Abstract

We apply an onion-peeling inversion to simulated imaging Fabry–Perot interferometer (FPI) observations for retrieving altitude profiles of neutral temperatures and winds in the thermosphere in order to investigate the effects of realistic gradients in thermospheric parameters on the retrieved parameters. A forward model is developed that simulates the interference spectrum observed by an FPI using the redline (630.0 nm) and greenline (557.7 nm) emissions simulated based on climatological models. This forward model is applicable to both ground- and satellite-based simulations and generates a two-dimensional interference ring pattern. We simulate both a single-band ground-based FPI and a dual-band satellite-based FPI in order to study the effects of realistic vertical and horizontal gradients on the retrieved parameters.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. W. Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry-Perot interferometer network: A review,” J. Atmos. Sol-Terr. Phys. 68, 1576–1589 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Conde and R. Smith, “Phase compensation of a separation scanned, all-sky imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer for auroral studies,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5441–5450 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Zhang and G. Shepherd, “On the response of the O(1 S) dayglow emission rate to the Sun’s energy input: an empirical model deduced from WINDII/UARS global measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, A03304 (2005).
  9. A. Gerrard and J. Meriwether, “Initial daytime and nighttime SOFDI observations of thermospheric winds from Fabry-Perot Doppler shift measurements of the 630 nm OI line-shape profile,” Ann. Geophys. 29, 1529–1536 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. C. J. Dasch, “One-dimensional tomography: a comparison of Abel, onion-peeling, and filtered backprojection methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1146–1149 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Link and L. Cogger, “A reexamination of the OI 6300-Å nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9883–9892 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  22. I. McDade, “ETON 2: quenching parameters for the proposed precursors of O2(b1Σg+) and O(1S) in the terrestrial nightglow,” Planet. Space Sci. 34, 789–800 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Picone, A. Hedin, and D. Drob, “NRLMSISE-00 empirical model of the atmosphere: statistical comparisons and scientific issues,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(A12) 1468 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Blelly, A. Robineau, and J. Lilensten, 8-Moment Fluid Models of the Terrestrial High Latitude Ionosphere Between 100 and 3000 km in Solar-Terrestrial Energy Program: Handbook of Ionospheric Models (Utah State University, 1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Hedin, N. Spencer, and T. Killeen, “Empirical global model of upper thermosphere winds based on atmosphere and dynamics explorer satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9959–9978 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. Alken, S. Maus, J. Emmert, and D. Drob, “Improved horizontal wind model HWM07 enables estimation of equatorial ionospheric electric fields from satellite magnetic measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L11105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  34. T. Killeen and P. Hays, “Doppler line profile analysis for a multichannel Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 612–620 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. Meriwether, J. Makela, Y. Huang, D. Fisher, R. Buriti, A. Mederios, and H. Takahashi, “Climatology of the nighttime equatorial thermospheric winds and temperatures over Brazil near solar minimum,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, A04322 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  36. E. Kursinski, G. Hajj, J. Schofield, R. Linfield, and K. Hardy, “Observing Earth’s atmosphere with radio occultation measurements using the Global Positioning System,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23429–23465 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  37. G. Hajj and L. Romans, “Ionospheric electron density profiles obtained with the Global Positioning System: results from the GPS/MET experiment,” Radio Sci. 33, 175–190(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  38. I. McDade and E. Llewellyn, “Satellite airglow limb tomography: methods for recovering structured emission rates in the mesospheric airglow layer,” Can. J. Phys. 71, 552–563 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

J. J. Makela, J. W. Meriwether, Y. Huang, and P. J. Sherwood, “Simulation and analysis of an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer for the study of thermospheric winds and temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4403–4416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gerrard and J. Meriwether, “Initial daytime and nighttime SOFDI observations of thermospheric winds from Fabry-Perot Doppler shift measurements of the 630 nm OI line-shape profile,” Ann. Geophys. 29, 1529–1536 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Meriwether, J. Makela, Y. Huang, D. Fisher, R. Buriti, A. Mederios, and H. Takahashi, “Climatology of the nighttime equatorial thermospheric winds and temperatures over Brazil near solar minimum,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, A04322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Alken, S. Maus, J. Emmert, and D. Drob, “Improved horizontal wind model HWM07 enables estimation of equatorial ionospheric electric fields from satellite magnetic measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L11105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Bilitza and B. Reinisch, “International reference ionosphere 2007: improvements and new parameters,” Adv. Space Res. 42, 599–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

