Abstract

The digital pixel driving scheme makes the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) microdisplays more immune to the pixel luminance variations and simplifies the circuit architecture and design flow compared to the analog pixel driving scheme. Additionally, it is easily applied in full digital systems. However, the data bottleneck becomes a notable problem as the number of pixels and gray levels grow dramatically. This paper will discuss the digital driving ability to achieve kilogray-levels for megapixel displays. The optimal scan strategy is proposed for creating ultra high gray levels and increasing light efficiency and contrast ratio. Two correction schemes are discussed to improve the gray level linearity. A 1280×1024×3 OLED-on-silicon microdisplay, with 4096 gray levels, is designed based on the optimal scan strategy. The circuit driver is integrated in the silicon backplane chip in the 0.35 μm 3.3 V–6 V dual voltage one polysilicon layer, four metal layers (1P4M) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with custom top metal. The design aspects of the optimal scan controller are also discussed. The test results show the gray level linearity of the correction schemes for the optimal scan strategy is acceptable by the human eye.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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V. Gohri, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, T. Rosenow, M. Thomschke, M. Levichkova, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes employing a heterostructure of down-conversion layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 2126–2130 (2011).
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B.-D. Choi, I.-S. Park, J.-S. Kim, S.-J. Lee, and B. Bae, “Image quality enhancement in AMOLED microdisplay for mobile projectors,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 313–319 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

M. H. Xu, F. Ran, and Z. J. Cehn, “A novel OLED controller with fractal scan scheme,” Robot Cim-Int. Manuf. 26, 570–575(2010).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

D. Vettese, “Microdisplays liquid crystal on silicon,” Nat. Photon. 4, 752–754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

D. W. Cheng, Y. T. Wang, H. Hua, and M. M. Talha, “Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2655–2668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

C.-D. Liao and J.-C. Tsai, “The evolution of MEMS displays,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 56, 1057–1065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Papadopoulos, A. A. Hatzopoulos, and D. K. Papakostas, “An improved optical feedback pixel driver circuit,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 229–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Martinez, A. Martinez-Garcia, and I. Moreno, “Wavelength-compensated color Fourier diffractive optical elements using a ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon display and a color-filter wheel,” Appl. Opt. 48, 911–918 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2006 (2)

J. E. Wolfe and R. A. Chipman, “Polarimetric characterization of liquid-crystal-on-silicon panels,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1688–1703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Hak, L. Myunghee, L. J. Hoon, P. H. Su, L. C. Ju, K. J. Tae, C. C. Sik, K. H. Kwon, K. T. Jin, and C. H. Kyoon, “A current-mode display driver IC using sample-and-hold scheme for QVGA full-color AMOLED displays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2974–2982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Nathan, A. Kumar, K. Sakariya, P. Servati, S. Sambandan, and D. Striakhilev, “Amorphous silicon thin film transistor circuit integration for organic LED displays on glass and plastic,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 1477–1486 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, J. C. Morizio, and K. M. Johnson, “Novel frame buffer pixel circuits for liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit 39, 132–139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

P. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, J. Dean, and R. Albu, “Design aspects of a scrolling color LCoS display,” Displays 23, 99–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kimmel, J. Hautanen, and T. Levola, “Display technologies for portable communication devices,” Proc. IEEE 90, 581–590 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Q. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, “An 852×600 pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1879–1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

W. E. Howard and O. F. Prache, “Microdisplays based upon organic light-emitting diodes,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 115–127(2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Yi, R. Hattori, and J. Kanicki, “Improved a-Si:H TFT pixel electrode circuits for active-matrix organic light emitting displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1322–1325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

P. T. Kazlas, K. M. Johnson, and D. J. McKnight, “Miniature liquid-crystal-on-silicon display assembly,” Opt. Lett. 23, 972–974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Albu, R.

P. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, J. Dean, and R. Albu, “Design aspects of a scrolling color LCoS display,” Displays 23, 99–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, S.

G. R. Chaji, S. Alexander, J. M. Dionne, Y. Azizi, C. Church, J. Hamer, J. Spindler, and A. Nathan, “Stable RGBW AMOLED display with OLED degradation compensation using electrical feedback,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE International, 2010), pp. 118–119.

Ali, T.

D. A. Fellowes, M. V. Wood, A. R. Hastings, R. S. Draper, A. Ghosh, O. Prache, I. Wacyk, T. Ali, and I. Khayrullin, “Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results,” in Head- and Helmet-Mounted Displays Xvi: Design and Applications, P. L. Marasco and P. R. Havig, eds. (SPIE, 2011).

Allison, B. H.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Q. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, “An 852×600 pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1879–1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amelung, J.

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, D.

