Abstract

A reflective thermochromic display fabricated by a very simple method using three kinds of thermochromic pigments is produced and its thermo-optical characteristics are investigated. The display exhibits maximum red, green, and blue reflectances of 38%, 30%, and 35%, respectively. The reflective display cell shows continuous gray color with changing temperature, which is crucial for multicolor displays. It also shows an excellent viewing angle above 80° without any of the additional optical components that are required in liquid crystal displays. We expect that this display technology will be used for outdoor billboard information display applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of the reflectivity and bistability in displays based on cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1331–1333 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistablenematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179–1181 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistablenematic device,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1997, Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.
  4. M. A. Hopper and V. Novotny, “An electrophoretic display, its properties, model, and addressing,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-26, 1148–1152 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Liu, S. Pen, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Paperlike thermochromic display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213508 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Noguchi, T. Sekitani, and T. Someya, “Organic-transistor-based flexible pressure sensors using ink-jet-printed electrodes and gate dielectric layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253507 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Seeboth, J. Kriwanek, and R. Vetter, “Novel chromogenic polymer gel networks for hybrid transparency and color control with temperature,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1424–1426 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Yarimaga, M. Im, B. Gu, T. W. Kim, Y. K. Jung, and H. G. Park, “A thermally actuated organic display device using thermo-chromatic polymer composite film with self-aligned patterns,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 750–753.
  9. M. Seredyuk, A. B. Gaspar, V. Ksenofontov, S. Reiman, Y. Galyametdinov, W. Haase, R. Vetter, and P. Gutlich, “Room temperature operational thermochromic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 18, 2513–2519 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Mills and A. Lepre, “Development of novel thermochromic plastic films for optical temperature sensing,” Analyst 124, 685–689 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. G. Baron and M. Elie, “Temperature sensing using reversible thermochromic polymeric films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 90, 271–275 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. http://www.hwsands.com/category/141.aspx .
  13. G. Shimizu, Shiga, and Y. Hayasshi, “Thermochromic composition,” U. S. Patent US4717710 (5January1998).
  14. D. C. Maclaren and M. A. White, “Design rules for reversible thermochromic mixtures,” J. Mater. Chem. 40, 669–676 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Liu, S. Pen, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Paperlike thermochromic display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y. Noguchi, T. Sekitani, and T. Someya, “Organic-transistor-based flexible pressure sensors using ink-jet-printed electrodes and gate dielectric layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Seredyuk, A. B. Gaspar, V. Ksenofontov, S. Reiman, Y. Galyametdinov, W. Haase, R. Vetter, and P. Gutlich, “Room temperature operational thermochromic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 18, 2513–2519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. C. Maclaren and M. A. White, “Design rules for reversible thermochromic mixtures,” J. Mater. Chem. 40, 669–676 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. G. Baron and M. Elie, “Temperature sensing using reversible thermochromic polymeric films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 90, 271–275 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Seeboth, J. Kriwanek, and R. Vetter, “Novel chromogenic polymer gel networks for hybrid transparency and color control with temperature,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1424–1426 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Mills and A. Lepre, “Development of novel thermochromic plastic films for optical temperature sensing,” Analyst 124, 685–689 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistablenematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of the reflectivity and bistability in displays based on cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1331–1333 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

M. A. Hopper and V. Novotny, “An electrophoretic display, its properties, model, and addressing,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-26, 1148–1152 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Baron, M. G.

M. G. Baron and M. Elie, “Temperature sensing using reversible thermochromic polymeric films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 90, 271–275 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brett, P.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistablenematic device,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1997, Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

Brown, C. V.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistablenematic device,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1997, Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

Bryan-Brown, G. P.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistablenematic device,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1997, Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

Chien, L. C.

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of the reflectivity and bistability in displays based on cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1331–1333 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of the reflectivity and bistability in displays based on cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1331–1333 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dozov, I.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistablenematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Durand, G.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistablenematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Elie, M.

M. G. Baron and M. Elie, “Temperature sensing using reversible thermochromic polymeric films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 90, 271–275 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Galyametdinov, Y.

M. Seredyuk, A. B. Gaspar, V. Ksenofontov, S. Reiman, Y. Galyametdinov, W. Haase, R. Vetter, and P. Gutlich, “Room temperature operational thermochromic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 18, 2513–2519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaspar, A. B.

