A. Speck, C. Ko, and S. Ramanathan, “Terahertz spectroscopy studies on epitaxial vanadium dioxide thin films across the metal-insulator transition,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1927–1929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Jeong, H. Bernien, J. S. Kyoung, H. R. Park, H. S. Kim, J. W. Choi, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 19, 21211–21216 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Pashkin, C. Kubler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 195120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Choi, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

C. H. Chen, Y. H. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Y. Wang, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Wen, H. W. Zhang, Q. H. Yang, Y. S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y. L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021111(2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Briggs, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Compact silicon photonic waveguide modulator based on the vanadium dioxide metal-insulator phase transition,” Opt. Express 18, 11192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film.” Opt. Express 18, 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

H. Zhang, P. Guo, P. Chen, S. J. Chang, and J. H. Yuan, “Liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal for terahertz switch and filter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 101–106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photon. 3, 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

H. T. Chen, J. F O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, S. Choi, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and H. T. Kim, “Micrometer X-ray diffraction study of VO2 films: separation between metal-insulator transition and structural phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. B. Wei, Z. M. Wu, X. D. Xu, T. Wang, J. J. Tang, W. Z. Li, and Y. D. Jiang, “Growth mode and texture study in vanadium dioxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 055303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

L. Fekete, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and H. Němec, “Ultrafast opto-terahertz photonic crystal modulator,” Opt. Lett. 32, 680–682 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, J. Q. Yao, D. G. Xu, and P. Wang, “Propagation characteristics of two-dimensional photonic crystals in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Rozen, R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Two-dimensional current percolation in nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Zhao and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz demonstrations of effectively two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1534–1536 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Xiao, K. W. Kim, and J. M. Zavada, “Electrically programmable photonic crystal slab based on the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 106102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Subpicosecond shifting of the photonic band gap in a three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. I. Smirnova, C. Chen, and M. A. Shapiro, “Simulation of photonic band gaps in metal rod lattices for microwave applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 960–968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Sakoda, N. Kawai, T. Ito, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photonic bands of metallic systems. I. Principle of calculation and accuracy,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, K.

Ahn, K. J.

Y. G. Jeong, H. Bernien, J. S. Kyoung, H. R. Park, H. S. Kim, J. W. Choi, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 19, 21211–21216 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Choi, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y. H.

S. B. Choi, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photon. 3, 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photon. 3, 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J. J.

Bandulet, H. C.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernien, H.

Y. G. Jeong, H. Bernien, J. S. Kyoung, H. R. Park, H. S. Kim, J. W. Choi, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 19, 21211–21216 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernussi, A.

C. H. Chen, Y. H. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Y. Wang, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, D.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

Cavalleri,

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chae, B. G.

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

Chen, B.

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

E. I. Smirnova, C. Chen, and M. A. Shapiro, “Simulation of photonic band gaps in metal rod lattices for microwave applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 960–968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen, Y. H. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Y. Wang, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photon. 3, 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

Q. Y. Wen, H. W. Zhang, Q. H. Yang, Y. S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y. L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021111(2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Choe, J. H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. W.

Choi, S.

B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, S. Choi, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and H. T. Kim, “Micrometer X-ray diffraction study of VO2 films: separation between metal-insulator transition and structural phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. B.

S. B. Choi, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

K. Sakoda, N. Kawai, T. Ito, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photonic bands of metallic systems. I. Principle of calculation and accuracy,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photon. 3, 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cocker, T. L.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dijkhuis, J. I.

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Subpicosecond shifting of the photonic band gap in a three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ehrke, H.

A. Pashkin, C. Kubler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 195120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

El Khakani, M.

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

El Khakani, M. A.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, F.

Fan, Z. Y.

C. H. Chen, Y. H. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Y. Wang, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fekete, L.

Feldman, L. C.

J. Rozen, R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Two-dimensional current percolation in nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fourmaux, S.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Guo, P.

Guo, Z.

Haglund, R. F.

A. Pashkin, C. Kubler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 195120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Rozen, R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Two-dimensional current percolation in nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Halabica, A.

A. Pashkin, C. Kubler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 195120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harvard, K.

