Abstract

We present a simultaneous optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and differential group delay (DGD) monitoring method based on degree of polarization (DOP) measurements in optical communications systems. For the first time in the literature (to our best knowledge), the proposed scheme is demonstrated to be able to independently and simultaneously extract OSNR and DGD values from the DOP measurements. This is possible because the OSNR is related to maximum DOP, while DGD is related to the ratio between the maximum and minimum values of DOP. We experimentally measured OSNR and DGD in the ranges from 10 to 30 dB and 0 to 90 ps for a 10Gb/s non-return-to-zero signal. A theoretical analysis of DOP accuracy needed to measure low values of DGD and high OSNRs is carried out, showing that current polarimeter technology is capable of yielding an OSNR measurement within 1 dB accuracy, for OSNR values up to 34 dB, while DGD error is limited to 1.5% for DGD values above 10 ps. For the first time to our knowledge, the technique was demonstrated to accurately measure first-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in the presence of a high value of second-order PMD (as high as 2071ps2).

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “Improved OSNR monitoring technique based on polarization-nulling method,” Electron. Lett. 37, 972–973 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2562–2564 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Floridia, M. de Lacerda Rocha, J. C. de Moraes, and E. W. Bezerra, “High accuracy and fast acquisition time of polarization nulling-based OSNR monitor,” Electron. Lett. 46, 152–153 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, “Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 686–688(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Sköld, B.-E. Olsson, H. Sunnerud, and M. Karlsson, “PMD-insensitive DOP-based OSNR monitoring by spectral SOP measurements,” in Optical Fiber Conference (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OThH3.
  6. P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini, and H. A. Haus, “Real-time principal state characterization for use in PMD compensators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 568–570 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L.-S. Yan, X. S. Yao, Y. Shi, and A. E. Willner, “Simultaneous monitoring of both optical signal-to-noise ratio and polarization-mode-dispersion using polarization scrambling and polarization beam splitting,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3290–3294 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “Simple PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring scheme assisted by transmitter-side polarization scrambling,” Opt. Express 14, 58–62 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. M. R. M. Nezam, J. E. McGeehan, and A. E. Willner, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of the dependence of a signal’s degree of polarization on the optical data spectrum,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 763–772 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Duan, L. Xi, X. Zhang, and B. Yang, “The influence of PMD on the degree of polarization ellipsoid,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 713628 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. R. Taylor, An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical Measurements, 2nd ed. (University Science, 1997), Chap. 3.
  12. V. Mikhailov, S. Dunn, and P. S. Westbrook, “In-line, high speed fibre polarimeter with large calibration bandwidth and accurate reference-free calibration procedure,” in 2010 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–3.
  13. L. Zhang, Q. Hu, S. Zhao, S. Liu, and Y. Xu, “Effect of PDL on the DOP feedback signal in PMD compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 797–804 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Zhang, Y. Z. Xu, Q. G. Hu, S. Z. Zhao, and S. H. Liu, “Effect of chromatic dispersion and initial chirp on the DOP feedback signal in PMD compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 342–344 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010

C. Floridia, M. de Lacerda Rocha, J. C. de Moraes, and E. W. Bezerra, “High accuracy and fast acquisition time of polarization nulling-based OSNR monitor,” Electron. Lett. 46, 152–153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. Duan, L. Xi, X. Zhang, and B. Yang, “The influence of PMD on the degree of polarization ellipsoid,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 713628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

L.-S. Yan, X. S. Yao, Y. Shi, and A. E. Willner, “Simultaneous monitoring of both optical signal-to-noise ratio and polarization-mode-dispersion using polarization scrambling and polarization beam splitting,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3290–3294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, Y. Z. Xu, Q. G. Hu, S. Z. Zhao, and S. H. Liu, “Effect of chromatic dispersion and initial chirp on the DOP feedback signal in PMD compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 342–344 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. M. R. M. Nezam, J. E. McGeehan, and A. E. Willner, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of the dependence of a signal’s degree of polarization on the optical data spectrum,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 763–772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, “Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 686–688(2004).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “Improved OSNR monitoring technique based on polarization-nulling method,” Electron. Lett. 37, 972–973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini, and H. A. Haus, “Real-time principal state characterization for use in PMD compensators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 568–570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bezerra, E. W.

C. Floridia, M. de Lacerda Rocha, J. C. de Moraes, and E. W. Bezerra, “High accuracy and fast acquisition time of polarization nulling-based OSNR monitor,” Electron. Lett. 46, 152–153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C.-K.

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “Simple PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring scheme assisted by transmitter-side polarization scrambling,” Opt. Express 14, 58–62 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-K.