F. Vargas, G. Swenson, A. Liu, and D. Gobbi, “O(1S), OH, and O2(b) airglow layer perturbations due to AGWs and their implied effects on the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, 1–11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1–13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry-Perot interferometer network: A review,” J. Atmos. Sol-Terr. Phys. 68, 1576–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. Zhang and G. Shepherd, “On the response of the O(1 S) dayglow emission rate to the Sun’s energy input: an empirical model deduced from WINDII/UARS global measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, A03304 (2005).

S. Zhang and G. Shepherd, “On the response of the atomic oxygen red line emission rates to the Sun’s energy input: An empirical model deduced from WINDII/UARS global measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5979, 597912 (2005).

2004 (2)

R. Heelis, “Electrodynamics in the low and middle latitude ionosphere: a tutorial,” J. Atmos. Sol-Terr. Phys. 66, 825–838(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, “Solar influence on the O(1D) dayglow emission rate: global-scale measurements by WINDII on UARS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L07804 (2004).

2002 (2)

C. Lathuillère, W. Gault, B. Lamballais, and Y. Rochon, “Doppler temperatures from O(1D) airglow in the daytime thermosphere as observed by the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the UARS satellite,” Ann. Geophys. 20, 203–212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Picone, A. Hedin, and D. Drob, “NRLMSISE-00 empirical model of the atmosphere: statistical comparisons and scientific issues,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(A12) 1468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

O. Witasse, J. Lilensten, and C. Lathuillare, “Modeling the OI 630.0 and 557.7 nm thermospheric dayglow during EISCA-WINDII coordinated measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24639–24655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Hajj and L. Romans, “Ionospheric electron density profiles obtained with the Global Positioning System: results from the GPS/MET experiment,” Radio Sci. 33, 175–190(1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

E. Kursinski, G. Hajj, J. Schofield, R. Linfield, and K. Hardy, “Observing Earth’s atmosphere with radio occultation measurements using the Global Positioning System,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23429–23465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Conde and R. Smith, “Phase compensation of a separation scanned, all-sky imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer for auroral studies,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5441–5450 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. M. Coakley, F. L. Roesler, R. J. Reynolds, and S. Nossal, “Fabry-Perot CCD annular-summing spectroscopy: study and implementation for aeronomy applications,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6479–6493 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, C. Mclandress, V. Fauliot, and G. Hernandez, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: The WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10405–10430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

I. McDade and E. Llewellyn, “Satellite airglow limb tomography: methods for recovering structured emission rates in the mesospheric airglow layer,” Can. J. Phys. 71, 552–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

P. B. Hays and the HRDI Science Team, “Remote sensing of mesospheric winds with the high-resolution Doppler imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 40, 1599–1606 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Dasch, “One-dimensional tomography: a comparison of Abel, onion-peeling, and filtered backprojection methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1146–1149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

R. Link and L. Cogger, “A reexamination of the OI 6300-Å nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9883–9892 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Hedin, N. Spencer, and T. Killeen, “Empirical global model of upper thermosphere winds based on atmosphere and dynamics explorer satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9959–9978 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

I. McDade, “ETON 2: quenching parameters for the proposed precursors of O2(b1Σg+) and O(1S) in the terrestrial nightglow,” Planet. Space Sci. 34, 789–800 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. Wharton, and N. W. Spencer, “A comparison of wind observations of the upper thermosphere from the Dynamics Explorer satellite with the predictions of a global time-dependent model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, and A. Arbor, “Neutral winds in the polar thermosphere as measured from Dynamics Explorer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957–960 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1976 (1)

J. E. Frederick, D. W. Rusch, G. A. Victor, W. E. Sharp, P. B. Hays, and H. C. Brinton, “The O I (λ5577  Å) airglow: observations and excitation mechanisms,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 3923–3930 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

P. Hays, G. Carignan, B. Kennedy, G. Shepherd, and J. Walker, “The visible-airglow experiment on Atmosphere Explorer,” Radio Sci. 8, 369–377 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. Rishbeth, “Polarization fields produced by winds in the equatorial F-region,” Planet. Space Sci. 19, 357–369 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Alken, P.

