Abstract

To enable traceability of imaging spectrometer data, the associated measurement uncertainties have to be provided reliably. Here a new tool for a Monte-Carlo-type measurement uncertainty propagation for the uncertainties that originate from the spectrometer itself is described. For this, an instrument model of the imaging spectrometer ROSIS is used. Combined uncertainties are then derived for radiometrically and spectrally calibrated data using a synthetic at-sensor radiance spectrum as input. By coupling this new software tool with an inverse modeling program, the measurement uncertainties are propagated for an exemplary water data product.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).
  2. H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Chabrillat, S. Hofer, T. Stuffler, A. Mueller, R. Richter, G. Schreier, R. Haydn, and H. Bach, “EnMAP a hyperspectral sensor for environmental mapping and analysis,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2006 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1617–1619.
  3. Joint Comittee for Guides in Metrology, “JCGM 101: 2008, Evaluation of measurement data—Supplement 1 to the ‘Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement’—Propagation of distributions using a Monte Carlo method,” Tech. Rep. (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, 2008).
  4. R. O. Green, “Spectral calibration requirement for Earth-looking imaging spectrometers in the solar-reflected spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 37, 683–690 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Gege, “The water colour simulator WASI: an integrating software tool for analysis and simulation of optical in situ spectra,” Comput. Geosci. 30, 523–532 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Schwind, R. Müller, G. Palubinskas, T. Storch, and C. Makasy, “A geometric simulator for the hyperspectral mission EnMAP,” presented at the Canadian Geomatics Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–18June2010.
  7. R. Richter and D. Schläpfer, “Geo-atmospheric processing of airborne imaging spectrometry data. Part 2: atmospheric/topographic correction,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2631–2649 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. (Geophysics Laboratory, Air Force Command, U. S. Air Force, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts, USA, 1989).
  9. H. Neckel and D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Gege, D. Beran, W. Mooshuber, J. Schulz, and H. van der Piepen, “System analysis and performance of the new version of the imaging spectrometer ROSIS,” in Proceedings of the 1st EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy (European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories, 1998), pp. 29–35.
  11. J. Schulz, “Systemtechnische Untersuchungen an dem abbildenden Spektrometer ROSIS-01 zur Erfassung und Interpretation der Meeresfarbe,” Ph.D. thesis (DLR Institut für Optoelektronik, 1997).
  12. Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Lenhard, P. Gege, and M. Damm, “Implementation of algorithmic correction of stray light in a pushbroom hyperspectral sensor,” presented at the 6th EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy, Tel Aviv, 16–19March2009.
  14. S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, and M. Schaepman, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

P. Gege, “The water colour simulator WASI: an integrating software tool for analysis and simulation of optical in situ spectra,” Comput. Geosci. 30, 523–532 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Richter and D. Schläpfer, “Geo-atmospheric processing of airborne imaging spectrometry data. Part 2: atmospheric/topographic correction,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2631–2649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, and M. Schaepman, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1984 (1)

H. Neckel and D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bach, H.

H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Chabrillat, S. Hofer, T. Stuffler, A. Mueller, R. Richter, G. Schreier, R. Haydn, and H. Bach, “EnMAP a hyperspectral sensor for environmental mapping and analysis,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2006 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1617–1619.

Bachmann, M.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

Bates, M.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beekhuizen, J.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

Ben-Dor, E.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

Beran, D.

P. Gege, D. Beran, W. Mooshuber, J. Schulz, and H. van der Piepen, “System analysis and performance of the new version of the imaging spectrometer ROSIS,” in Proceedings of the 1st EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy (European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories, 1998), pp. 29–35.

Berk, A.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. (Geophysics Laboratory, Air Force Command, U. S. Air Force, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts, USA, 1989).

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. (Geophysics Laboratory, Air Force Command, U. S. Air Force, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts, USA, 1989).

Biesemans, J.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

Börner, A.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, and M. Schaepman, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bourg, L.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. W.

Chabrillat, S.

