Abstract

Conventional intensity imaging through turbid media suffers from rapid loss of image contrast due to light scattering from particles or random variations of refractive index. This paper features the development of an active imaging, snapshot, system design and postprocessing algorithms that differentiate between radiation that scatters or reflects from remote, obscured objects and the radiation from the scattering media itself through a combination of polarization difference imaging, channel blurring, and Fourier spatial filtering. The produced sensor acquires and processes image data in real time, yielding improved image contrasts by factors of 10 or greater for dense water vapor obscurants.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2009 (1)

2008 (2)

S. L. Jacques, R. Samatham, S. Isenhath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE 6842, 68420I (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zallat, C. Heinrich, and M. Petremand, “A Bayesian approach for polarimetric data reduction: the Mueller imaging case,” Opt. Express 16, 7119–7133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2002 (2)

S. Jaruwatanadilok, A. Ishimaru, and Y. Kuga, “Imaging techniques through discrete scattering media by polarized pulsed waves,” Proc. SPIE 4819, 87–97 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. F. Nee and T.-W. Nee, “Principal Mueller matrix for reflection and scattering measured for a one-dimensional rough surface,” Opt. Eng. 41, 994–1001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

H. Wechsler and G. L. Zimmerman, “2-D invariant object recognition using distributed associative memory,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 811–821 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

Ai, C.

Alfano, R. R.

Arnott, W. P.

Chenault, D. B.

Cochran, E. R.

Del Bianco, S.

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Ismaelli, and G. Zaccanti, Light Propagation Through Biological Tissue and Other Diffusive Media (SPIE, 2010).

Demos, S. G.

Drévillon, B.

Gao, Q.

Gilbert, G.

Goldstein, D. L.

Hallett, J.

He, Y.

Heinrich, C.

Isenhath, S.

S. L. Jacques, R. Samatham, S. Isenhath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE 6842, 68420I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

S. Jaruwatanadilok, A. Ishimaru, and Y. Kuga, “Imaging techniques through discrete scattering media by polarized pulsed waves,” Proc. SPIE 4819, 87–97 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishimaru, S. Jaruwatanadilok, and Y. Kuga, “Polarized pulse waves in random discrete scatterers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5495–5502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ismaelli, A.

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Ismaelli, and G. Zaccanti, Light Propagation Through Biological Tissue and Other Diffusive Media (SPIE, 2010).

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, R. Samatham, S. Isenhath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE 6842, 68420I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jaruwatanadilok, S.

S. Jaruwatanadilok, A. Ishimaru, and Y. Kuga, “Imaging techniques through discrete scattering media by polarized pulsed waves,” Proc. SPIE 4819, 87–97 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishimaru, S. Jaruwatanadilok, and Y. Kuga, “Polarized pulse waves in random discrete scatterers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5495–5502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Jordan, D.

Kaplan, B.

Kuga, Y.

S. Jaruwatanadilok, A. Ishimaru, and Y. Kuga, “Imaging techniques through discrete scattering media by polarized pulsed waves,” Proc. SPIE 4819, 87–97 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishimaru, S. Jaruwatanadilok, and Y. Kuga, “Polarized pulse waves in random discrete scatterers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5495–5502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ledanois, G.

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, R. Samatham, S. Isenhath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE 6842, 68420I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, G.

Liu, Y.

Ma, H.

Martelli, F.

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Ismaelli, and G. Zaccanti, Light Propagation Through Biological Tissue and Other Diffusive Media (SPIE, 2010).

Nee, S.-M. F.

S.-M. F. Nee and T.-W. Nee, “Principal Mueller matrix for reflection and scattering measured for a one-dimensional rough surface,” Opt. Eng. 41, 994–1001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nee, T.-W.

S.-M. F. Nee and T.-W. Nee, “Principal Mueller matrix for reflection and scattering measured for a one-dimensional rough surface,” Opt. Eng. 41, 994–1001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pernicka, J.

Petremand, M.

Radousky, H. B.

Roberts, P.

Samatham, R.

S. L. Jacques, R. Samatham, S. Isenhath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE 6842, 68420I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, C.

Shaw, J. A.

Silverman, M. P.

M. P. Silverman and W. Strange, “Object delineation within turbid media by backscattering of phase modulated light,” Opt. Commun. 144, 7–11 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strange, W.

M. P. Silverman and W. Strange, “Object delineation within turbid media by backscattering of phase modulated light,” Opt. Commun. 144, 7–11 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tyo, J. S.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, 1957).

Wechsler, H.

H. Wechsler and G. L. Zimmerman, “2-D invariant object recognition using distributed associative memory,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 811–821 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zaccanti, G.

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Ismaelli, and G. Zaccanti, Light Propagation Through Biological Tissue and Other Diffusive Media (SPIE, 2010).

Zallat, J.

Zeng, N.

Zimmerman, G. L.