P. Alken, S. Maus, J. Emmert, and D. Drob, “Improved horizontal wind model HWM07 enables estimation of equatorial ionospheric electric fields from satellite magnetic measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L11105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alunni, J. M.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arbor, A.

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, and A. Arbor, “Neutral winds in the polar thermosphere as measured from Dynamics Explorer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957–960 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bilitza, D.

D. Bilitza and B. Reinisch, “International reference ionosphere 2007: improvements and new parameters,” Adv. Space Res. 42, 599–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blelly, P.

P. Blelly, A. Robineau, and J. Lilensten, 8-Moment Fluid Models of the Terrestrial High Latitude Ionosphere Between 100 and 3000 km in Solar-Terrestrial Energy Program: Handbook of Ionospheric Models (Utah State University, 1996).

Bowman, J. R.

D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brinton, H. C.

J. E. Frederick, D. W. Rusch, G. A. Victor, W. E. Sharp, P. B. Hays, and H. C. Brinton, “The O I (λ5577  Å) airglow: observations and excitation mechanisms,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 3923–3930 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Brun, J. F.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buriti, R.

J. Meriwether, J. Makela, Y. Huang, D. Fisher, R. Buriti, A. Mederios, and H. Takahashi, “Climatology of the nighttime equatorial thermospheric winds and temperatures over Brazil near solar minimum,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, A04322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carignan, G.

P. Hays, G. Carignan, B. Kennedy, G. Shepherd, and J. Walker, “The visible-airglow experiment on Atmosphere Explorer,” Radio Sci. 8, 369–377 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Charlot, P.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, M. M.

Cogger, L.

R. Link and L. Cogger, “A reexamination of the OI 6300-Å nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9883–9892 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cogger, L. L.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Conde, M.

Crowley, G.

D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. P.,

D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dasch, C. J.

Dessaulniers, D.-L.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Drob, D.

P. Alken, S. Maus, J. Emmert, and D. Drob, “Improved horizontal wind model HWM07 enables estimation of equatorial ionospheric electric fields from satellite magnetic measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L11105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Picone, A. Hedin, and D. Drob, “NRLMSISE-00 empirical model of the atmosphere: statistical comparisons and scientific issues,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(A12) 1468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Emmert, J.

P. Alken, S. Maus, J. Emmert, and D. Drob, “Improved horizontal wind model HWM07 enables estimation of equatorial ionospheric electric fields from satellite magnetic measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L11105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Emmert, J. T.

D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1–13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W. F. J.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Faivre, M. L.

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1–13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fauliot, V.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, C. Mclandress, V. Fauliot, and G. Hernandez, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: The WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10405–10430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, D.

J. Meriwether, J. Makela, Y. Huang, D. Fisher, R. Buriti, A. Mederios, and H. Takahashi, “Climatology of the nighttime equatorial thermospheric winds and temperatures over Brazil near solar minimum,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, A04322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, J. E.

J. E. Frederick, D. W. Rusch, G. A. Victor, W. E. Sharp, P. B. Hays, and H. C. Brinton, “The O I (λ5577  Å) airglow: observations and excitation mechanisms,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 3923–3930 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. Wharton, and N. W. Spencer, “A comparison of wind observations of the upper thermosphere from the Dynamics Explorer satellite with the predictions of a global time-dependent model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W.

C. Lathuillère, W. Gault, B. Lamballais, and Y. Rochon, “Doppler temperatures from O(1D) airglow in the daytime thermosphere as observed by the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the UARS satellite,” Ann. Geophys. 20, 203–212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, C. Mclandress, V. Fauliot, and G. Hernandez, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: The WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10405–10430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gerrard, A.

A. Gerrard and J. Meriwether, “Initial daytime and nighttime SOFDI observations of thermospheric winds from Fabry-Perot Doppler shift measurements of the 630 nm OI line-shape profile,” Ann. Geophys. 29, 1529–1536 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gettinger, R. L.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Girod, F.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, D.