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “Simple PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring scheme assisted by transmitter-side polarization scrambling,” Opt. Express 14, 58–62 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, M.-H.

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “Simple PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring scheme assisted by transmitter-side polarization scrambling,” Opt. Express 14, 58–62 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chou, P. C.

P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini, and H. A. Haus, “Real-time principal state characterization for use in PMD compensators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 568–570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. C.

J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “Improved OSNR monitoring technique based on polarization-nulling method,” Electron. Lett. 37, 972–973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Lacerda Rocha, M.

C. Floridia, M. de Lacerda Rocha, J. C. de Moraes, and E. W. Bezerra, “High accuracy and fast acquisition time of polarization nulling-based OSNR monitor,” Electron. Lett. 46, 152–153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Moraes, J. C.

C. Floridia, M. de Lacerda Rocha, J. C. de Moraes, and E. W. Bezerra, “High accuracy and fast acquisition time of polarization nulling-based OSNR monitor,” Electron. Lett. 46, 152–153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duan, G.

G. Duan, L. Xi, X. Zhang, and B. Yang, “The influence of PMD on the degree of polarization ellipsoid,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 713628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, S.

V. Mikhailov, S. Dunn, and P. S. Westbrook, “In-line, high speed fibre polarimeter with large calibration bandwidth and accurate reference-free calibration procedure,” in 2010 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–3.

Fini, J. M.

P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini, and H. A. Haus, “Real-time principal state characterization for use in PMD compensators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 568–570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Floridia, C.

C. Floridia, M. de Lacerda Rocha, J. C. de Moraes, and E. W. Bezerra, “High accuracy and fast acquisition time of polarization nulling-based OSNR monitor,” Electron. Lett. 46, 152–153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini, and H. A. Haus, “Real-time principal state characterization for use in PMD compensators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 568–570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

Hu, Q. G.

L. Zhang, Y. Z. Xu, Q. G. Hu, S. Z. Zhao, and S. H. Liu, “Effect of chromatic dispersion and initial chirp on the DOP feedback signal in PMD compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 342–344 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, “Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 686–688(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sköld, B.-E. Olsson, H. Sunnerud, and M. Karlsson, “PMD-insensitive DOP-based OSNR monitoring by spectral SOP measurements,” in Optical Fiber Conference (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OThH3.

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “Improved OSNR monitoring technique based on polarization-nulling method,” Electron. Lett. 37, 972–973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, S. H.

L. Zhang, Y. Z. Xu, Q. G. Hu, S. Z. Zhao, and S. H. Liu, “Effect of chromatic dispersion and initial chirp on the DOP feedback signal in PMD compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 342–344 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, G.-W.

McGeehan, J. E.

Mikhailov, V.

V. Mikhailov, S. Dunn, and P. S. Westbrook, “In-line, high speed fibre polarimeter with large calibration bandwidth and accurate reference-free calibration procedure,” in 2010 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–3.

Nezam, S. M. R. M.

Olsson, B.-E.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, “Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 686–688(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sköld, B.-E. Olsson, H. Sunnerud, and M. Karlsson, “PMD-insensitive DOP-based OSNR monitoring by spectral SOP measurements,” in Optical Fiber Conference (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OThH3.

Petersson, M.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, “Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 686–688(2004).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Sköld, M.

M. Sköld, B.-E. Olsson, H. Sunnerud, and M. Karlsson, “PMD-insensitive DOP-based OSNR monitoring by spectral SOP measurements,” in Optical Fiber Conference (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OThH3.

Sunnerud, H.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, “Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 686–688(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sköld, B.-E. Olsson, H. Sunnerud, and M. Karlsson, “PMD-insensitive DOP-based OSNR monitoring by spectral SOP measurements,” in Optical Fiber Conference (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OThH3.

Taylor, J. R.

J. R. Taylor, An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical Measurements, 2nd ed. (University Science, 1997), Chap. 3.

Westbrook, P. S.

V. Mikhailov, S. Dunn, and P. S. Westbrook, “In-line, high speed fibre polarimeter with large calibration bandwidth and accurate reference-free calibration procedure,” in 2010 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–3.

Willner, A. E.

Xi, L.

G. Duan, L. Xi, X. Zhang, and B. Yang, “The influence of PMD on the degree of polarization ellipsoid,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 713628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Xu, Y. Z.

L. Zhang, Y. Z. Xu, Q. G. Hu, S. Z. Zhao, and S. H. Liu, “Effect of chromatic dispersion and initial chirp on the DOP feedback signal in PMD compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 342–344 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.-S.

Yang, B.

