Abstract

We have performed a detailed characterization of the optical properties of a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (LC) transmission grating with polymer scaffolding morphology, which was fabricated with conventional high-functionality acrylate monomer under low curing intensity. Temporal evolution of the grating formation was investigated, and the amount of phase-separated LC was determined by birefringence investigation. A grating model combined with anisotropic coupled-wave theory yielded good agreement with experimental data without any fitting parameter. The results in this study demonstrate the non droplet scaffolding morphology grating is characterized by a high degree of phase separation (70%), high anisotropy, low scattering loss (<6%), and high diffraction efficiency (95%).

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Pavani, I. Naydenova, J. Raghavendra, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Electro-optical switching of the holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. A 11, 024023 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lenses in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 2689, 188–194 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Jashnsaz, N. H. Nataj, E. Mohajerani, and A. Khabbazi, “All-optical switchable holographic Fresnel lens based on azo-dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4295–4301 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. S. Park, E. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Applications of holographic PDLC for full color display,” J. Polym. Eng. 28, 169–178 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Jakubiak, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Electrically switchable, one-dimensional polymeric resonators from holographic photopolymerization: a new approach for active photonic bandgap materials,” Adv. Mater. 15, 241–244 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. K. S. Hisao, C. Lu, G. S. He, M. Pan, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “High contrast switching of distributed-feedback lasing in dye-doped H-PDLC transmission grating structures,” Opt. Express 13, 3787–3794 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, “Effect of liquid crystal concentration on the lasing properties of dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1533–1538 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Jazbinšek, I. D. Olenik, and M. Zgonik, “Characterization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831–3837 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. L. Sutherland, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. I. Theoretical model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2995–3003 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Drevenšek-Olenik, M. Fally, and M. A. Ellabban, “Temperature dependence of optical anisotropy of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 021707 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. 11, 024021 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. J. White, W. B. Liechty, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “The influence of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone in polymerization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs),” Polymer 47, 2289–2298 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Wofford, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320Q (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid-crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1261–1263 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. De Sio, N. Tabiryan, R. Caputo, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “POLICRYPS structures as switchable optical phase modulators,” Opt. Express 16, 7619–7624 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “POLICRYPS: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications,” J. Opt. 11, 024017 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, “Polymer scaffolding model for holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736–4738 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. D. Sarkar, N. L. Gill, J. B. Whitehead, and G. P. Crawford, “Effect of monomer functionality on the morphology and performance of the holographic transmission gratings recorded on polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Macromolecules 36, 630–638 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. II. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004–3012 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 011702 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Coherent diffraction and random scattering in thiol-ene-based holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Caputo, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Kogelnik-like model for the diffraction efficiency of POLICRYPS gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 735–742 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Xu, L. De Sio, R. Caputo, Cesare P. Umeton, Arthur J. H. Wachters, Dick K. G. de Boer, and H. Paul Urbach, “Characterization of the diffraction efficiency of polymer-liquid-crystal-polymer-slices gratings at all incidence angles,” Opt. Express 16, 14532–14543 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission graings,” Polymer 43, 7335–7344 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Veltri, R. Caputo, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Model for the photoinduced formation of diffraction gratings in liquid-crystalline composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3492–3494 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. J. Butler, M. S. Malcuit, and M. A. Rodriguez, “Diffractive properties of highly birefringent volume gratings: investigation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 183–189 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, and L. V. Natarajan, “Evolution of anisotropic reflection gratings formed in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420–1422 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Harbour, J. V. Kelly, T. Galstian, and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical birefringence and anisotropic scattering in acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 278, 28–33 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, “Phase-only modulation by nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060–6065 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).
  33. H. Kogelnic, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 69, 2909–2946 (1969).
  34. Z. Zheng, F. Guo, Y. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold and high contrast polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating based on twisted nematic polarization modulator,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 17–20 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  35. W. Huang, S. Deng, W. Li, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “A polarization-independent and low scattering transmission grating for a distributed feedback cavity based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Opt. 13, 085501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