D. Armitage, I. Underwood, and S. T. Wu, Introduction to Microdisplays (John Wiley & Sons, 2006).

Azizi, Y.

G. R. Chaji, S. Alexander, J. M. Dionne, Y. Azizi, C. Church, J. Hamer, J. Spindler, and A. Nathan, “Stable RGBW AMOLED display with OLED degradation compensation using electrical feedback,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE International, 2010), pp. 118–119.

Bae, B.

B.-D. Choi, I.-S. Park, J.-S. Kim, S.-J. Lee, and B. Bae, “Image quality enhancement in AMOLED microdisplay for mobile projectors,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 313–319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Banks, L.

L. Banks, “High performance ferroelectric LC microdisplay,” in ASID ’99. Proceedings of the 5th Asian Symposium on Information Display (1999), 333–337.

Bunk, G.

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D.

G. Kelly, R. Woodburn, I. Underwood, D. Burns, R. Monteith, M. Newsam, and P. Parmiter, “A full-color QVGA microdisplay using light-emitting-polymer on CMOS,” in ICECS ’06 13th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 760–763.

Cehn, Z. J.

M. H. Xu, F. Ran, and Z. J. Cehn, “A novel OLED controller with fractal scan scheme,” Robot Cim-Int. Manuf. 26, 570–575(2010).
[CrossRef]

Chaji, G. R.

G. R. Chaji, S. Alexander, J. M. Dionne, Y. Azizi, C. Church, J. Hamer, J. Spindler, and A. Nathan, “Stable RGBW AMOLED display with OLED degradation compensation using electrical feedback,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE International, 2010), pp. 118–119.

Chang, J. Y.

Chen, P.

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. J.

Z. J. Chen, “Scan model and theory research for flat panel display (in Chinese),” Doctoral dissertation (Shanghai University, 2009).

Cheng, D. W.

Chipman, R. A.

Choi, B.-D.

B.-D. Choi, I.-S. Park, J.-S. Kim, S.-J. Lee, and B. Bae, “Image quality enhancement in AMOLED microdisplay for mobile projectors,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 313–319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Church, C.

G. R. Chaji, S. Alexander, J. M. Dionne, Y. Azizi, C. Church, J. Hamer, J. Spindler, and A. Nathan, “Stable RGBW AMOLED display with OLED degradation compensation using electrical feedback,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE International, 2010), pp. 118–119.

Dean, J.

P. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, J. Dean, and R. Albu, “Design aspects of a scrolling color LCoS display,” Displays 23, 99–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. M.

G. R. Chaji, S. Alexander, J. M. Dionne, Y. Azizi, C. Church, J. Hamer, J. Spindler, and A. Nathan, “Stable RGBW AMOLED display with OLED degradation compensation using electrical feedback,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE International, 2010), pp. 118–119.

Douglass, M. R.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Draper, R. S.

D. A. Fellowes, M. V. Wood, A. R. Hastings, R. S. Draper, A. Ghosh, O. Prache, I. Wacyk, T. Ali, and I. Khayrullin, “Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results,” in Head- and Helmet-Mounted Displays Xvi: Design and Applications, P. L. Marasco and P. R. Havig, eds. (SPIE, 2011).

Du, H. A.

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, D.

D. Dudley, W. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirroir device (DMD) applications,” in Moems Display and Imaging Systems, H. Urey, ed. (SPIE, 2003), pp. 14–25.

Duncan, W.

D. Dudley, W. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirroir device (DMD) applications,” in Moems Display and Imaging Systems, H. Urey, ed. (SPIE, 2003), pp. 14–25.

Ebner, J.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Q. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, “An 852×600 pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1879–1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Q. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, “An 852×600 pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1879–1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, P.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Q. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, “An 852×600 pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1879–1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fellowes, D. A.

D. A. Fellowes, M. V. Wood, A. R. Hastings, R. S. Draper, A. Ghosh, O. Prache, I. Wacyk, T. Ali, and I. Khayrullin, “Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results,” in Head- and Helmet-Mounted Displays Xvi: Design and Applications, P. L. Marasco and P. R. Havig, eds. (SPIE, 2011).

Ghosh, A.

D. A. Fellowes, M. V. Wood, A. R. Hastings, R. S. Draper, A. Ghosh, O. Prache, I. Wacyk, T. Ali, and I. Khayrullin, “Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results,” in Head- and Helmet-Mounted Displays Xvi: Design and Applications, P. L. Marasco and P. R. Havig, eds. (SPIE, 2011).

I. Wacyk, O. Prache, and A. Ghosh, “Ultra-high resolution AMOLED,” in Display Technologies and Applications for Defense, Security and Avionics V and Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J. T. Thomas, D. D. Desjardins, J. J. Guell, and K. L. Bernier, eds. (SPIE, 2011).