H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Chabrillat, S. Hofer, T. Stuffler, A. Mueller, R. Richter, G. Schreier, R. Haydn, and H. Bach, “EnMAP a hyperspectral sensor for environmental mapping and analysis,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2006 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1617–1619.

D’Andon, O. F.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Damm, M.

K. Lenhard, P. Gege, and M. Damm, “Implementation of algorithmic correction of stray light in a pushbroom hyperspectral sensor,” presented at the 6th EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy, Tel Aviv, 16–19March2009.

de Miguel Llanes, E.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

Emsley, S.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gege, P.

P. Gege, “The water colour simulator WASI: an integrating software tool for analysis and simulation of optical in situ spectra,” Comput. Geosci. 30, 523–532 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Gege, D. Beran, W. Mooshuber, J. Schulz, and H. van der Piepen, “System analysis and performance of the new version of the imaging spectrometer ROSIS,” in Proceedings of the 1st EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy (European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories, 1998), pp. 29–35.

K. Lenhard, P. Gege, and M. Damm, “Implementation of algorithmic correction of stray light in a pushbroom hyperspectral sensor,” presented at the 6th EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy, Tel Aviv, 16–19March2009.

Gilles, N.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goryl, P.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grant, M.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

Green, R. O.

Haydn, R.

H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Chabrillat, S. Hofer, T. Stuffler, A. Mueller, R. Richter, G. Schreier, R. Haydn, and H. Bach, “EnMAP a hyperspectral sensor for environmental mapping and analysis,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2006 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1617–1619.

Hedley, J.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Heuvelink, G.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

Hofer, S.

H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Chabrillat, S. Hofer, T. Stuffler, A. Mueller, R. Richter, G. Schreier, R. Haydn, and H. Bach, “EnMAP a hyperspectral sensor for environmental mapping and analysis,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2006 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1617–1619.

Hueni, A.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

Johnson, B. C.

Kaufmann, H.

H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Chabrillat, S. Hofer, T. Stuffler, A. Mueller, R. Richter, G. Schreier, R. Haydn, and H. Bach, “EnMAP a hyperspectral sensor for environmental mapping and analysis,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2006 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1617–1619.

Kay, S.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Keller, P.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, and M. Schaepman, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kneubuehler, M.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

Knul, M.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Labs, D.

H. Neckel and D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lavender, S.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lenhard, K.

K. Lenhard, P. Gege, and M. Damm, “Implementation of algorithmic correction of stray light in a pushbroom hyperspectral sensor,” presented at the 6th EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy, Tel Aviv, 16–19March2009.

Lykke, K. R.

Makasy, C.

P. Schwind, R. Müller, G. Palubinskas, T. Storch, and C. Makasy, “A geometric simulator for the hyperspectral mission EnMAP,” presented at the Canadian Geomatics Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–18June2010.

Mooshuber, W.

P. Gege, D. Beran, W. Mooshuber, J. Schulz, and H. van der Piepen, “System analysis and performance of the new version of the imaging spectrometer ROSIS,” in Proceedings of the 1st EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy (European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories, 1998), pp. 29–35.

Mueller, A.

H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Chabrillat, S. Hofer, T. Stuffler, A. Mueller, R. Richter, G. Schreier, R. Haydn, and H. Bach, “EnMAP a hyperspectral sensor for environmental mapping and analysis,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2006 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1617–1619.

Müller, R.

P. Schwind, R. Müller, G. Palubinskas, T. Storch, and C. Makasy, “A geometric simulator for the hyperspectral mission EnMAP,” presented at the Canadian Geomatics Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–18June2010.

Nasir-Habeeb, R.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neckel, H.

H. Neckel and D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nightingale, T.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

Palubinskas, G.

P. Schwind, R. Müller, G. Palubinskas, T. Storch, and C. Makasy, “A geometric simulator for the hyperspectral mission EnMAP,” presented at the Canadian Geomatics Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–18June2010.

Pimstein, A.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

Prado Ortega, E.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

Quast, R.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reulke, R.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, and M. Schaepman, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reusen, I.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

Richter, R.

