Abstract

By considering the instrument as a complex operator on the incident electric field, a model to calculate secondary fringes of the Field-widened, Achromatic, Temperature-compensated Wind Imaging Interferometer (FATWindII) has been built. The distribution of secondary fringes on a charge coupled device detector has been plotted. The effects of secondary fringes on inversion errors of temperature and wind velocity have been presented. The results show that antireflection coating on the air/glass interface cannot meet the accuracy requirement of FATWindII. A theoretical method for calculating the optimal wedge angles of compensating glasses is derived to suppress the secondary fringes while preserving the primary ones. By adopting both methods, coating with antireflection film and shaping wedge compensating glasses, the relative intensity of secondary fringes is reduced to below 2.5% and the inversion errors of temperature and wind velocity introduced by the effects of secondary fringes can be minimized to about 0.05 K and 0.045ms1, respectively.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

2010

2009

Z. C. Bu, C. M. Zhang, B. C. Zhao, and H. C. Zhu, “Analysis and calculation of the modulation depth of the Michelson interferometer with wide field, chromatic compensation and thermal compensation,” Act. Phys. Sinica 58, 2415–2422 (2009).

T. K. Mu, C. M. Zhang, and B. C. Zhao, “Optical path difference evaluation of the polarization interference imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1984–1992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. M. Zhang, B. C. Zhao, B. Xiangli, and Y. Li, “Interference image spectroscopy for upper atmospheric wind field measurement,” Optik 117, 265–270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Zeng, B. S. Yin, B. He, and D. Gong, “Error analysis of moving mirror in Fourier transform interferometer,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 2, 191–196 (2006).

C. M. Zhang and J. He, “The generalization of upper atmospheric wind and temperature based on the Voigt line shape profile,” Opt. Express 14, 12560–12560 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. M. Zhang and B. C. Zhao, “A new method to measure upper atmospheric wind field with high stability and large field of view,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 697–700 (2000).

C. M. Zhang, W. Wang, L. B. Xiang, and B. C. Zhao, “Interference image spectroscopy for upper atmospheric wind field measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 234–239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

W. Ward, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Two day wave induced variations in the oxygen green line volume emission rate: WINDII observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1127–1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Xiang, J. F. Yang, G. Zhan, and G. X. Liu, “On the tolerance of the mirror tilting in Fourier transform interferometer,” Act. Photon. Sinica 2, 132–135 (1997).

1995

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hersom and G. G. Shepherd, “Characterization of the wind imaging interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2871–2879 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

G. G. Shepherd, “Optical Doppler imaging with field-widened Michelson interferometers,” Surv. Geophys. 9, 185–195 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

1980

1966

1957

Alunni, J. M.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Babcock, D. D.

Bell, R. J.

R. J. Bell, Introductory Fourier Transform Spectroscopy(Academic, 1972), pp. 33–41.

Bird, J. C.

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, Seventh (Expanded) ed. (Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 34–41.

Brun, J. F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brune, S.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bu, Z. C.

Z. C. Bu, C. M. Zhang, B. C. Zhao, and H. C. Zhu, “Analysis and calculation of the modulation depth of the Michelson interferometer with wide field, chromatic compensation and thermal compensation,” Act. Phys. Sinica 58, 2415–2422 (2009).

Charlot, P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Cogger, L. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Desaulniers, D. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Englert, C. R.

Evans, W. F. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gattinger, R. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, Z. Pasturczyk, W. A. Gault, and G. G. Shepherd, “Multiple reflections in a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1589–1598 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, and J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII-wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1584 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ge, J.

Girod, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gong, D.

L. B. Zeng, B. S. Yin, B. He, and D. Gong, “Error analysis of moving mirror in Fourier transform interferometer,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 2, 191–196 (2006).

Harlander, J. M.

Harvie, D.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haslett, J. W.

He, B.

L. B. Zeng, B. S. Yin, B. He, and D. Gong, “Error analysis of moving mirror in Fourier transform interferometer,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 2, 191–196 (2006).

He, J.

Hersom, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hersom, C. H.

C. H. Hersom and G. G. Shepherd, “Characterization of the wind imaging interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2871–2879 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hersom, “Characterization of the WINDII instrument for determination of winds, temperature and emission rates,” Ph.D. thesis (York University, 1993).

Hilliard, R. L.

Hum, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jian, X. H.

Johnston, S. F.

Kendall, D. J. W.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, and J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII-wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1584 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kosteniuk, P. R.

Li, Y.

C. M. Zhang, B. C. Zhao, B. Xiangli, and Y. Li, “Interference image spectroscopy for upper atmospheric wind field measurement,” Optik 117, 265–270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, F.