Gohri, V.

V. Gohri, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, T. Rosenow, M. Thomschke, M. Levichkova, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes employing a heterostructure of down-conversion layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 2126–2130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Z. X.

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Graupner, S. T.

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grillberger, C.

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
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C. Grossmann, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “OLED-based pico-projection system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18, 821–826 (2010).
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M. Scholles, U. Vogel, I. Underwood, G. Notni, C. Zilstorff, K. Meerholz, and G. Haas, “HYPOLED—High-performance OLED microdisplays for mobile multimedia HMD and projection applications,” in the 48th Annual SID Symposium, Seminar and Exhibition 2010, Display Week 2010 (Society for Information Display, 2010), pp. 1926–1929.

Hak, B. J.

B. J. Hak, L. Myunghee, L. J. Hoon, P. H. Su, L. C. Ju, K. J. Tae, C. C. Sik, K. H. Kwon, K. T. Jin, and C. H. Kyoon, “A current-mode display driver IC using sample-and-hold scheme for QVGA full-color AMOLED displays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2974–2982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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G. R. Chaji, S. Alexander, J. M. Dionne, Y. Azizi, C. Church, J. Hamer, J. Spindler, and A. Nathan, “Stable RGBW AMOLED display with OLED degradation compensation using electrical feedback,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE International, 2010), pp. 118–119.

Hastings, A. R.

D. A. Fellowes, M. V. Wood, A. R. Hastings, R. S. Draper, A. Ghosh, O. Prache, I. Wacyk, T. Ali, and I. Khayrullin, “Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results,” in Head- and Helmet-Mounted Displays Xvi: Design and Applications, P. L. Marasco and P. R. Havig, eds. (SPIE, 2011).

Hattori, R.

H. Yi, R. Hattori, and J. Kanicki, “Improved a-Si:H TFT pixel electrode circuits for active-matrix organic light emitting displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1322–1325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hatzopoulos, A. A.

N. P. Papadopoulos, A. A. Hatzopoulos, and D. K. Papakostas, “An improved optical feedback pixel driver circuit,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 229–235 (2009).
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Hautanen, J.

J. Kimmel, J. Hautanen, and T. Levola, “Display technologies for portable communication devices,” Proc. IEEE 90, 581–590 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herold, R.

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heubner, M.

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, S.

V. Gohri, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, T. Rosenow, M. Thomschke, M. Levichkova, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes employing a heterostructure of down-conversion layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 2126–2130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hoon, L. J.

B. J. Hak, L. Myunghee, L. J. Hoon, P. H. Su, L. C. Ju, K. J. Tae, C. C. Sik, K. H. Kwon, K. T. Jin, and C. H. Kyoon, “A current-mode display driver IC using sample-and-hold scheme for QVGA full-color AMOLED displays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2974–2982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hornbeck, L. J.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Hornbeck, “Combining digital optical MEMS, CMOS and algorithms for unique display solutions,” in Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE International, 2007), pp. 17–24.

Hou, J. Y.

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Howard, W. E.

W. E. Howard and O. F. Prache, “Microdisplays based upon organic light-emitting diodes,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 115–127(2001).
[CrossRef]

Hua, H.

Huang, R.

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hufford, M.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Q. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, “An 852×600 pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1879–1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, P.

P. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, J. Dean, and R. Albu, “Design aspects of a scrolling color LCoS display,” Displays 23, 99–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.-G.

Y. Ji, F. Ran, H.-G. Xu, W.-X. Shen, W.-G. Ji, and M.-H. Xu, “Design on AM-OLED display control ASIC with high gray scale levels,” J. Shanghai Univ. (Engl. Ed.) 15, 310–315(2011).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Y.

Y. Ji, F. Ran, H.-G. Xu, W.-X. Shen, W.-G. Ji, and M.-H. Xu, “Design on AM-OLED display control ASIC with high gray scale levels,” J. Shanghai Univ. (Engl. Ed.) 15, 310–315(2011).
[CrossRef]

Jin, K. T.

B. J. Hak, L. Myunghee, L. J. Hoon, P. H. Su, L. C. Ju, K. J. Tae, C. C. Sik, K. H. Kwon, K. T. Jin, and C. H. Kyoon, “A current-mode display driver IC using sample-and-hold scheme for QVGA full-color AMOLED displays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2974–2982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. M.

S. Lee, J. C. Morizio, and K. M. Johnson, “Novel frame buffer pixel circuits for liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit 39, 132–139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Kazlas, K. M. Johnson, and D. J. McKnight, “Miniature liquid-crystal-on-silicon display assembly,” Opt. Lett. 23, 972–974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ju, L. C.

