The 3D distribution of a particle field by digital holography is obtained by 3D numerical reconstruction of a 2D hologram. The proper identification of particles from the background during numerical reconstruction influences the overall effectiveness of the technique. The selection of a suitable threshold value to segment particles from the background of reconstructed images during 3D holographic reconstruction process is a critical issue, which influences the accuracy of particle size and number density of reconstructed particles. The object particle field parameters, such as depth of sample volume and density of object particles, influence the optimal threshold value. The present study proposes a novel technique for the determination of the optimal threshold value of a reconstructed image. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated using both simulated and experimental data. The proposed technique is robust to variation in optical properties of particle and background, depth of sample volume, and number density of object particle field. The particle diameter obtained from the proposed threshold technique is within 5% of that obtained from the particle size analyzer. There is a maximum ten times increase in reconstruction effectiveness by using the proposed automatic threshold technique in comparison with the fixed manual threshold technique.
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