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. X.

B. L. Xiang, J. F. Yang, G. Zhan, and G. X. Liu, “On the tolerance of the mirror tilting in Fourier transform interferometer,” Act. Photon. Sinica 2, 132–135 (1997).

Llewellyn, E. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, R. P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. W.

Mu, T. K.

T. K. Mu and C. M. Zhang, “A novel polarization interferometer for measuring upper atmospheric winds,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 060702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Mu, C. M. Zhang, and B. C. Zhao, “Optical path difference evaluation of the polarization interference imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1984–1992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohrt, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pasternak, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pasturczyk, Z.

Peillet, O.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Powell, I.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, H.

Rochon, Y.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Rochon, “The retrieval of winds, Doppler temperatures, and emission rates for the WINDII experiment,” Ph.D. thesis (York University, 2000).

Roesler, F. L.

Shepherd, G.

W. Ward, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Two day wave induced variations in the oxygen green line volume emission rate: WINDII observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1127–1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G. G.

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hersom and G. G. Shepherd, “Characterization of the wind imaging interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2871–2879 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, “Optical Doppler imaging with field-widened Michelson interferometers,” Surv. Geophys. 9, 185–195 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, Z. Pasturczyk, W. A. Gault, and G. G. Shepherd, “Multiple reflections in a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1589–1598 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, and J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII-wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1584 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier and G. G. Shepherd, “Fully compensated Michelson interferometer of fixed-path difference,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1599–1603 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Hilliard and G. G. Shepherd, “Wide-angle Michelson interferometer for measuring Doppler line widths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 362 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, B.

W. Ward, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Two day wave induced variations in the oxygen green line volume emission rate: WINDII observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1127–1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, B. H.

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stroke, G. W.

Thuillier, G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier and G. G. Shepherd, “Fully compensated Michelson interferometer of fixed-path difference,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1599–1603 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Title, A.

Wan, X.

Wang, W.

C. M. Zhang, W. Wang, L. B. Xiang, and B. C. Zhao, “Interference image spectroscopy for upper atmospheric wind field measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 234–239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ward, W.

W. Ward, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Two day wave induced variations in the oxygen green line volume emission rate: WINDII observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1127–1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ward, W. E.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, Z. Pasturczyk, W. A. Gault, and G. G. Shepherd, “Multiple reflections in a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1589–1598 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wiens, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J. R.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, Seventh (Expanded) ed. (Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 34–41.

Xiang, B. L.

B. L. Xiang, J. F. Yang, G. Zhan, and G. X. Liu, “On the tolerance of the mirror tilting in Fourier transform interferometer,” Act. Photon. Sinica 2, 132–135 (1997).

Xiang, L. B.

C. M. Zhang, W. Wang, L. B. Xiang, and B. C. Zhao, “Interference image spectroscopy for upper atmospheric wind field measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 234–239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xiangli, B.

C. M. Zhang, B. C. Zhao, B. Xiangli, and Y. Li, “Interference image spectroscopy for upper atmospheric wind field measurement,” Optik 117, 265–270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. F.

B. L. Xiang, J. F. Yang, G. Zhan, and G. X. Liu, “On the tolerance of the mirror tilting in Fourier transform interferometer,” Act. Photon. Sinica 2, 132–135 (1997).

Yin, B. S.

L. B. Zeng, B. S. Yin, B. He, and D. Gong, “Error analysis of moving mirror in Fourier transform interferometer,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 2, 191–196 (2006).

Zeng, L. B.

L. B. Zeng, B. S. Yin, B. He, and D. Gong, “Error analysis of moving mirror in Fourier transform interferometer,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 2, 191–196 (2006).

Zhan, G.

B. L. Xiang, J. F. Yang, G. Zhan, and G. X. Liu, “On the tolerance of the mirror tilting in Fourier transform interferometer,” Act. Photon. Sinica 2, 132–135 (1997).

Zhang, C. M.

C. M. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, and B. C. Zhao, “The tempo-spatially modulated polarization atmosphere Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Express 19, 9626–9635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Zhu, C. M. Zhang, and X. H. Jian, “A wide field wind image interferometer with chromatic and thermal compensation,” Acta Phys. Sin.893–898 (2010).

