Abstract

Water-leaving radiances, retrieved from in situ or satellite measurements, need to be corrected for the bidirectional properties of the measured light in order to standardize the data and make them comparable with each other. The current operational algorithm for the correction of bidirectional effects from the satellite ocean color data is optimized for typical oceanic waters. However, versions of bidirectional reflectance correction algorithms specifically tuned for typical coastal waters and other case 2 conditions are particularly needed to improve the overall quality of those data. In order to analyze the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of case 2 waters, a dataset of typical remote sensing reflectances was generated through radiative transfer simulations for a large range of viewing and illumination geometries. Based on this simulated dataset, a case 2 water focused remote sensing reflectance model is proposed to correct above-water and satellite water-leaving radiance data for bidirectional effects. The proposed model is first validated with a one year time series of in situ above-water measurements acquired by collocated multispectral and hyperspectral radiometers, which have different viewing geometries installed at the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO). Match-ups and intercomparisons performed on these concurrent measurements show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the algorithm currently in use at all wavelengths, with average improvement of 2.4% over the spectral range. LISCO’s time series data have also been used to evaluate improvements in match-up comparisons of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data when the proposed BRDF correction is used in lieu of the current algorithm. It is shown that the discrepancies between coincident in-situ sea-based and satellite data decreased by 3.15% with the use of the proposed algorithm. This confirms the advantages of the proposed model over the current one, demonstrating the need for a specific case 2 water BRDF correction algorithm as well as the feasibility of enhancing performance of current and future satellite ocean color remote sensing missions for monitoring of typical coastal waters.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

2010

S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, I. Ioannou, A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Validation of ocean color satellite sensors using coastal observational platform in Long Island Sound,” Proc. SPIE 7825, 782504 (2010).

A. A. Gilerson, A. A. Gitelson, J. Zhou, D. Gurlin, W. Moses, I. Ioannou, and S. A. Ahmed, “Algorithms for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in coastal and inland waters using red and near infrared bands,” Opt. Express 18, 24109–24125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: northern Adriatic Sea, northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kay, J. D. Hedley, and S. Lavender, “Sun glint correction of high and low spatial resolution images of aquatic scenes: a review of methods for visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Remote Sens. 1, 697–730 (2009).

2007

2006

2005

H. R. Gordon, “Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness,” Appl. Opt. 44, 241–248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Park and K. Ruddick, “Model of remote-sensing reflectance including bidirectional effects for case 1 and case 2 waters,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1236–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, A. I. Lyapustin, G. T. Arnold, and J. Redemann, “Airborne spectral measurements of ocean directional reflectance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1072–1092 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and A. Morel, “Bidirectional reflectance function for oceanic waters with varying chlorophyll concentrations: measurements versus predictions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 698–705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, and J. W. Brown, “Above-water radiometry in shallow coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4254–4268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Gons, M. Rijkeboer, and K. G. Ruddick, “A chlorophyll-retrieval algorithm for satellite imagery (medium resolution imaging spectrometer) of inland and coastal waters,” J. Plankton Res. 24, 947–951 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, “Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 404–417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129–14142 (2001).

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. a semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

1995

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13143–13150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).

1994

G. Fournier and J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 194–201 (1994).

1993

1992

K. Voss, “A spectral model of the beam attenuation coefficient in the ocean and coastal areas,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 501–509 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 41, 387–392 (1988).

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, O. B. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).

Ahmed, S.

S. Ahmed, T. Harmel, R. A. Arnone, A. Gilerson, S. Hlaing, and A. D. Weidemann, “Multi- and hyperspectral ocean color measurements from Long Island Sound observation platform (LISCO): comparison with satellite measurements & assessments of uncertainties,” presented at Ocean Optics XX, Anchorage, Alaska, United States, 27–30September 2010.

T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, S. Hlaing, A. Tonizzo, T. Legbandt, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory: assessment of above-water radiometric measurement uncertainties using collocated multi and hyperspectral systems,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5842–5860 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, I. Ioannou, A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Validation of ocean color satellite sensors using coastal observational platform in Long Island Sound,” Proc. SPIE 7825, 782504 (2010).

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, J. Schalles, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Fluorescence component in the reflectance spectra from coastal waters. dependence on water composition,” Opt. Express 15, 15702–15721 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, R. Fortich, I. Ioannou, S. Hlaing, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Spectral dependence of the bidirectional reflectance function in coastal waters and its impact on retrieval algorithms,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2007 (IEEE, 2007), pp. 3777–3780.

