Abstract

We demonstrate wide-angle emission and single mode operation in deformed circular microlasers with a flat side. The mode characteristics of a metallic confined deformed circular resonator with a flat side are investigated by finite-difference time-domain simulation. The numerical results indicate that this structure is suitable to realize wide-angle emission. Furthermore, metallic confined deformed circular microlasers with a flat side are fabricated using common photolithography and inductively coupled-plasma etching techniques. A continuous-wave single-mode operation with a side mode suppression ratio of 25 dB is achieved at an injection current of 4 mA for an 8 μm radius microlaser with a flat side. Additionally, wide angle emission over 120° is observed from the far-field pattern.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, “Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40 μA,” Electron. Lett. 36, 790–791 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710–1712 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, H. G. Park, D. J. Shin, and Y. H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron-size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 861–863 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. J. Wang, C. L. Yan, N. F. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kanc, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 22407–22412 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330–1332 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. V. Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15, 6744–6749 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express 17, 23010–23015 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs/InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1349–1351 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Z. Huang, S. J. Wang, Y. D. Yang, J. D. Lin, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, and Y. Du, “Investigation on multiple-port microcylinder lasers based on coupled modes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 105005 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Ou, X. Y. Li, B. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Huang, and S. T. Ho, “Enhanced radiation-loss-based radial-waveguide-coupled electrically pumped microresonator lasers with single-directional output,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1722–1724 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander, and C. A. Ward, “Optical properties of metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1099–1120 (1983).
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  13. W. H. Guo, W. J. Li, and Y. Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Padé approximation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 11, 223–225 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. H. Guo, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Y. Lu, and L. J. Yu, “Mode Q-factor based on far-field emission for square resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 479–481 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (4)

Q. J. Wang, C. L. Yan, N. F. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kanc, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs/InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Huang, S. J. Wang, Y. D. Yang, J. D. Lin, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, and Y. Du, “Investigation on multiple-port microcylinder lasers based on coupled modes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 105005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ou, X. Y. Li, B. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Huang, and S. T. Ho, “Enhanced radiation-loss-based radial-waveguide-coupled electrically pumped microresonator lasers with single-directional output,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1722–1724 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2004 (2)

W. H. Guo, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Y. Lu, and L. J. Yu, “Mode Q-factor based on far-field emission for square resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 479–481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, H. G. Park, D. J. Shin, and Y. H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron-size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 861–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330–1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

W. H. Guo, W. J. Li, and Y. Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Padé approximation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 11, 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, “Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40 μA,” Electron. Lett. 36, 790–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Alexander, R. W.

Baba, T.

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, “Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40 μA,” Electron. Lett. 36, 790–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Campenhout, J. V.

Capasso, F.

Q. J. Wang, C. L. Yan, N. F. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kanc, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Che, K. J.

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs/InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Huang, S. J. Wang, Y. D. Yang, J. D. Lin, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, and Y. Du, “Investigation on multiple-port microcylinder lasers based on coupled modes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 105005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chern, G. D.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. J.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330–1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330–1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cioccio, L. D.

Dapkus, P. D.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330–1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

Q. J. Wang, C. L. Yan, N. F. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kanc, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Djordjev, K.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330–1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Du, Y.

Y. Z. Huang, S. J. Wang, Y. D. Yang, J. D. Lin, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, and Y. Du, “Investigation on multiple-port microcylinder lasers based on coupled modes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 105005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs/InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Edamura, T.

Q. J. Wang, C. L. Yan, N. F. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kanc, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. C.

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs/InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, “Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40 μA,” Electron. Lett. 36, 790–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W. H.

W. H. Guo, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Y. Lu, and L. J. Yu, “Mode Q-factor based on far-field emission for square resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 479–481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Guo, W. J. Li, and Y. Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Padé approximation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 11, 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

Huang, Y. Y.

Huang, Y. Z.

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs/InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Huang, S. J. Wang, Y. D. Yang, J. D. Lin, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, and Y. Du, “Investigation on multiple-port microcylinder lasers based on coupled modes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 105005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express 17, 23010–23015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Guo, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Y. Lu, and L. J. Yu, “Mode Q-factor based on far-field emission for square resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 479–481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Guo, W. J. Li, and Y. Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Padé approximation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 11, 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanc, H.

Q. J. Wang, C. L. Yan, N. F. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kanc, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. H.

S. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, H. G. Park, D. J. Shin, and Y. H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron-size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 861–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

S. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, H. G. Park, D. J. Shin, and Y. H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron-size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 861–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

S. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, H. G. Park, D. J. Shin, and Y. H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron-size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 861–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lagahe, C.