R. Richter and D. Schläpfer, “Geo-atmospheric processing of airborne imaging spectrometry data. Part 2: atmospheric/topographic correction,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2631–2649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, and M. Schaepman, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Chabrillat, S. Hofer, T. Stuffler, A. Mueller, R. Richter, G. Schreier, R. Haydn, and H. Bach, “EnMAP a hyperspectral sensor for environmental mapping and analysis,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2006 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1617–1619.

Robertson, D. C.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. (Geophysics Laboratory, Air Force Command, U. S. Air Force, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts, USA, 1989).

Ruhtz, T.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

Schaale, M.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

Schaepman, M.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, and M. Schaepman, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schläpfer, D.

R. Richter and D. Schläpfer, “Geo-atmospheric processing of airborne imaging spectrometry data. Part 2: atmospheric/topographic correction,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2631–2649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schreier, G.

H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Chabrillat, S. Hofer, T. Stuffler, A. Mueller, R. Richter, G. Schreier, R. Haydn, and H. Bach, “EnMAP a hyperspectral sensor for environmental mapping and analysis,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2006 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1617–1619.

Schulz, J.

P. Gege, D. Beran, W. Mooshuber, J. Schulz, and H. van der Piepen, “System analysis and performance of the new version of the imaging spectrometer ROSIS,” in Proceedings of the 1st EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy (European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories, 1998), pp. 29–35.

J. Schulz, “Systemtechnische Untersuchungen an dem abbildenden Spektrometer ROSIS-01 zur Erfassung und Interpretation der Meeresfarbe,” Ph.D. thesis (DLR Institut für Optoelektronik, 1997).

Schwind, P.

P. Schwind, R. Müller, G. Palubinskas, T. Storch, and C. Makasy, “A geometric simulator for the hyperspectral mission EnMAP,” presented at the Canadian Geomatics Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–18June2010.

Segl, K.

H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Chabrillat, S. Hofer, T. Stuffler, A. Mueller, R. Richter, G. Schreier, R. Haydn, and H. Bach, “EnMAP a hyperspectral sensor for environmental mapping and analysis,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2006 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1617–1619.

Sotis, G.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Storch, T.

P. Schwind, R. Müller, G. Palubinskas, T. Storch, and C. Makasy, “A geometric simulator for the hyperspectral mission EnMAP,” presented at the Canadian Geomatics Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–18June2010.

Storm, T.

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stuffler, T.

H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Chabrillat, S. Hofer, T. Stuffler, A. Mueller, R. Richter, G. Schreier, R. Haydn, and H. Bach, “EnMAP a hyperspectral sensor for environmental mapping and analysis,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2006 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1617–1619.

van der Piepen, H.

P. Gege, D. Beran, W. Mooshuber, J. Schulz, and H. van der Piepen, “System analysis and performance of the new version of the imaging spectrometer ROSIS,” in Proceedings of the 1st EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy (European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories, 1998), pp. 29–35.

Wiest, L.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, and M. Schaepman, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zong, Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Comput. Geosci. (1)

P. Gege, “The water colour simulator WASI: an integrating software tool for analysis and simulation of optical in situ spectra,” Comput. Geosci. 30, 523–532 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

R. Richter and D. Schläpfer, “Geo-atmospheric processing of airborne imaging spectrometry data. Part 2: atmospheric/topographic correction,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2631–2649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. (1)

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, and M. Schaepman, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

S. Lavender, O. F. D’Andon, S. Kay, L. Bourg, S. Emsley, N. Gilles, T. Nightingale, R. Quast, M. Bates, T. Storm, J. Hedley, M. Knul, G. Sotis, R. Nasir-Habeeb, and P. Goryl, “Applying uncertainties to ocean colour data,” Metrologia 49, S17–S20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys. (1)

H. Neckel and D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

P. Gege, D. Beran, W. Mooshuber, J. Schulz, and H. van der Piepen, “System analysis and performance of the new version of the imaging spectrometer ROSIS,” in Proceedings of the 1st EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy (European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories, 1998), pp. 29–35.