F. Vargas, G. Swenson, A. Liu, and D. Gobbi, “O(1S), OH, and O2(b) airglow layer perturbations due to AGWs and their implied effects on the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, 1–11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. Wharton, and N. W. Spencer, “A comparison of wind observations of the upper thermosphere from the Dynamics Explorer satellite with the predictions of a global time-dependent model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
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G. Hajj and L. Romans, “Ionospheric electron density profiles obtained with the Global Positioning System: results from the GPS/MET experiment,” Radio Sci. 33, 175–190(1998).
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E. Kursinski, G. Hajj, J. Schofield, R. Linfield, and K. Hardy, “Observing Earth’s atmosphere with radio occultation measurements using the Global Positioning System,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23429–23465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, K.

E. Kursinski, G. Hajj, J. Schofield, R. Linfield, and K. Hardy, “Observing Earth’s atmosphere with radio occultation measurements using the Global Positioning System,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23429–23465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harvie, D.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P.

D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Killeen and P. Hays, “Doppler line profile analysis for a multichannel Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 612–620 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. Hays, G. Carignan, B. Kennedy, G. Shepherd, and J. Walker, “The visible-airglow experiment on Atmosphere Explorer,” Radio Sci. 8, 369–377 (1973).
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Hays, P. B.

P. B. Hays and the HRDI Science Team, “Remote sensing of mesospheric winds with the high-resolution Doppler imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 40, 1599–1606 (1992).
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D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. Wharton, and N. W. Spencer, “A comparison of wind observations of the upper thermosphere from the Dynamics Explorer satellite with the predictions of a global time-dependent model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, and A. Arbor, “Neutral winds in the polar thermosphere as measured from Dynamics Explorer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957–960 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Frederick, D. W. Rusch, G. A. Victor, W. E. Sharp, P. B. Hays, and H. C. Brinton, “The O I (λ5577  Å) airglow: observations and excitation mechanisms,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 3923–3930 (1976).
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J. Picone, A. Hedin, and D. Drob, “NRLMSISE-00 empirical model of the atmosphere: statistical comparisons and scientific issues,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(A12) 1468 (2002).
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A. Hedin, N. Spencer, and T. Killeen, “Empirical global model of upper thermosphere winds based on atmosphere and dynamics explorer satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9959–9978 (1988).
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R. Heelis, “Electrodynamics in the low and middle latitude ionosphere: a tutorial,” J. Atmos. Sol-Terr. Phys. 66, 825–838(2004).
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D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1–13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, C. Mclandress, V. Fauliot, and G. Hernandez, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: The WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10405–10430 (1996).
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G. Hernandez, “Piezoelectric scanning of Fabry-Perot spectrometers: nonlinearities,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3088–3095 (1978).
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G. Hernández, Fabry-Perot Interferometers (Cambridge University, 1986).

Hersom, C.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

J. J. Makela, J. W. Meriwether, Y. Huang, and P. J. Sherwood, “Simulation and analysis of an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer for the study of thermospheric winds and temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4403–4416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Meriwether, J. Makela, Y. Huang, D. Fisher, R. Buriti, A. Mederios, and H. Takahashi, “Climatology of the nighttime equatorial thermospheric winds and temperatures over Brazil near solar minimum,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, A04322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hum, R. H.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jarvis, M. J.

D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1–13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, S.

D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, D. J. W.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, B.

P. Hays, G. Carignan, B. Kennedy, G. Shepherd, and J. Walker, “The visible-airglow experiment on Atmosphere Explorer,” Radio Sci. 8, 369–377 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Killeen, T.

A. Hedin, N. Spencer, and T. Killeen, “Empirical global model of upper thermosphere winds based on atmosphere and dynamics explorer satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9959–9978 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Killeen and P. Hays, “Doppler line profile analysis for a multichannel Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 612–620 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Killeen, T. L.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. Wharton, and N. W. Spencer, “A comparison of wind observations of the upper thermosphere from the Dynamics Explorer satellite with the predictions of a global time-dependent model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, and A. Arbor, “Neutral winds in the polar thermosphere as measured from Dynamics Explorer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957–960 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kursinski, E.