Ahmed, S. A.

Albert, A.

A. Albert and P. Gege, “Inversion of irradiance and remote sensing reflectance in shallow water between 400 and 800 nm for calculations of water and bottom properties,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2331–2343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Albert and C. Mobley, “An analytical model for subsurface irradiance and remote sensing reflectance in deep and shallow case-2 waters,” Opt. Express 11, 2873–2890 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Gege and A. Albert, “A tool for inverse modeling of spectral measurements in deep and shallow waters,” in Remote Sensing of Aquatic Coastal Ecosystem Processes: Science and Management Applications, L. L. Richardson and E. F. LeDrew, eds. (Springer, 2006), pp. 81–109.

Antoine, D.

Arnold, G. T.

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, A. I. Lyapustin, G. T. Arnold, and J. Redemann, “Airborne spectral measurements of ocean directional reflectance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1072–1092 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R.

Arnone, R. A.

S. Ahmed, T. Harmel, R. A. Arnone, A. Gilerson, S. Hlaing, and A. D. Weidemann, “Multi- and hyperspectral ocean color measurements from Long Island Sound observation platform (LISCO): comparison with satellite measurements & assessments of uncertainties,” presented at Ocean Optics XX, Anchorage, Alaska, United States, 27–30September 2010.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, O. B. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129–14142 (2001).

Berthon, J. F.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: northern Adriatic Sea, northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, and J. W. Brown, “Above-water radiometry in shallow coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4254–4268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129–14142 (2001).

Bricaud, A.

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).

Brown, J. W.

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, and J. W. Brown, “Above-water radiometry in shallow coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4254–4268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, O. B. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, O. B. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).

Carder, K. L.

Ciotti, A. M.

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, “Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 404–417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, O. B. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).

Coombes, C. A.

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 41, 387–392 (1988).

Cullen, J. J.

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, “Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 404–417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, A.

D’Alimonte, D.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: northern Adriatic Sea, northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, K.

Evans, R. H.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SPFs of particles used in simulations: FF b¯b=0.0045 (red) is the SPF with a backscattering ratio of 0.0045, used for algal particles with [Chl]=10mg/m3, FF b¯b=0.007 (green) is used for algal particles with [Chl]=1mg/m3, FF b¯b=0.0183 (blue) is used for NAP, and Petzold b¯b=0.0183 (black dotted line) is Petzold’s average-particle phase function.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Rrs(λ) with respect to ω(λ) at viewing angle θv=40° for λ=551nm (top row) and λ=412nm (bottom row) and for the relative azimuth angles ϕ=45°, 90°, and 180° (from left to right). Simulations are shown for the three solar zenith angles θs=0° (red), 30° (green), and 60° (blue).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Color plots of the coefficients αi(θs,θv,ϕ,λ), sr1: α1 (first column), α2 (second column), and α3 (third column) are shown as a function of the sensor’s zenith angle θv (x axis) and the solar zenith angle θs (y axis) while the relative azimuth angle ϕ is kept constant at 90°. The coefficients are shown for two wavelengths: λ=443nm (top row) and 551 nm (bottom row).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

α1 (first column), α2 (second column), and α3 (third column), sr1, are shown as a function of ϕ (x axis) and the solar zenith angle θs (y axis) while the sensor’s viewing angle θv is kept constant at 40°. Color intensity values are the same as in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparisons between Rrsactual0 andRrsretrieved0 derived with MG (blue dots) and CCNY (green dots) algorithms for θv=40°, 20°θs70°, and 60°ϕ180° at (a) 412, (b) 443, (c) 491, (d) 551, and (e) 668 nm. Regression lines between Rrsretrieved(MG)0 and Rrsactual0 are shown in red, and those of Rrsretrieved(CCNY)0 are shown in black. (f) Distribution of the absolute percent difference, δ, values between Rrsactual0 and Rrs without BRDF correction (red), Rrsretrieved(MG)0 (black), and Rrsretrieved(CCNY)0 (blue) for each matchup.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Distribution of the absolute percent difference (δ) values for Rrsretrieved(CCNY)0 infected with four different noise levels: 0% (blue), 5% (green), 10% (black), and 15% (magenta). The red curve corresponds to the case where Rrs is not corrected for BRDF. Illumination and viewing configurations are the same as in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Intercomparisons of remote sensing reflectances (in sr1) derived from SeaPRISM and HyperSAS before correction for the bidirectional effect: (a) relative azimuth angles for HyperSAS observations are restricted in the 60°ϕ180° range; (b) relative azimuth angle range is restricted to 80°ϕ100°. N is the total number of the comparisons, and the value in parentheses is the number of different measurement sequences used in the comparison.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Intercomparisons of SeaPRISM and HyperSAS remote sensing reflectance measurements (in sr1) after the bidirectional effect is corrected: (a) processed with the MG algorithm, (b) processed with the CCNY algorithm. Relative azimuth angles, ϕ, for HyperSAS observations are the same as in Fig. 7(a).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Intercomparisons between Rrsretrieved(CCNY)0 and Rrsretrieved(MG)0 at (a) 412 nm, (b) 443 nm, (c) 491 nm, (d) 551 nm, and (e) 668 nm. (f) Distribution of absolute percent difference (δ) between Rrsretrieved(CCNY)0 and Rrsretrieved(MG)0 for all wavelengths. Both HyperSAS and SeaPRISM data are plotted together.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Scattering plots of the comparisons between MODIS and in situ data: (a) comparison between MODIS and SeaPRISM with MG BRDF processing, (b) comparison between MODIS and SeaPRISM with CCNY BRDF processing.