J. Schulz, “Systemtechnische Untersuchungen an dem abbildenden Spektrometer ROSIS-01 zur Erfassung und Interpretation der Meeresfarbe,” Ph.D. thesis (DLR Institut für Optoelektronik, 1997).

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. (Geophysics Laboratory, Air Force Command, U. S. Air Force, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts, USA, 1989).

P. Schwind, R. Müller, G. Palubinskas, T. Storch, and C. Makasy, “A geometric simulator for the hyperspectral mission EnMAP,” presented at the Canadian Geomatics Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–18June2010.

J. Beekhuizen, M. Bachmann, E. Ben-Dor, J. Biesemans, M. Grant, G. Heuvelink, A. Hueni, M. Kneubuehler, E. de Miguel Llanes, A. Pimstein, E. Prado Ortega, I. Reusen, T. Ruhtz, and M. Schaale, “Report on full error propagation concept,” DJ2.1.2, EUFAR FP7 JRA2—HYQUAPRO (European Facility For Airborne Research, 2009).

H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Chabrillat, S. Hofer, T. Stuffler, A. Mueller, R. Richter, G. Schreier, R. Haydn, and H. Bach, “EnMAP a hyperspectral sensor for environmental mapping and analysis,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2006 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1617–1619.

Joint Comittee for Guides in Metrology, “JCGM 101: 2008, Evaluation of measurement data—Supplement 1 to the ‘Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement’—Propagation of distributions using a Monte Carlo method,” Tech. Rep. (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, 2008).

K. Lenhard, P. Gege, and M. Damm, “Implementation of algorithmic correction of stray light in a pushbroom hyperspectral sensor,” presented at the 6th EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy, Tel Aviv, 16–19March2009.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Standard deviation of the signal of one detector element depending on how many Monte Carlo frames are used.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of two L0 spectra—one simulated from the calibration data and our integrating sphere (solid line) and one from a laboratory measurement of the same sphere (dashed line).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison between the input reflectance spectrum generated by WASI (dashed line) and a retrieved spectrum calculated with all error sources (+ symbols).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mean calibrated spectrum with error bars defined through 95% coverage interval (k=2).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Combined measurement uncertainty for k=2 for the spectral radiance data. The solid curve describes the uncertainties given all effects, the dashed curve the uncertainty obtained if only noise is an uncertainty source in the simulation, and the dotted curve the contributions of all other effects together.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Combined measurement uncertainty for k=2 for the remote sensing reflectance data. The solid curve describes the uncertainties given all effects, the dashed curve the uncertainty obtained if only noise is an uncertainty source in the simulation, and the dotted curve the contributions of all other effects together. The relative uncertainties for wavelengths greater 700 nm are not a reliable measure as the remote sensing reflectance is almost zero in all analyzed spectra.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Histogram of the retrieved suspended matter concentrations. Actual concentration, CL=2mg/l

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Relative difference between the averaged simulated radiance spectra with and without stray light correction.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. ROSIS Sensor Parameters Used for MCM with Their Associated Uncertaintiesa

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L(λ)=RRS(λ)·Tatm(λ)·E0(λ)·Twindow(λ)+Lpath(λ).
LLR,i,j=SRF(λ)i,j·L(λ)dλ.
LLR,Pol,i,j=LLR,i,j(1+P·U(ϕ,i)),
Si,j=LLR,Pol,i,j·ri,j·texposure,
rj=1LIS·texposure·M·(SIS,jUPRNU,jSsmear,j).
Li,j=Si,jri,j·texposure,
RRS=L(λ)Lpath,LR(λ)E0,LR(λ)·Tatm,LR(λ)·Twindow,LR(λ),
λc,i,j=380nm+λSSI·iλsmile,j,
λsmile,j=(9.52·106j2+6.48·103j)nm.
Smeas,j=M·Sin,j
Mk,k0=ab(kk0)2+1+cd(kk0)4+1+h,
σnoise=(12.38+0.001743·S)DN,
pi=8.7·104i+0.05.
U(ϕ,i)=pi2+pi2sin(ϕ)
Ssmear,j=i=1115Si,j·tsmeartexposure,

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