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hegmann, F. A.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hein, G.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hilton, D. J.

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

K. Sakoda, N. Kawai, T. Ito, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photonic bands of metallic systems. I. Principle of calculation and accuracy,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hiroi, Z.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holtz, M.

C. H. Chen, Y. H. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Y. Wang, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hou, Y.

F. Fan, S. J. Chang, and Y. Hou, “Metallic photonic crystals for terahertz tunable filters,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 55, 72–78(2012).

Huber, R.

A. Pashkin, C. Kubler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 195120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

K. Sakoda, N. Kawai, T. Ito, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photonic bands of metallic systems. I. Principle of calculation and accuracy,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A.

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. G.

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y. D.

X. B. Wei, Z. M. Wu, X. D. Xu, T. Wang, J. J. Tang, W. Z. Li, and Y. D. Jiang, “Growth mode and texture study in vanadium dioxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 055303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T.

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kadlec, F.

Kang, K. Y.

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, N.

K. Sakoda, N. Kawai, T. Ito, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photonic bands of metallic systems. I. Principle of calculation and accuracy,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kerst, R.

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Subpicosecond shifting of the photonic band gap in a three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. J.

S. B. Choi, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Jeong, H. Bernien, J. S. Kyoung, H. R. Park, H. S. Kim, J. W. Choi, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 19, 21211–21216 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film.” Opt. Express 18, 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, S. Choi, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and H. T. Kim, “Micrometer X-ray diffraction study of VO2 films: separation between metal-insulator transition and structural phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

S. B. Choi, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Jeong, H. Bernien, J. S. Kyoung, H. R. Park, H. S. Kim, J. W. Choi, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 19, 21211–21216 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film.” Opt. Express 18, 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

S. B. Choi, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Jeong, H. Bernien, J. S. Kyoung, H. R. Park, H. S. Kim, J. W. Choi, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 19, 21211–21216 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film.” Opt. Express 18, 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. T.

S. B. Choi, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Jeong, H. Bernien, J. S. Kyoung, H. R. Park, H. S. Kim, J. W. Choi, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 19, 21211–21216 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film.” Opt. Express 18, 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, S. Choi, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and H. T. Kim, “Micrometer X-ray diffraction study of VO2 films: separation between metal-insulator transition and structural phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. W.

D. Xiao, K. W. Kim, and J. M. Zavada, “Electrically programmable photonic crystal slab based on the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 106102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ko, C.

Koch, M.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koo, S.

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film.” Opt. Express 18, 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kubler, C.

A. Pashkin, C. Kubler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 195120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kužel, P.

Kyoung, J.

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film.” Opt. Express 18, 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kyoung, J. S.

S. B. Choi, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Jeong, H. Bernien, J. S. Kyoung, H. R. Park, H. S. Kim, J. W. Choi, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 19, 21211–21216 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, R.

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

C. H. Chen, Y. H. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Y. Wang, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. W.

B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, S. Choi, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and H. T. Kim, “Micrometer X-ray diffraction study of VO2 films: separation between metal-insulator transition and structural phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

A. Pashkin, C. Kubler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 195120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. Z.

X. B. Wei, Z. M. Wu, X. D. Xu, T. Wang, J. J. Tang, W. Z. Li, and Y. D. Jiang, “Growth mode and texture study in vanadium dioxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 055303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. W.

B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, S. Choi, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and H. T. Kim, “Micrometer X-ray diffraction study of VO2 films: separation between metal-insulator transition and structural phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. S.

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, J. Q. Yao, D. G. Xu, and P. Wang, “Propagation characteristics of two-dimensional photonic crystals in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. L.

Q. Y. Wen, H. W. Zhang, Q. H. Yang, Y. S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y. L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021111(2010).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, R.

A. Pashkin, C. Kubler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 195120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Rozen, R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Two-dimensional current percolation in nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maeng, S. L.

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mandal, P.

Mazurenko, D. A.

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Subpicosecond shifting of the photonic band gap in a three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Sakoda, N. Kawai, T. Ito, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photonic bands of metallic systems. I. Principle of calculation and accuracy,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morin, F. J.