W. Huang, S. Deng, W. Li, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “A polarization-independent and low scattering transmission grating for a distributed feedback cavity based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Opt. 13, 085501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Jashnsaz, N. H. Nataj, E. Mohajerani, and A. Khabbazi, “All-optical switchable holographic Fresnel lens based on azo-dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4295–4301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

K. Pavani, I. Naydenova, J. Raghavendra, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Electro-optical switching of the holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. A 11, 024023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. 11, 024021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “POLICRYPS: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications,” J. Opt. 11, 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. S. Park, E. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Applications of holographic PDLC for full color display,” J. Polym. Eng. 28, 169–178 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, F. Guo, Y. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold and high contrast polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating based on twisted nematic polarization modulator,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 17–20 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, N. Tabiryan, R. Caputo, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “POLICRYPS structures as switchable optical phase modulators,” Opt. Express 16, 7619–7624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Xu, L. De Sio, R. Caputo, Cesare P. Umeton, Arthur J. H. Wachters, Dick K. G. de Boer, and H. Paul Urbach, “Characterization of the diffraction efficiency of polymer-liquid-crystal-polymer-slices gratings at all incidence angles,” Opt. Express 16, 14532–14543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Harbour, J. V. Kelly, T. Galstian, and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical birefringence and anisotropic scattering in acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 278, 28–33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, “Effect of liquid crystal concentration on the lasing properties of dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

I. Drevenšek-Olenik, M. Fally, and M. A. Ellabban, “Temperature dependence of optical anisotropy of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 021707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, W. B. Liechty, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “The influence of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone in polymerization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs),” Polymer 47, 2289–2298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wofford, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Coherent diffraction and random scattering in thiol-ene-based holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid-crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1261–1263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Veltri, R. Caputo, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Model for the photoinduced formation of diffraction gratings in liquid-crystalline composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3492–3494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. D. Sarkar, N. L. Gill, J. B. Whitehead, and G. P. Crawford, “Effect of monomer functionality on the morphology and performance of the holographic transmission gratings recorded on polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Macromolecules 36, 630–638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakubiak, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Electrically switchable, one-dimensional polymeric resonators from holographic photopolymerization: a new approach for active photonic bandgap materials,” Adv. Mater. 15, 241–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, “Polymer scaffolding model for holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736–4738 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, M. S. Malcuit, and M. A. Rodriguez, “Diffractive properties of highly birefringent volume gratings: investigation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 183–189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. I. Theoretical model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2995–3003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. II. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004–3012 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, “Phase-only modulation by nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060–6065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission graings,” Polymer 43, 7335–7344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, and L. V. Natarajan, “Evolution of anisotropic reflection gratings formed in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420–1422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Jazbinšek, I. D. Olenik, and M. Zgonik, “Characterization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831–3837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lenses in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1969

H. Kogelnic, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 69, 2909–2946 (1969).

Abbate, G.

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adams, W. W.

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lenses in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Asquini, R.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “POLICRYPS: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications,” J. Opt. 11, 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beccherelli, R.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “POLICRYPS: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications,” J. Opt. 11, 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).

Brandelik, D. M.

Bunning, T. J.

J. M. Wofford, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, W. B. Liechty, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “The influence of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone in polymerization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs),” Polymer 47, 2289–2298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Coherent diffraction and random scattering in thiol-ene-based holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. K. S. Hisao, C. Lu, G. S. He, M. Pan, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “High contrast switching of distributed-feedback lasing in dye-doped H-PDLC transmission grating structures,” Opt. Express 13, 3787–3794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakubiak, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Electrically switchable, one-dimensional polymeric resonators from holographic photopolymerization: a new approach for active photonic bandgap materials,” Adv. Mater. 15, 241–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. II. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004–3012 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lenses in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. J.

Caputo, R.

Cartwright, A. N.

Castagna, R.

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. 11, 024021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, S.

Chen, T.