C. M. Zhang and X. H. Jian, “Wide-spectrum reconstruction method for a birefringence interference imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 35, 366–368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Jian, C. M. Zhang, L. Zhang, and B. C. Zhao, “The data processing of the temporarily and spatially mixed modulated polarization interference imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Express 18, 5674–5680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Mu and C. M. Zhang, “A novel polarization interferometer for measuring upper atmospheric winds,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 060702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Mu, C. M. Zhang, and B. C. Zhao, “Optical path difference evaluation of the polarization interference imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1984–1992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Bu, C. M. Zhang, B. C. Zhao, and H. C. Zhu, “Analysis and calculation of the modulation depth of the Michelson interferometer with wide field, chromatic compensation and thermal compensation,” Act. Phys. Sinica 58, 2415–2422 (2009).

C. M. Zhang and J. He, “The generalization of upper atmospheric wind and temperature based on the Voigt line shape profile,” Opt. Express 14, 12560–12560 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Zhang, B. C. Zhao, B. Xiangli, and Y. Li, “Interference image spectroscopy for upper atmospheric wind field measurement,” Optik 117, 265–270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Zhang and B. C. Zhao, “A new method to measure upper atmospheric wind field with high stability and large field of view,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 697–700 (2000).

C. M. Zhang, W. Wang, L. B. Xiang, and B. C. Zhao, “Interference image spectroscopy for upper atmospheric wind field measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 234–239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhao, B. C.

C. M. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, and B. C. Zhao, “The tempo-spatially modulated polarization atmosphere Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Express 19, 9626–9635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Jian, C. M. Zhang, L. Zhang, and B. C. Zhao, “The data processing of the temporarily and spatially mixed modulated polarization interference imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Express 18, 5674–5680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Bu, C. M. Zhang, B. C. Zhao, and H. C. Zhu, “Analysis and calculation of the modulation depth of the Michelson interferometer with wide field, chromatic compensation and thermal compensation,” Act. Phys. Sinica 58, 2415–2422 (2009).

T. K. Mu, C. M. Zhang, and B. C. Zhao, “Optical path difference evaluation of the polarization interference imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1984–1992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Zhang, B. C. Zhao, B. Xiangli, and Y. Li, “Interference image spectroscopy for upper atmospheric wind field measurement,” Optik 117, 265–270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Zhang and B. C. Zhao, “A new method to measure upper atmospheric wind field with high stability and large field of view,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 697–700 (2000).

C. M. Zhang, W. Wang, L. B. Xiang, and B. C. Zhao, “Interference image spectroscopy for upper atmospheric wind field measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 234–239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H. C.

C. M. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, and B. C. Zhao, “The tempo-spatially modulated polarization atmosphere Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Express 19, 9626–9635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Zhu, C. M. Zhang, and X. H. Jian, “A wide field wind image interferometer with chromatic and thermal compensation,” Acta Phys. Sin.893–898 (2010).

Z. C. Bu, C. M. Zhang, B. C. Zhao, and H. C. Zhu, “Analysis and calculation of the modulation depth of the Michelson interferometer with wide field, chromatic compensation and thermal compensation,” Act. Phys. Sinica 58, 2415–2422 (2009).

Act. Photon. Sinica

B. L. Xiang, J. F. Yang, G. Zhan, and G. X. Liu, “On the tolerance of the mirror tilting in Fourier transform interferometer,” Act. Photon. Sinica 2, 132–135 (1997).

Act. Phys. Sinica

Z. C. Bu, C. M. Zhang, B. C. Zhao, and H. C. Zhu, “Analysis and calculation of the modulation depth of the Michelson interferometer with wide field, chromatic compensation and thermal compensation,” Act. Phys. Sinica 58, 2415–2422 (2009).

Acta Opt. Sin.

C. M. Zhang and B. C. Zhao, “A new method to measure upper atmospheric wind field with high stability and large field of view,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 697–700 (2000).

C. M. Zhang, W. Wang, L. B. Xiang, and B. C. Zhao, “Interference image spectroscopy for upper atmospheric wind field measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 234–239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Acta Phys. Sin.

H. C. Zhu, C. M. Zhang, and X. H. Jian, “A wide field wind image interferometer with chromatic and thermal compensation,” Acta Phys. Sin.893–898 (2010).

Appl. Opt.

Chin. Phys. B

T. K. Mu and C. M. Zhang, “A novel polarization interferometer for measuring upper atmospheric winds,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 060702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

W. Ward, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Two day wave induced variations in the oxygen green line volume emission rate: WINDII observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1127–1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

T. K. Mu, C. M. Zhang, and B. C. Zhao, “Optical path difference evaluation of the polarization interference imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1984–1992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Precis. Eng.

L. B. Zeng, B. S. Yin, B. He, and D. Gong, “Error analysis of moving mirror in Fourier transform interferometer,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 2, 191–196 (2006).