E. Kursinski, G. Hajj, J. Schofield, R. Linfield, and K. Hardy, “Observing Earth’s atmosphere with radio occultation measurements using the Global Positioning System,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23429–23465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lamballais, B.

C. Lathuillère, W. Gault, B. Lamballais, and Y. Rochon, “Doppler temperatures from O(1D) airglow in the daytime thermosphere as observed by the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the UARS satellite,” Ann. Geophys. 20, 203–212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, M.

D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
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O. Witasse, J. Lilensten, and C. Lathuillare, “Modeling the OI 630.0 and 557.7 nm thermospheric dayglow during EISCA-WINDII coordinated measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24639–24655 (1999).
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C. Lathuillère, W. Gault, B. Lamballais, and Y. Rochon, “Doppler temperatures from O(1D) airglow in the daytime thermosphere as observed by the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the UARS satellite,” Ann. Geophys. 20, 203–212 (2002).
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Lilensten, J.

O. Witasse, J. Lilensten, and C. Lathuillare, “Modeling the OI 630.0 and 557.7 nm thermospheric dayglow during EISCA-WINDII coordinated measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24639–24655 (1999).
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P. Blelly, A. Robineau, and J. Lilensten, 8-Moment Fluid Models of the Terrestrial High Latitude Ionosphere Between 100 and 3000 km in Solar-Terrestrial Energy Program: Handbook of Ionospheric Models (Utah State University, 1996).

Linfield, R.

E. Kursinski, G. Hajj, J. Schofield, R. Linfield, and K. Hardy, “Observing Earth’s atmosphere with radio occultation measurements using the Global Positioning System,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23429–23465 (1997).
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R. Link and L. Cogger, “A reexamination of the OI 6300-Å nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9883–9892 (1988).
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Liu, A.

F. Vargas, G. Swenson, A. Liu, and D. Gobbi, “O(1S), OH, and O2(b) airglow layer perturbations due to AGWs and their implied effects on the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, 1–11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Llewellyn, E.

I. McDade and E. Llewellyn, “Satellite airglow limb tomography: methods for recovering structured emission rates in the mesospheric airglow layer,” Can. J. Phys. 71, 552–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Llewellyn, E. J.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, R. P.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Makela, J.

J. Meriwether, J. Makela, Y. Huang, D. Fisher, R. Buriti, A. Mederios, and H. Takahashi, “Climatology of the nighttime equatorial thermospheric winds and temperatures over Brazil near solar minimum,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, A04322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Makela, J. J.

Maus, S.

P. Alken, S. Maus, J. Emmert, and D. Drob, “Improved horizontal wind model HWM07 enables estimation of equatorial ionospheric electric fields from satellite magnetic measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L11105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McDade, I.

I. McDade and E. Llewellyn, “Satellite airglow limb tomography: methods for recovering structured emission rates in the mesospheric airglow layer,” Can. J. Phys. 71, 552–563 (1993).
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I. McDade, “ETON 2: quenching parameters for the proposed precursors of O2(b1Σg+) and O(1S) in the terrestrial nightglow,” Planet. Space Sci. 34, 789–800 (1986).
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Mclandress, C.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, C. Mclandress, V. Fauliot, and G. Hernandez, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: The WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10405–10430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mederios, A.

J. Meriwether, J. Makela, Y. Huang, D. Fisher, R. Buriti, A. Mederios, and H. Takahashi, “Climatology of the nighttime equatorial thermospheric winds and temperatures over Brazil near solar minimum,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, A04322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meriwether, J.

J. Meriwether, J. Makela, Y. Huang, D. Fisher, R. Buriti, A. Mederios, and H. Takahashi, “Climatology of the nighttime equatorial thermospheric winds and temperatures over Brazil near solar minimum,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, A04322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gerrard and J. Meriwether, “Initial daytime and nighttime SOFDI observations of thermospheric winds from Fabry-Perot Doppler shift measurements of the 630 nm OI line-shape profile,” Ann. Geophys. 29, 1529–1536 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meriwether, J. W.