Tables (4)

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Table 1. Ranges of the Iop Model Input Parameters Used in the Simulations

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Table 2. Coefficients αi, sr1, for the Nadir Viewing and Solar Angles

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Table 3. Statistical Summary of the Intercomparisons of SeaPRISM and HyperSAS Remote Sensing Reflectance Measurements

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Table 4. AAPD Values from the Comparison between the RrsMODIS0(λ) and RrsSpr0(λ) Data

Equations (26)

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Lw(θs,θv,ϕ,λ,W,IOP)=Ed(θs,λ)×R(θs,θv,λ,W)×f(θs,λ,W,IOP)Q(θs,θv,ϕ,λ,W,IOP)×bb(λ)a(λ)+bb(λ).
Rrs(θs,θv,ϕ,λ,W,IOP)=Lw(θs,θv,ϕ,λ,W,IOP)Ed(θs,λ).
Rrs(θs,θv,ϕ,λ,W,IOP)=R(θs,θv,λ,W)×f(θs,λ,W,IOP)Q(θs,θv,ϕ,λ,W,IOP)×ω(λ).
Rrs(θs,θv,ϕ,λ,ω)=i=13αi(θs,θv,ϕ,λ)ωi(λ),
a(λ)=aw(λ)+ay(λ)+aChl(λ)+aNAP(λ),
aChl(λ)=[Chl]·aChl*(λ),
aChl*(λ)=Sf·apico*(λ)+(1Sf)·amicro*(λ),
aNAP(λ)=CNAP·aNAP*(400)·exp(SNAP(λ400)),
ay(λ)=ay(400)·exp(Sy(λ400)),
b(λ)=bw(λ)+bChl(λ)+bNAP(λ),
bNAP(λ)=CNAP·bNAP*(550)·(550λ)γNAP,
bChl(λ)=cChl(λ)aChl(λ),
cChl(λ)=p·[Chl]0.62·(550λ)γChl.
bb(λ)=bbw(λ)+b¯bChl*bChl(λ)+b¯bNAP*bNAP(λ),
b¯bChl=0.002+{0.01[0.50.25log10(Chl)]}.
β(ψ)=βw(ψ)+βNAP(ψ)+βChl(ψ).
bβ¯(ψ)=bwβ¯w(ψ)+bNAPβ¯NAP(ψ)+bChlβ¯Chl(ψ),
Chl=0.0929+100.29742.2429X+0.8358X20.0077X3,
X=log10(Rrs(490)Rrs(555)).
Rrsretrieved(MG)0=R0R(θv,W)×f0(λ,Chl)Q0(λ,Chl)×Q(θs,θv,ϕ,λ,Chl)f(θs,λ,Chl)×Rrs(θs,θv,ϕ,λ),
δi=100×|xiyi|xi.
AAPD=1Ni=1Nδi,
APD=100Ni=1Nxiyixi,
Rrs(θs,θv,ϕ,λ)=Lt(θs,θv,ϕ,λ,W)ρ(θs,θv,ϕ,W)Lsky(θs,θv,ϕ,λ)Ed(θs,λ).
ARPD=200Ni=1N|yixi|xi+y,
URPD=200Ni=1Nyixixi+yi,

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