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lenses in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

M. D. Sarkar, N. L. Gill, J. B. Whitehead, and G. P. Crawford, “Effect of monomer functionality on the morphology and performance of the holographic transmission gratings recorded on polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Macromolecules 36, 630–638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, “Polymer scaffolding model for holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736–4738 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission graings,” Polymer 43, 7335–7344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Criante, L.

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. 11, 024021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

d’Alessandro, A.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “POLICRYPS: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications,” J. Opt. 11, 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, Dick K. G.

De Luca, A.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “POLICRYPS: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications,” J. Opt. 11, 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Sio, L.

Deng, S.

W. Huang, S. Deng, W. Li, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “A polarization-independent and low scattering transmission grating for a distributed feedback cavity based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Opt. 13, 085501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Domash, L. H.

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lenses in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Donisi, D.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “POLICRYPS: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications,” J. Opt. 11, 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Drevenšek-Olenik, I.

I. Drevenšek-Olenik, M. Fally, and M. A. Ellabban, “Temperature dependence of optical anisotropy of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 021707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eakin, J. N.

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, “Polymer scaffolding model for holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736–4738 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Elim, H. I.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, “Effect of liquid crystal concentration on the lasing properties of dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ellabban, M. A.

I. Drevenšek-Olenik, M. Fally, and M. A. Ellabban, “Temperature dependence of optical anisotropy of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 021707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fally, M.

I. Drevenšek-Olenik, M. Fally, and M. A. Ellabban, “Temperature dependence of optical anisotropy of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 021707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T.

S. Harbour, J. V. Kelly, T. Galstian, and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical birefringence and anisotropic scattering in acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 278, 28–33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gill, N. L.

M. D. Sarkar, N. L. Gill, J. B. Whitehead, and G. P. Crawford, “Effect of monomer functionality on the morphology and performance of the holographic transmission gratings recorded on polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Macromolecules 36, 630–638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gomatam, B. N.

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lenses in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gozewski, C. M.

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lenses in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guo, F.

Z. Zheng, F. Guo, Y. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold and high contrast polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating based on twisted nematic polarization modulator,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 17–20 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guymon, C. A.

T. J. White, W. B. Liechty, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “The influence of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone in polymerization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs),” Polymer 47, 2289–2298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harbour, S.

S. Harbour, J. V. Kelly, T. Galstian, and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical birefringence and anisotropic scattering in acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 278, 28–33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

Hisao, V. K. S.

Hu, L.

W. Huang, S. Deng, W. Li, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “A polarization-independent and low scattering transmission grating for a distributed feedback cavity based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Opt. 13, 085501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

W. Huang, S. Deng, W. Li, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “A polarization-independent and low scattering transmission grating for a distributed feedback cavity based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Opt. 13, 085501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jakubiak, R.

V. K. S. Hisao, C. Lu, G. S. He, M. Pan, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “High contrast switching of distributed-feedback lasing in dye-doped H-PDLC transmission grating structures,” Opt. Express 13, 3787–3794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakubiak, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Electrically switchable, one-dimensional polymeric resonators from holographic photopolymerization: a new approach for active photonic bandgap materials,” Adv. Mater. 15, 241–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jashnsaz, H.

Jazbinšek, M.

M. Jazbinšek, I. D. Olenik, and M. Zgonik, “Characterization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831–3837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, “Effect of liquid crystal concentration on the lasing properties of dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karapinar, R.

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, “Phase-only modulation by nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060–6065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. V.

S. Harbour, J. V. Kelly, T. Galstian, and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical birefringence and anisotropic scattering in acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 278, 28–33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khabbazi, A.

Kim, B. K.

M. S. Park, E. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Applications of holographic PDLC for full color display,” J. Polym. Eng. 28, 169–178 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. H.

M. S. Park, E. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Applications of holographic PDLC for full color display,” J. Polym. Eng. 28, 169–178 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnic, H.

H. Kogelnic, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 69, 2909–2946 (1969).

Li, W.

W. Huang, S. Deng, W. Li, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “A polarization-independent and low scattering transmission grating for a distributed feedback cavity based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Opt. 13, 085501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liechty, W. B.