J. J. Makela, J. W. Meriwether, Y. Huang, and P. J. Sherwood, “Simulation and analysis of an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer for the study of thermospheric winds and temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4403–4416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry-Perot interferometer network: A review,” J. Atmos. Sol-Terr. Phys. 68, 1576–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1–13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meriwhether, J. W.

D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
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D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
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D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
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D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
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G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
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G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
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G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
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D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
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G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
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D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. Wharton, and N. W. Spencer, “A comparison of wind observations of the upper thermosphere from the Dynamics Explorer satellite with the predictions of a global time-dependent model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
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D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
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D. Bilitza and B. Reinisch, “International reference ionosphere 2007: improvements and new parameters,” Adv. Space Res. 42, 599–609 (2008).
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C. Lathuillère, W. Gault, B. Lamballais, and Y. Rochon, “Doppler temperatures from O(1D) airglow in the daytime thermosphere as observed by the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the UARS satellite,” Ann. Geophys. 20, 203–212 (2002).
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G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
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J. E. Frederick, D. W. Rusch, G. A. Victor, W. E. Sharp, P. B. Hays, and H. C. Brinton, “The O I (λ5577  Å) airglow: observations and excitation mechanisms,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 3923–3930 (1976).
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D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
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S. Zhang and G. Shepherd, “On the response of the O(1 S) dayglow emission rate to the Sun’s energy input: an empirical model deduced from WINDII/UARS global measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, A03304 (2005).

S. Zhang and G. Shepherd, “On the response of the atomic oxygen red line emission rates to the Sun’s energy input: An empirical model deduced from WINDII/UARS global measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5979, 597912 (2005).

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
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Shepherd, G. G.

D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
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W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, C. Mclandress, V. Fauliot, and G. Hernandez, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: The WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10405–10430 (1996).
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Sipler,

D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
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J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1–13 (2006).
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D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
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G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
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D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1–13 (2006).
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Thuillier, G

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
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W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, C. Mclandress, V. Fauliot, and G. Hernandez, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: The WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10405–10430 (1996).
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F. Vargas, G. Swenson, A. Liu, and D. Gobbi, “O(1S), OH, and O2(b) airglow layer perturbations due to AGWs and their implied effects on the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, 1–11 (2007).
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J. E. Frederick, D. W. Rusch, G. A. Victor, W. E. Sharp, P. B. Hays, and H. C. Brinton, “The O I (λ5577  Å) airglow: observations and excitation mechanisms,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 3923–3930 (1976).
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D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
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Walker, J.

P. Hays, G. Carignan, B. Kennedy, G. Shepherd, and J. Walker, “The visible-airglow experiment on Atmosphere Explorer,” Radio Sci. 8, 369–377 (1973).
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Ward, W. E.

G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
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G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
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D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. Wharton, and N. W. Spencer, “A comparison of wind observations of the upper thermosphere from the Dynamics Explorer satellite with the predictions of a global time-dependent model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
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G. Shepherd, G Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Dessaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gettinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Pellet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
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D. Drob, J. T. Emmert, G. Crowley, J. M. Picone, G. G. Shepherd, W. Skinner, P. Hays, R. J. Niciejewski, M. Larsen, C. Y. She, J. W. Meriwhether, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, Sipler, D. P., C. A. Tepley, M. S. O’Brien, J. R. Bowman, Q. Wu, Y. Murayama, S. Kawamura, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, “An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12304 (2008).
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S. Zhang and G. Shepherd, “On the response of the atomic oxygen red line emission rates to the Sun’s energy input: An empirical model deduced from WINDII/UARS global measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5979, 597912 (2005).

S. Zhang and G. Shepherd, “On the response of the O(1 S) dayglow emission rate to the Sun’s energy input: an empirical model deduced from WINDII/UARS global measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, A03304 (2005).

S. Zhang, “Solar influence on the O(1D) dayglow emission rate: global-scale measurements by WINDII on UARS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L07804 (2004).