F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, M.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nemec, H.

Noda, S.

K. Sakoda, N. Kawai, T. Ito, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photonic bands of metallic systems. I. Principle of calculation and accuracy,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F

H. T. Chen, J. F O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photon. 3, 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. J.

S. B. Choi, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film.” Opt. Express 18, 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. R.

Y. G. Jeong, H. Bernien, J. S. Kyoung, H. R. Park, H. S. Kim, J. W. Choi, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 19, 21211–21216 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Choi, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film.” Opt. Express 18, 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Pashkin, A.

A. Pashkin, C. Kubler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 195120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pierz, K.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prasankumar, R. P.

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pryce, I. M.

Ramanathan, S.

Rotermund, F.

S. B. Choi, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rozen, J.

J. Rozen, R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Two-dimensional current percolation in nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakoda, K.

K. Sakoda, N. Kawai, T. Ito, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photonic bands of metallic systems. I. Principle of calculation and accuracy,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seo, M.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film.” Opt. Express 18, 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, M. A.

E. I. Smirnova, C. Chen, and M. A. Shapiro, “Simulation of photonic band gaps in metal rod lattices for microwave applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 960–968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shearn, M.

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shrekenhamer, D. B.

H. T. Chen, J. F O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smirnova, E. I.

E. I. Smirnova, C. Chen, and M. A. Shapiro, “Simulation of photonic band gaps in metal rod lattices for microwave applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 960–968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Speck, A.

Suemoto, T.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suh, J. Y.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P.

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takubo, N.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J. J.

X. B. Wei, Z. M. Wu, X. D. Xu, T. Wang, J. J. Tang, W. Z. Li, and Y. D. Jiang, “Growth mode and texture study in vanadium dioxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 055303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photon. 3, 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thoman, A.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Titova, L. V.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, Y.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. Y.

C. H. Chen, Y. H. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Y. Wang, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

H. Liu, J. Q. Yao, D. G. Xu, and P. Wang, “Propagation characteristics of two-dimensional photonic crystals in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

X. B. Wei, Z. M. Wu, X. D. Xu, T. Wang, J. J. Tang, W. Z. Li, and Y. D. Jiang, “Growth mode and texture study in vanadium dioxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 055303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. H.

Wei, X. B.

X. B. Wei, Z. M. Wu, X. D. Xu, T. Wang, J. J. Tang, W. Z. Li, and Y. D. Jiang, “Growth mode and texture study in vanadium dioxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 055303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Wen, H. W. Zhang, Q. H. Yang, Y. S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y. L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021111(2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. M.

X. B. Wei, Z. M. Wu, X. D. Xu, T. Wang, J. J. Tang, W. Z. Li, and Y. D. Jiang, “Growth mode and texture study in vanadium dioxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 055303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, D.

D. Xiao, K. W. Kim, and J. M. Zavada, “Electrically programmable photonic crystal slab based on the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 106102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Y. S.

Q. Y. Wen, H. W. Zhang, Q. H. Yang, Y. S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y. L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021111(2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. G.

H. Liu, J. Q. Yao, D. G. Xu, and P. Wang, “Propagation characteristics of two-dimensional photonic crystals in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. D.

X. B. Wei, Z. M. Wu, X. D. Xu, T. Wang, J. J. Tang, W. Z. Li, and Y. D. Jiang, “Growth mode and texture study in vanadium dioxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 055303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q. H.

Q. Y. Wen, H. W. Zhang, Q. H. Yang, Y. S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y. L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021111(2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J. Q.

H. Liu, J. Q. Yao, D. G. Xu, and P. Wang, “Propagation characteristics of two-dimensional photonic crystals in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Youn, D. H.

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, J. H.

Yun, S. J.

B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, S. Choi, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and H. T. Kim, “Micrometer X-ray diffraction study of VO2 films: separation between metal-insulator transition and structural phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zavada, J. M.

D. Xiao, K. W. Kim, and J. M. Zavada, “Electrically programmable photonic crystal slab based on the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 106102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, H. W.