T. J. White, W. B. Liechty, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “The influence of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone in polymerization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs),” Polymer 47, 2289–2298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

W. Huang, S. Deng, W. Li, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “A polarization-independent and low scattering transmission grating for a distributed feedback cavity based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Opt. 13, 085501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, F. Guo, Y. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold and high contrast polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating based on twisted nematic polarization modulator,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 17–20 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. J.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, “Effect of liquid crystal concentration on the lasing properties of dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd, P. F.

J. M. Wofford, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Coherent diffraction and random scattering in thiol-ene-based holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

Lucchetta, D. E.

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. 11, 024021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, “Phase-only modulation by nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060–6065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Malcuit, M. S.

Manni, A.

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, “Phase-only modulation by nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060–6065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marino, A.

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S.

K. Pavani, I. Naydenova, J. Raghavendra, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Electro-optical switching of the holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. A 11, 024023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mohajerani, E.

Nataj, N. H.

Natarajan, L. V.

J. M. Wofford, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Coherent diffraction and random scattering in thiol-ene-based holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, W. B. Liechty, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “The influence of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone in polymerization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs),” Polymer 47, 2289–2298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakubiak, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Electrically switchable, one-dimensional polymeric resonators from holographic photopolymerization: a new approach for active photonic bandgap materials,” Adv. Mater. 15, 241–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. II. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004–3012 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, and L. V. Natarajan, “Evolution of anisotropic reflection gratings formed in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420–1422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lenses in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Naydenova, I.

K. Pavani, I. Naydenova, J. Raghavendra, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Electro-optical switching of the holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. A 11, 024023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Olenik, I. D.

M. Jazbinšek, I. D. Olenik, and M. Zgonik, “Characterization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831–3837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pan, M.

Park, M. S.

M. S. Park, E. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Applications of holographic PDLC for full color display,” J. Polym. Eng. 28, 169–178 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paul Urbach, H.

Pavani, K.

K. Pavani, I. Naydenova, J. Raghavendra, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Electro-optical switching of the holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. A 11, 024023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Z.

W. Huang, S. Deng, W. Li, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “A polarization-independent and low scattering transmission grating for a distributed feedback cavity based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Opt. 13, 085501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pezzi, L.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “POLICRYPS: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications,” J. Opt. 11, 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

Qi, J.

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, “Polymer scaffolding model for holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736–4738 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission graings,” Polymer 43, 7335–7344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raghavendra, J.

K. Pavani, I. Naydenova, J. Raghavendra, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Electro-optical switching of the holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. A 11, 024023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M. A.

Sarkar, M. D.

M. D. Sarkar, N. L. Gill, J. B. Whitehead, and G. P. Crawford, “Effect of monomer functionality on the morphology and performance of the holographic transmission gratings recorded on polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Macromolecules 36, 630–638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, “Polymer scaffolding model for holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736–4738 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission graings,” Polymer 43, 7335–7344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, C. K.

Sheridan, J. T.

S. Harbour, J. V. Kelly, T. Galstian, and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical birefringence and anisotropic scattering in acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 278, 28–33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. 11, 024021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, “Phase-only modulation by nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060–6065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Siwecki, S. A.

J. M. Wofford, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. II. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004–3012 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strangi, G.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “POLICRYPS: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications,” J. Opt. 11, 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “POLICRYPS: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications,” J. Opt. 11, 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Kogelnik-like model for the diffraction efficiency of POLICRYPS gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 735–742 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid-crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1261–1263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Veltri, R. Caputo, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Model for the photoinduced formation of diffraction gratings in liquid-crystalline composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3492–3494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, “Effect of liquid crystal concentration on the lasing properties of dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

J. M. Wofford, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Coherent diffraction and random scattering in thiol-ene-based holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. II. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004–3012 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. I. Theoretical model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2995–3003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, and L. V. Natarajan, “Evolution of anisotropic reflection gratings formed in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420–1422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lenses in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N.

Tabiryan, N. V.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “POLICRYPS: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications,” J. Opt. 11, 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tkachenko, V.