M. Seredyuk, A. B. Gaspar, V. Ksenofontov, S. Reiman, Y. Galyametdinov, W. Haase, R. Vetter, and P. Gutlich, “Room temperature operational thermochromic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 18, 2513–2519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B.

O. Yarimaga, M. Im, B. Gu, T. W. Kim, Y. K. Jung, and H. G. Park, “A thermally actuated organic display device using thermo-chromatic polymer composite film with self-aligned patterns,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 750–753.

Gutlich, P.

M. Seredyuk, A. B. Gaspar, V. Ksenofontov, S. Reiman, Y. Galyametdinov, W. Haase, R. Vetter, and P. Gutlich, “Room temperature operational thermochromic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 18, 2513–2519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haase, W.

M. Seredyuk, A. B. Gaspar, V. Ksenofontov, S. Reiman, Y. Galyametdinov, W. Haase, R. Vetter, and P. Gutlich, “Room temperature operational thermochromic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 18, 2513–2519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hayasshi, Y.

G. Shimizu, Shiga, and Y. Hayasshi, “Thermochromic composition,” U. S. Patent US4717710 (5January1998).

Hopper, M. A.

M. A. Hopper and V. Novotny, “An electrophoretic display, its properties, model, and addressing,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-26, 1148–1152 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Im, M.

O. Yarimaga, M. Im, B. Gu, T. W. Kim, Y. K. Jung, and H. G. Park, “A thermally actuated organic display device using thermo-chromatic polymer composite film with self-aligned patterns,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 750–753.

Jones, J. C.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistablenematic device,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1997, Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

Jung, Y. K.

O. Yarimaga, M. Im, B. Gu, T. W. Kim, Y. K. Jung, and H. G. Park, “A thermally actuated organic display device using thermo-chromatic polymer composite film with self-aligned patterns,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 750–753.

Kim, T. W.

O. Yarimaga, M. Im, B. Gu, T. W. Kim, Y. K. Jung, and H. G. Park, “A thermally actuated organic display device using thermo-chromatic polymer composite film with self-aligned patterns,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 750–753.

Kriwanek, J.

A. Seeboth, J. Kriwanek, and R. Vetter, “Novel chromogenic polymer gel networks for hybrid transparency and color control with temperature,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1424–1426 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ksenofontov, V.

M. Seredyuk, A. B. Gaspar, V. Ksenofontov, S. Reiman, Y. Galyametdinov, W. Haase, R. Vetter, and P. Gutlich, “Room temperature operational thermochromic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 18, 2513–2519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lepre, A.

A. Mills and A. Lepre, “Development of novel thermochromic plastic films for optical temperature sensing,” Analyst 124, 685–689 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, S. Pen, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Paperlike thermochromic display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maclaren, D. C.

D. C. Maclaren and M. A. White, “Design rules for reversible thermochromic mixtures,” J. Mater. Chem. 40, 669–676 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mills, A.

A. Mills and A. Lepre, “Development of novel thermochromic plastic films for optical temperature sensing,” Analyst 124, 685–689 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nobili, M.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistablenematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, Y.

Y. Noguchi, T. Sekitani, and T. Someya, “Organic-transistor-based flexible pressure sensors using ink-jet-printed electrodes and gate dielectric layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, V.

M. A. Hopper and V. Novotny, “An electrophoretic display, its properties, model, and addressing,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-26, 1148–1152 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. G.

O. Yarimaga, M. Im, B. Gu, T. W. Kim, Y. K. Jung, and H. G. Park, “A thermally actuated organic display device using thermo-chromatic polymer composite film with self-aligned patterns,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 750–753.

Pen, S.

L. Liu, S. Pen, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Paperlike thermochromic display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reiman, S.

M. Seredyuk, A. B. Gaspar, V. Ksenofontov, S. Reiman, Y. Galyametdinov, W. Haase, R. Vetter, and P. Gutlich, “Room temperature operational thermochromic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 18, 2513–2519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ruding, J.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistablenematic device,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1997, Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

Sage, I. C.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistablenematic device,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1997, Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

Seeboth, A.