G. Duan, L. Xi, X. Zhang, and B. Yang, “The influence of PMD on the degree of polarization ellipsoid,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 713628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X. S.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, Q. Hu, S. Zhao, S. Liu, and Y. Xu, “Effect of PDL on the DOP feedback signal in PMD compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 797–804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, Y. Z. Xu, Q. G. Hu, S. Z. Zhao, and S. H. Liu, “Effect of chromatic dispersion and initial chirp on the DOP feedback signal in PMD compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 342–344 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

G. Duan, L. Xi, X. Zhang, and B. Yang, “The influence of PMD on the degree of polarization ellipsoid,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 713628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S.

Zhao, S. Z.

L. Zhang, Y. Z. Xu, Q. G. Hu, S. Z. Zhao, and S. H. Liu, “Effect of chromatic dispersion and initial chirp on the DOP feedback signal in PMD compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 342–344 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “Improved OSNR monitoring technique based on polarization-nulling method,” Electron. Lett. 37, 972–973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Floridia, M. de Lacerda Rocha, J. C. de Moraes, and E. W. Bezerra, “High accuracy and fast acquisition time of polarization nulling-based OSNR monitor,” Electron. Lett. 46, 152–153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, “Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 686–688(2004).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini, and H. A. Haus, “Real-time principal state characterization for use in PMD compensators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 568–570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, Y. Z. Xu, Q. G. Hu, S. Z. Zhao, and S. H. Liu, “Effect of chromatic dispersion and initial chirp on the DOP feedback signal in PMD compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 342–344 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

G. Duan, L. Xi, X. Zhang, and B. Yang, “The influence of PMD on the degree of polarization ellipsoid,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 713628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. R. Taylor, An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical Measurements, 2nd ed. (University Science, 1997), Chap. 3.

V. Mikhailov, S. Dunn, and P. S. Westbrook, “In-line, high speed fibre polarimeter with large calibration bandwidth and accurate reference-free calibration procedure,” in 2010 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–3.

M. Sköld, B.-E. Olsson, H. Sunnerud, and M. Karlsson, “PMD-insensitive DOP-based OSNR monitoring by spectral SOP measurements,” in Optical Fiber Conference (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OThH3.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup to perform the DOP measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical example of DOP ellipsoids for OSNR=10dB and DGD varying from 0 to 90 ps. The maximum DOP is constant (related to the actual OSNR value), while the minimum DOP value changes for each DGD. The inside ellipsoid, composed by darker dots (red dots in the color version) which represent the experimental points, while the light gray sphere is the unitary Poincaré sphere.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) OSNR dependence as a function of the DOP (solid line); OSNR error as a function of DOP for DOP uncertainty of 0.01 (blue dashed line), 0.001 (green dashed line), and 0.00025 (red dashed line). (b) Zoom of previous figure, showing the limits of OSNR for the three levels of DOP uncertainties, in order to assure OSNR measurements within 1 dB accuracy.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

DOP (worst case) as a function of the DGD for NRZ, RZ, and DPSK modulated signals.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) DGD curve as a function of DOP and error curves for three values of DOP uncertainties: σDOP=0.01, σDOP=0.001, and σDOP=0.00025. (b) Zoom of the DGD×DOP curve for σDOP=0.00025.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Experimental results comparing the OSNR measured by the DOP technique to the OSNR results provided by an OSA, as a function of the DGD inserted in the system. (b) Experimental results for DGD measured by the DOP method, compared to the actual value of DGD inserted in the system.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison between DOP ellipsoids for a DGD of 60 ps and a PMD composed of a 1st order PMD of 64 ps and second-order PMD of 2071ps2, for an OSNR at 10 dB. The maximum DOP (related to the actual OSNR value) does not change significantly. In addition, the minimum DOP value is also very similar, because the DGD values inserted into the experimental system are almost equal, in each case (60 and 64 ps, respectively). The inside ellipsoid is composed of darker dots (red dots in the color version), which represent the experimental points, while the light gray sphere is the unitary Poincaré sphere.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

OSNROSA,dB=10log10[Ps+PASE@0.1nmPASE,@0.1nm],
OSNRcorr,dB=10log10[1+DOP1DOP×NEBfB],
DOP=DOPOSNR×DOPPMD.
DOPPMDworst=DOPmin/DOPOSNR=DOPmin/DOPmax,
σOSNR=(OSNRDOP)2×σDOP,
OSNRDOP=10ln(10)×[NEBf/0.11DOP(1+DOP1DOP)(1+(NSBf/0.1)DOP1DOP)].
DGD=DGD0+aDOP+bDOP2+c(1DOP)d,
σDGD=(DGDDOP)2×σDOP,
DGDDOP=a+2bDOPcd(1DOP)d1.

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