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toal, V.

K. Pavani, I. Naydenova, J. Raghavendra, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Electro-optical switching of the holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. A 11, 024023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Coherent diffraction and random scattering in thiol-ene-based holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, W. B. Liechty, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “The influence of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone in polymerization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs),” Polymer 47, 2289–2298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wofford, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakubiak, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Electrically switchable, one-dimensional polymeric resonators from holographic photopolymerization: a new approach for active photonic bandgap materials,” Adv. Mater. 15, 241–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. II. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004–3012 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, and L. V. Natarajan, “Evolution of anisotropic reflection gratings formed in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420–1422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lenses in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “POLICRYPS: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications,” J. Opt. 11, 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, N. Tabiryan, R. Caputo, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “POLICRYPS structures as switchable optical phase modulators,” Opt. Express 16, 7619–7624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Kogelnik-like model for the diffraction efficiency of POLICRYPS gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 735–742 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid-crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1261–1263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Veltri, R. Caputo, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Model for the photoinduced formation of diffraction gratings in liquid-crystalline composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3492–3494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, Cesare P.

Vaia, R. A.

V. K. S. Hisao, C. Lu, G. S. He, M. Pan, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “High contrast switching of distributed-feedback lasing in dye-doped H-PDLC transmission grating structures,” Opt. Express 13, 3787–3794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

Z. Zheng, F. Guo, Y. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold and high contrast polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating based on twisted nematic polarization modulator,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 17–20 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Veltri, R. Caputo, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Model for the photoinduced formation of diffraction gratings in liquid-crystalline composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3492–3494 (2004).
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Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, “Effect of liquid crystal concentration on the lasing properties of dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011109 (2007).
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K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, “Polymer scaffolding model for holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736–4738 (2002).
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R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, and L. V. Natarajan, “Evolution of anisotropic reflection gratings formed in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420–1422 (2001).
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M. Jazbinšek, I. D. Olenik, and M. Zgonik, “Characterization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831–3837 (2001).
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W. Huang, S. Deng, W. Li, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “A polarization-independent and low scattering transmission grating for a distributed feedback cavity based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Opt. 13, 085501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “POLICRYPS: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications,” J. Opt. 11, 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 011702 (2005).
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T. J. White, W. B. Liechty, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “The influence of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone in polymerization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs),” Polymer 47, 2289–2298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. Wofford, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Other

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the setup for the curing process. D, detector; M, mirror; BS, beam splitter; PBS, polarization beam splitter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for the measurement of the grating birefringence. P1 and P2 are x-axis aligned and y-axis aligned polarizers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scaffolding morphology: (a) POM image of the grating. Polarizer and analyzer axes are oriented in the image. Fringe spacing Λ=3μm. (b) AFM profiles of the transmission grating. Fringe spacing Λ=0.78μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The evolution of normalized diffraction efficiency for p polarization (open circle) and s polarization (open square) with time. The inset shows the evolution of scattering loss for p polarization (open diamond) and s polarization (open triangle) with time.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic sinusoidal curve for relative permittivity.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

DE of the transmission grating for p-polarized light as a function of the deviation incident angle from the Bragg angle. Curve: calculation data. Open square: experimental data.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Temperature dependence of DE. Black circle: p-polarized light. Red cross: s-polarized light.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of DE for Different Samplesa

Equations (13)

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ηp=sin2πL(cos2θBε1xsin2θBε1z)λ02n¯cosθB,
ηs=sin2πLε1yλ02n¯cosθB.
ηpsin2πLε1xλ02n¯,
ηssin2πLε1yλ02n¯.
I(α)=IOTsin2(φ2)sin2(2α),
I(α)=IOT[1sin2(φ2)]sin2(2α).
φ=2arcsinI(45°)I(45°)+I(45°)
Δn=λφ2πL.
ε1i=π4(S1S2).
εp=2no2+ne230.34β1β+npure polymer20.661β.
S1=2βεLC+(12β)εp,
S2=εp.
ε1i=[0.1070000.01460000.0146]

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