Lee, Y. H.

S. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, H. G. Park, D. J. Shin, and Y. H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron-size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 861–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. J.

W. H. Guo, W. J. Li, and Y. Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Padé approximation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 11, 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. Y.

Lin, J. D.

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs/InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Huang, S. J. Wang, Y. D. Yang, J. D. Lin, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, and Y. Du, “Investigation on multiple-port microcylinder lasers based on coupled modes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 105005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B. Y.

Logan, R. A.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Lu, Q. Y.

W. H. Guo, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Y. Lu, and L. J. Yu, “Mode Q-factor based on far-field emission for square resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 479–481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Ou, F.

Park, H. G.

S. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, H. G. Park, D. J. Shin, and Y. H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron-size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 861–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pflugl, C.

Q. J. Wang, C. L. Yan, N. F. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kanc, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P.

Rojo-Romeo, P.

Seassal, C.

Shin, D. J.

S. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, H. G. Park, D. J. Shin, and Y. H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron-size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 861–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stone, A. D.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

Tureci, H. E.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Unterhinninghofen, J.

Q. J. Wang, C. L. Yan, N. F. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kanc, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ushigome, R.

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, “Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40 μA,” Electron. Lett. 36, 790–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Verstuyft, S.

Wang, Q. J.

Q. J. Wang, C. L. Yan, N. F. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kanc, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. J.

Y. Z. Huang, S. J. Wang, Y. D. Yang, J. D. Lin, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, and Y. Du, “Investigation on multiple-port microcylinder lasers based on coupled modes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 105005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs/InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express 17, 23010–23015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Wiersig, J.

Q. J. Wang, C. L. Yan, N. F. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kanc, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J. L.

Y. Z. Huang, S. J. Wang, Y. D. Yang, J. D. Lin, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, and Y. Du, “Investigation on multiple-port microcylinder lasers based on coupled modes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 105005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs/InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamanishi, M.

Q. J. Wang, C. L. Yan, N. F. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kanc, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C. L.

Q. J. Wang, C. L. Yan, N. F. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kanc, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. D.

Y. Z. Huang, S. J. Wang, Y. D. Yang, J. D. Lin, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, and Y. Du, “Investigation on multiple-port microcylinder lasers based on coupled modes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 105005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Wang, J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, K. J. Che, J. L. Xiao, Y. Du, and Z. C. Fan, “AlGaInAs/InP microcylinder lasers connected with an output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express 17, 23010–23015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L. J.

W. H. Guo, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Y. Lu, and L. J. Yu, “Mode Q-factor based on far-field emission for square resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 479–481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N. F.

Q. J. Wang, C. L. Yan, N. F. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kanc, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, H. G. Park, D. J. Shin, and Y. H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron-size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 861–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

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IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. (1)

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[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of a 2D deformed circular resonator with a flat side.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity spectra for symmetric and anti-symmetric modes excited by wideband source, in the metallic confined deformed circular resonator with the radius of 8 μm and the flat side width of 2 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Mode Q factors and wavelengths versus the width of the flat side for the symmetric and anti-symmetric modes. (b) Mode Q factor and wavelength versus the thickness of SiO2 layer for the symmetric mode, in the metallic confined deformed circular resonator with the radius of 8 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Field patterns of the magnetic field components for (a) symmetric and (b) anti-symmetric modes at the wavelengths of 1527.52 nm in the deformed circular resonator with the flat side width of 2.0 μm, and for (c) symmetric and (d) anti-symmetric modes at the wavelength of 1526.55 nm with the flat side width of 3.5 μm, where the output field amplitude in the upper section are magnified 100 times. The corresponding far-field patterns are plotted at the flat side width of (e) 2.0 and (f) 3.5 μm, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Schematic diagram of the fabricated deformed circular microlaser with a flat side, and (b) SEM photograph of a microlaser with the radius of 8 μm and the flat side width of about 2 μm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Output power and applied voltage versus cw injection current for the metallic confined deformed circular microlaser with the radius of 8 μm, where the inset shows the laser spectrum at 2 mA, and (b) the mode intensity and mode wavelength versus cw injection current.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Lasing spectrum of the deformed circular microlaser at the injection current of 3 mA.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Normalized far-field patterns of the deformed circular microlaser at the injection currents of 3 and 5 mA.

Equations (2)

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P(t)=exp[(tt0)2/tw2]cos(2πct/λ0),
F(x,y,t)=isin(2πvdt)[Fr(x,y,t)exp(i2πvdt)Fr(x,y,t+dt)],

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