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S. Zhang and G. Shepherd, “On the response of the O(1 S) dayglow emission rate to the Sun’s energy input: an empirical model deduced from WINDII/UARS global measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, A03304 (2005).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

An example of both redline and greenline airglow profiles with respect to altitude during both (a) nighttime and (b) daytime (lat: 0°, lon: 33°, 1 January 1992) calculated by climatological and empirical models, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated example of (a) 2D ring pattern and (b) the resultant 1D fringe pattern.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Flow chart of the FPI simulation framework used for estimating wind velocity and temperature.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulated redline airglow volume emission rate [solid black lines in (a) and (b)], temperature [dashed red line in (a)] and wind [dashed red line in (b)] profiles along an FPI’s look direction.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Viewing geometry of a satellite-based FPI.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Vertical profiles of (left) wind and (right) temperature. In each plot, the blue crosses represent the climatological value of each parameter at the tangent altitude while the shaded blue region represents the range of the parameter along each line-of-sight within a given layer. The red circles and associated uncertainties represent the retrieved values assuming spherical symmetry.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Two-dimensional profiles of (a) temperature, (b) zonal wind, (c) redline dayglow, and (d) greenline dayglow on 1 January 1992. The black lines are the FPI’s look directions, with dashed lines representing observations of the redline emissions and solid lines being for the greenline dayglow measurements. The magenta lines connect the tangent points of all measurements.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Same as Fig. 6 except for daytime conditions in which both the redline (red) and greenline (green) emissions are simulated.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Monte Carlo results (10 runs) of errors in the retrieval of vertical profiles of (left) winds and (right) temperatures for the redline emission above 200 km (red circles) and greenline emission below 200 km (green circles).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Profiles of retrieved (left) wind and (right) temperature from 1992 to 1995 for nighttime conditions utilizing the redline emission.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Errors in retrieved (left) wind and (right) temperature estimates from 1992 through 1995 based upon Monte Carlo simulations of nighttime airglow obtained using the onion-peeling inversion.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Same as Fig. 10 for daytime conditions utilizing (top) redline and (bottom) greenline emissions.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Same as Fig. 11 but for daytime conditions utilizing (top) redline and (bottom) greenline emissions.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Rate Coefficients for Nightglow Emission Rates Used in This Study [2123]

Tables Icon

Table 2. FPI Simulation Parameters

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Table 3. Simulation Parameters for a Satellite-Based FPI (for Redline Nightglow)

Tables Icon

Table 4. Simulation Parameters for a Satellite-Based FPI (for Dayglow)

Equations (22)

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V6300=A6300β1Dk1[O2][O+]A1D+k3[N2]+k4[O2]+k5[e],
V5577=A5k1[O]3([O2]+[N2])(A6+k5[O2])(15[O2]+211[O]),
V6300=Vpexp[(zhp)2/(2W2)],Vp=(1.791F10.7+76.4)cos1/eχ+35,χ<87°,hp=(0.0006F10.70.23)Vp+(0.180F10.7+237),W=8.03cosχ+(0.079F10.7+34),
V5577=Vfexp[1bfexp(bf)]+Veexp[1beexp(be)],Vf=(3.56F10.7+290)cos1.5χ+20,Hf=(0.023F10.717.6)InVf+(0.34F10.7+230),Wf=0.014Vf+(0.039F10.7+26),bf=(zHf)/Wf,Ve=(4.50F10.7+236)cos1.2χ+136,H¯e=0.023F10.7+95,We610km,be=(zHe)/We,
S(λ)=1Δλ2πexp(12·[λλ0(1+vprojc)Δλ]2),
Δλ=λ0kTmc2,
vproj=cos(el)(vcos(az)+usin(az)),
Y1D(h,θ)=iS(h,λi)T(λi,θ),
I(θ)=h=hlhuY2D(h,θ)V(h)sΔt,
U1=CojtΔλF¯Rλ(1R1+R),
U2=Coja0tTFoRo,
U3=KskyλlλrΔλ0i0+1,
U4=πc2kTmλ0Δλ0.
v=c(U3Δλ0+λrλ01)vref,
T=(U4cπΔλ0λ0)2m2k.
σv=(cΔλ0λ0σU3)2+σvref2,
σT=cΔλ0πλ0σU42mT0k,
y=Ax,
A=[L1100L21L220L31L32L33],
Lii=|AiiBii|,
Lij=|Aij+1Aij|+|Bij+1Bij|=2|Aij+1Aij|,i>j.
x=A1y.

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