H. Wechsler and G. L. Zimmerman, “2-D invariant object recognition using distributed associative memory,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 811–821 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

H. Wechsler and G. L. Zimmerman, “2-D invariant object recognition using distributed associative memory,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 811–821 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. P. Silverman and W. Strange, “Object delineation within turbid media by backscattering of phase modulated light,” Opt. Commun. 144, 7–11 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S.-M. F. Nee and T.-W. Nee, “Principal Mueller matrix for reflection and scattering measured for a one-dimensional rough surface,” Opt. Eng. 41, 994–1001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. Jaruwatanadilok, A. Ishimaru, and Y. Kuga, “Imaging techniques through discrete scattering media by polarized pulsed waves,” Proc. SPIE 4819, 87–97 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jacques, R. Samatham, S. Isenhath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE 6842, 68420I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Ismaelli, and G. Zaccanti, Light Propagation Through Biological Tissue and Other Diffusive Media (SPIE, 2010).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, 1957).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Normalized backscattered Stokes parameters. S3 value is given for circularly polarized illumination, where the S1 value is given for linearly polarized illumination.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated flux ratio at the focal plane for circularly polarized illumination and linearly polarized illumination.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A circularly polarized image of an object is collimated through a quarter-wave plate and Wollaston prism, then reimaged to split the image into right and left circular components.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup to provide preliminary data using the presented technique. Not shown is an angular offset of the enclosure relative to the source. This offset reduces reflected flux from the enclosure’s front face detected by the system (not to scale).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Base image set to which postprocessed images are compared. (a) Section of wrench being eventually imaged through the fog in our enclosure. (b) Image taken with our instrument, zoomed in on the “D AL” section of the wrench. (c) Black/white cross-hatch printed on copier paper for use as a target. (d) Image taken with the instrument, zoomed in on the central intersection cross-hatch. (e) Resolution target printed on copier paper for use as a target. (f) Image taken with the instrument, zoomed in on the high resolution elements of the “0” group. Each of the images, [(b), (d), (f)], used collimated He–Ne illumination with no obscurant present in the enclosure.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Intensity image of the rough metal wrench obscured by water vapor totaling an optical depth of 4.35 with collimated circularly polarized illumination.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Postprocessed images of a metal wrench with application of the DC block Fourier spatial filter enacted for X=[0.10,0.90] in 0.10 steps for an optical depth of 4.35 using circularly polarized illumination.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Correlation coefficient as a function of X relating the postprocessed images seen in Fig. 7 to the object with no obscurant present seen in Fig. 5(b). The correlation coefficients as a function of X are also given for the images with only image subtraction used and for the intensity image seen in Fig. 6 for an optical depth of 4.35 using circularly polarized illumination.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Detected contrast ratio versus the proportional subtraction constant, X, for an optical depth of 4.35 and circularly polarized illumination for: (a) the low spatial frequency feature (0.464lp/mm) and (b) the high spatial frequency feature (2.11lp/mm). The data members of this figure are the same as those described in the caption given for Fig. 8. Note the scale change between (A) and (B).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Correlation coefficient as a function of X relating the postprocessed images of an object obscured by an optical depth of 4.35, using linearly polarized illumination, to the object with no obscurant present seen in Fig. 5(b). The correlation coefficients as a function of X are also given for the images with only image subtraction used and for the intensity image.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Detected contrast ratio versus the proportional subtraction constant, X, for an optical depth of 4.35 using linearly polarized illumination for (a) the low spatial frequency feature (0.464lp/mm) and (b) the high spatial frequency feature (2.11lp/mm). The data members of this figure are the same as those described in the caption given for Fig. 10. Note the scale change between (a) and (b).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Correlation coefficient as a function of X relating the postprocessed images of the cross-hatch for an optical depth of 2.86 to the image of the cross-hatch with no obscurant present seen in Fig. 5(d). Correlation curves are defined for postprocessed images using circular and linearly polarized illumination, intensity images for each illumination state, and for the preobscured image.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Detected contrast ratio versus the proportional subtraction constant, X, for an optical depth of 2.86 for the low spatial frequency cross-hatch printed on copier paper. Data members are common to the ones given in Fig. 12.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

(a) Correlation coefficient as a function of X relating postprocessed images of a paper resolution target imaged through an optical depth of 3.53. The contrast ratios are also given in (b), (c), and (d) for spatial frequency features of 2.11, 2.58, and 3.31lp/mm in object space, respectively. The object to which the data are correlated is seen in Fig. 5(f).

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Contrast enhancement factors, for varying object spatial frequencies, relative to normal intensity imaging when viewing a metal wrench (polarization maintaining object) and a printed resolution target on copier paper (depolarizing object) through an increasingly thick cloud of water vapor (fog).

Equations (11)

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S(x,y)=[S0(x,y)S1(x,y)S2(x,y)S3(x,y)]=[I0(x,y)+I90(x,y)I0(x,y)I90(x,y)I45(x,y)I135(x,y)IR(x,y)IL(x,y)]=[IQUV],
(EpEs)=ikre(kr+ωt)(S2(θ,x)00S1(θ,x))(E0pE0s),
Epost-Wollaston=(Aexp[i2πλxcosθ]Aexp[i2πλxcosθ]).
I{(Aexp[ikxcosθ]Aexp[ikxcosθ])}=(Aδ(xλfcosθλ)Aδ(xλf+cosθλ)),
2[f*(x,y)** f(x,y)].
Ldiffi(x,y)=CPL(x,y)Xi·(CPR(x,y)**B(x,y))Rdiffi(x,y)=CPR(x,y)Xi·(CPL(x,y)**B(x,y)),
imgCPLi(x,y)=Ldiffi(x,y)I[Ldiffi(x,y)]|ξ,η=0.
Qi(ξ,η)=I[imgCPLi]Fdiff,i(ξ,η)=f(abs(QiQ1)thresh).
imagei(x,y)=I1[Qi(ξ,η)Fdiff(ξ,η)].
C(ξ,η)=Imax(Δxb,Δyb)¯Imin(Δxd,Δyd)¯Imax(Δxb,Δyb)¯+Imin(Δxd,Δyd)¯,
r=mn(AmnA¯)(BmnB¯)(mn(AmnA¯)2(mn(BmnB¯)2)).

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