Q. Y. Wen, H. W. Zhang, Q. H. Yang, Y. S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y. L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021111(2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

C. H. Chen, Y. H. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Y. Wang, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

Zhu, Y. H.

C. H. Chen, Y. H. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Y. Wang, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

H. Liu, J. Q. Yao, D. G. Xu, and P. Wang, “Propagation characteristics of two-dimensional photonic crystals in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Subpicosecond shifting of the photonic band gap in a three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, Y. H. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Y. Wang, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Rozen, R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Two-dimensional current percolation in nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Wen, H. W. Zhang, Q. H. Yang, Y. S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y. L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021111(2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Choi, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

E. I. Smirnova, C. Chen, and M. A. Shapiro, “Simulation of photonic band gaps in metal rod lattices for microwave applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 960–968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Xiao, K. W. Kim, and J. M. Zavada, “Electrically programmable photonic crystal slab based on the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 106102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

X. B. Wei, Z. M. Wu, X. D. Xu, T. Wang, J. J. Tang, W. Z. Li, and Y. D. Jiang, “Growth mode and texture study in vanadium dioxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 055303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Hochberg, T. Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon–polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (2)

H. T. Chen, J. F O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photon. 3, 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys (1)

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

K. Sakoda, N. Kawai, T. Ito, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photonic bands of metallic systems. I. Principle of calculation and accuracy,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, S. Choi, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and H. T. Kim, “Micrometer X-ray diffraction study of VO2 films: separation between metal-insulator transition and structural phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Pashkin, C. Kubler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 195120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sci. China Inf. Sci. (1)

F. Fan, S. J. Chang, and Y. Hou, “Metallic photonic crystals for terahertz tunable filters,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 55, 72–78(2012).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structural illustration of the silicon PCW coated by VO2 film; (a) 3D schematic diagram; (b) the PCW arranged in a PPWG; (c) 2D top view. Line defect region used for bandgap structure and mode pattern calculations in the FEM is also marked.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Dielectric function and (b) conductivity of metallic phase VO2 in the THz regime; (c) The temperature dependence of the conductivity of VO2 film with IMT process described by the EMT.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Band structures of the PCW with the rod radius increasing. Here, the wave vector along the line defect Knorm=0.1. The first guided mode is marked by the red line; (a) dielectric state; (b) metallic state.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Band structures of the PCW with r=0.32a. The frequency ranges of the guided modes are labeled in the yellow region; (a) dielectric state; (b) metallic sate.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectra of the PCW coated by VO2 film with the different conductive states; (a) Dielectric state and perfect metallic state; (b) σeff=105000S/m; (c) σeff=70002.7×105S/m.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Modulation process of the proposed PCW with the increase of temperature at 0.7, 0.9, and 1.1.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Steady-state electric field distributions of the PCW; (a) 1 THz, dielectric phase; (b) 1 THz, metallic phase; (c) 0.75 THz, dielectric phase; (d) 0.75 THz, metallic phase.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Illustration of bare VO2 film on silicon substrate; (b) transmission spectra of the bare VO2 film with the different thickness and conductivities.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Transmission spectra of the PCW coated by 2.7×105S/m VO2 film with the different thicknesses of 400–1800 nm.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Guided mode patterns of the PCW with the different conductivities and thickness of VO2 film; (a) 1 μm 2.7×105S/m; (b) 0.6 μm 2.7×105S/m; (c) 1 μm 7.5×104S/m; (d) 0.6 μm 7.5×104S/m; (e) 1 μm 3.5×104S/m; (f) 0.6 μm 3.5×104S/m. Red and blue colors represent positive and negative phase of electric vector. The maximum amplitude of (a)–(f) is 0.98, 0.9, 0.55, 0.2, 0.37, and 0.14 respectively.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

εm(ω)=ε+iωp2ω(ω+i/τ),
σm(ω)=σdc1iωτ,
δ=2/ωμ0σm(ω),
σmRe(σm(ω))ε0ωIm(εm(ω)).
εeff=14{εi(23f)+εm(3f1)+[εi(23f)+εm(3f1)]2+8εiεm},
f=111+exp[(TT0)/ΔT].

Metrics