A. Seeboth, J. Kriwanek, and R. Vetter, “Novel chromogenic polymer gel networks for hybrid transparency and color control with temperature,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1424–1426 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sekitani, T.

Y. Noguchi, T. Sekitani, and T. Someya, “Organic-transistor-based flexible pressure sensors using ink-jet-printed electrodes and gate dielectric layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seredyuk, M.

M. Seredyuk, A. B. Gaspar, V. Ksenofontov, S. Reiman, Y. Galyametdinov, W. Haase, R. Vetter, and P. Gutlich, “Room temperature operational thermochromic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 18, 2513–2519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

L. Liu, S. Pen, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Paperlike thermochromic display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shiga,

G. Shimizu, Shiga, and Y. Hayasshi, “Thermochromic composition,” U. S. Patent US4717710 (5January1998).

Shimizu, G.

G. Shimizu, Shiga, and Y. Hayasshi, “Thermochromic composition,” U. S. Patent US4717710 (5January1998).

Someya, T.

Y. Noguchi, T. Sekitani, and T. Someya, “Organic-transistor-based flexible pressure sensors using ink-jet-printed electrodes and gate dielectric layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vetter, R.

M. Seredyuk, A. B. Gaspar, V. Ksenofontov, S. Reiman, Y. Galyametdinov, W. Haase, R. Vetter, and P. Gutlich, “Room temperature operational thermochromic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 18, 2513–2519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Seeboth, J. Kriwanek, and R. Vetter, “Novel chromogenic polymer gel networks for hybrid transparency and color control with temperature,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1424–1426 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wen, W.

L. Liu, S. Pen, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Paperlike thermochromic display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of the reflectivity and bistability in displays based on cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1331–1333 (1994).
[CrossRef]

White, M. A.

D. C. Maclaren and M. A. White, “Design rules for reversible thermochromic mixtures,” J. Mater. Chem. 40, 669–676 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wood, E. L.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistablenematic device,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1997, Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

Yang, D.-K.

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of the reflectivity and bistability in displays based on cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1331–1333 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yarimaga, O.

O. Yarimaga, M. Im, B. Gu, T. W. Kim, Y. K. Jung, and H. G. Park, “A thermally actuated organic display device using thermo-chromatic polymer composite film with self-aligned patterns,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 750–753.

Adv. Mater. (1)

A. Seeboth, J. Kriwanek, and R. Vetter, “Novel chromogenic polymer gel networks for hybrid transparency and color control with temperature,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1424–1426 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (1)

A. Mills and A. Lepre, “Development of novel thermochromic plastic films for optical temperature sensing,” Analyst 124, 685–689 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. Liu, S. Pen, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Paperlike thermochromic display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Noguchi, T. Sekitani, and T. Someya, “Organic-transistor-based flexible pressure sensors using ink-jet-printed electrodes and gate dielectric layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistablenematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

M. Seredyuk, A. B. Gaspar, V. Ksenofontov, S. Reiman, Y. Galyametdinov, W. Haase, R. Vetter, and P. Gutlich, “Room temperature operational thermochromic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 18, 2513–2519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

M. A. Hopper and V. Novotny, “An electrophoretic display, its properties, model, and addressing,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-26, 1148–1152 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of the reflectivity and bistability in displays based on cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1331–1333 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

D. C. Maclaren and M. A. White, “Design rules for reversible thermochromic mixtures,” J. Mater. Chem. 40, 669–676 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

M. G. Baron and M. Elie, “Temperature sensing using reversible thermochromic polymeric films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 90, 271–275 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

http://www.hwsands.com/category/141.aspx .

G. Shimizu, Shiga, and Y. Hayasshi, “Thermochromic composition,” U. S. Patent US4717710 (5January1998).

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistablenematic device,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1997, Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

O. Yarimaga, M. Im, B. Gu, T. W. Kim, Y. K. Jung, and H. G. Park, “A thermally actuated organic display device using thermo-chromatic polymer composite film with self-aligned patterns,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 750–753.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM image of thermochromic pigment used.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photo images of the thermochromic display (TCD) cells according to applied voltage which is from 0 V to 4 V.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Variations of reflectance spectra according to applied voltage to thermochromic display cells coated with three different thermochromic pigments.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photo images of thermochromic display cell taken at multi-zone under the applied voltage of 5 V.

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