Optik

C. M. Zhang, B. C. Zhao, B. Xiangli, and Y. Li, “Interference image spectroscopy for upper atmospheric wind field measurement,” Optik 117, 265–270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Surv. Geophys.

G. G. Shepherd, “Optical Doppler imaging with field-widened Michelson interferometers,” Surv. Geophys. 9, 185–195 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. J. Bell, Introductory Fourier Transform Spectroscopy(Academic, 1972), pp. 33–41.

Y. Rochon, “The retrieval of winds, Doppler temperatures, and emission rates for the WINDII experiment,” Ph.D. thesis (York University, 2000).

C. H. Hersom, “Characterization of the WINDII instrument for determination of winds, temperature and emission rates,” Ph.D. thesis (York University, 1993).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, Seventh (Expanded) ed. (Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 34–41.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The general schematic optical configuration of FATWindII.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Light path in FATWindII.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Three parts of light on scanning arm considered in secondary fringe calculation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The normalized simulated total intensity (black; solid line), primary intensity (red; dash-dot line), and secondary fringe intensity (dash line) relative to step length of scanning arm when incident angle is 0°.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The calculated intensity images on the CCD detector: (a) total intensity; (b) primary fringes, and (c) secondary fringes.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The secondary fringe relative intensities of ID1, ID2, ID3, and ID4 as a function of incident angle.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The visibility for 630.0 nm for the O(D1) emission line as a function of incident angle when total intensity (solid line) and primary intensity (dash line) are used to calculate the visibility.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The inversion errors for (a) temperature and (b) wind velocity relative to incident angle.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The (a) temperature and (b) wind velocity inversion error caused by secondary fringes with respect to incident angle. The air/glass interface on the scanning arm is antireflection coated with a transmittance 99.8%.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

The configuration of wedge-shape compensating glasses of FATWindII.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

The modulation factors mk (k=1, 2, 3, 4, 5) relative to wedge angles α and β.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

The phase shift δψk (k=1, 2, 3, 4, 5) relative to rotation center y0 when wedge angle α is 10.0 arcsec and β is 3.7arcsec.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

The (a) calculated total intensity; (b) primary fringes; and (c) secondary fringes on the CCD when adopting antireflection coating and wedge-shape compensating glasses to suppress the secondary fringes.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

The secondary fringes relative intensities of ID1, ID2, ID3, and ID4 as a function of incident angle when using both antireflection coating and wedge shaping to suppress to secondary fringes.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Inversion error for (a) temperature and (b) wind velocity as a function of incident angle after antireflection coating and wedge shape compensating glasses.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Three-layer Mediums Compensation Scheme for FATWindII

Tables Icon

Table 2. Definitions for Original OPD, Transmittance, and OPD Modification Factor

Equations (25)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ID=I0[1+UV0cos(2πσΔ)],
Δ(θ)=L1L2=2inigicosθi,
E^0=E0exp(iωt),
L1=l1+d1,Δ=L1L2.
E^1=t1E^0exp(i2πσ0L1)+t1E^0exp(i2πσ0l1)+t1E^0exp[i2πσ0(L1+d1)],
E^2=t2E^0exp(i2πσ0L2).
E^D=E^1+E^2,
I=1/2ε0c·E^DE^D*,
I=Iprim+Isf,
Iprim=1/2ε0c·(t12+t22+2t1t2cos2πσΔ),
Isf=12ε0c[t12+t12+2t1t1cos2πσ(2d1)+2(t1t1+t1t1)cos2πσd1+2t1t2cos2πσ(Δd1)+2t1t2cos2πσ(Δ+d1)].
B(σ)=B0exp[4ln2(σσ0)2/w2],
ID=σ012δσσ0+12δσB(σ)[Is(σ)+Ip(σ)]dσ.
I0=(ID1+ID3)/2=(ID2+ID4)/2,
V=UV0=[(ID1ID3)2+(ID4ID2)2]12/2I0,
Φ+ϕ=arctan[(ID4ID2)/(ID1ID3)],
V=exp(Q0Δ2T),
δT(θ)=[lnVtotal(θ)lnVprim(θ)]/(QΔ2).
δϕ(θ)=|ϕ0(θ)ϕ0(θ)|,
δυ(θ)=δϕ(θ)·λ0c/2πΔ,
δSk=akξ.
I=1D(D/2+y0)D/2y0{T0+k=15Tkcos[2πσ(Sk+δSk)]}dξ,
I=T0+k=15mkcos[2πσ(Sk+δψk)],
mk=sinc(πσDak),
δψk=2πσaky0.

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