B. J. Hak, L. Myunghee, L. J. Hoon, P. H. Su, L. C. Ju, K. J. Tae, C. C. Sik, K. H. Kwon, K. T. Jin, and C. H. Kyoon, “A current-mode display driver IC using sample-and-hold scheme for QVGA full-color AMOLED displays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2974–2982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanicki, J.

H. Yi, R. Hattori, and J. Kanicki, “Improved a-Si:H TFT pixel electrode circuits for active-matrix organic light emitting displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1322–1325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kazlas, P. T.

Kelly, G.

G. Kelly, R. Woodburn, I. Underwood, D. Burns, R. Monteith, M. Newsam, and P. Parmiter, “A full-color QVGA microdisplay using light-emitting-polymer on CMOS,” in ICECS ’06 13th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 760–763.

Khayrullin, I.

D. A. Fellowes, M. V. Wood, A. R. Hastings, R. S. Draper, A. Ghosh, O. Prache, I. Wacyk, T. Ali, and I. Khayrullin, “Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results,” in Head- and Helmet-Mounted Displays Xvi: Design and Applications, P. L. Marasco and P. R. Havig, eds. (SPIE, 2011).

Kim, J.-S.

B.-D. Choi, I.-S. Park, J.-S. Kim, S.-J. Lee, and B. Bae, “Image quality enhancement in AMOLED microdisplay for mobile projectors,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 313–319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, J.

J. Kimmel, J. Hautanen, and T. Levola, “Display technologies for portable communication devices,” Proc. IEEE 90, 581–590 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kreye, D.

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

A. Nathan, A. Kumar, K. Sakariya, P. Servati, S. Sambandan, and D. Striakhilev, “Amorphous silicon thin film transistor circuit integration for organic LED displays on glass and plastic,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 1477–1486 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, K. H.

B. J. Hak, L. Myunghee, L. J. Hoon, P. H. Su, L. C. Ju, K. J. Tae, C. C. Sik, K. H. Kwon, K. T. Jin, and C. H. Kyoon, “A current-mode display driver IC using sample-and-hold scheme for QVGA full-color AMOLED displays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2974–2982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kyoon, C. H.

B. J. Hak, L. Myunghee, L. J. Hoon, P. H. Su, L. C. Ju, K. J. Tae, C. C. Sik, K. H. Kwon, K. T. Jin, and C. H. Kyoon, “A current-mode display driver IC using sample-and-hold scheme for QVGA full-color AMOLED displays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2974–2982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, J. C. Morizio, and K. M. Johnson, “Novel frame buffer pixel circuits for liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit 39, 132–139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-J.

B.-D. Choi, I.-S. Park, J.-S. Kim, S.-J. Lee, and B. Bae, “Image quality enhancement in AMOLED microdisplay for mobile projectors,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 313–319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

V. Gohri, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, T. Rosenow, M. Thomschke, M. Levichkova, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes employing a heterostructure of down-conversion layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 2126–2130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Levichkova, M.

V. Gohri, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, T. Rosenow, M. Thomschke, M. Levichkova, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes employing a heterostructure of down-conversion layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 2126–2130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Levola, T.

J. Kimmel, J. Hautanen, and T. Levola, “Display technologies for portable communication devices,” Proc. IEEE 90, 581–590 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Levy, G. B.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Q. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, “An 852×600 pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1879–1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-D.

C.-D. Liao and J.-C. Tsai, “The evolution of MEMS displays,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 56, 1057–1065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Q.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Q. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, “An 852×600 pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1879–1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. Y.

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. H.

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lussem, B.

V. Gohri, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, T. Rosenow, M. Thomschke, M. Levichkova, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes employing a heterostructure of down-conversion layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 2126–2130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, J. L.

Martinez-Garcia, A.

McKnight, D. J.

P. T. Kazlas, K. M. Johnson, and D. J. McKnight, “Miniature liquid-crystal-on-silicon display assembly,” Opt. Lett. 23, 972–974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

M. Scholles, U. Vogel, I. Underwood, G. Notni, C. Zilstorff, K. Meerholz, and G. Haas, “HYPOLED—High-performance OLED microdisplays for mobile multimedia HMD and projection applications,” in the 48th Annual SID Symposium, Seminar and Exhibition 2010, Display Week 2010 (Society for Information Display, 2010), pp. 1926–1929.

Meier, R. E.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monteith, R.

G. Kelly, R. Woodburn, I. Underwood, D. Burns, R. Monteith, M. Newsam, and P. Parmiter, “A full-color QVGA microdisplay using light-emitting-polymer on CMOS,” in ICECS ’06 13th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 760–763.

Moreno, I.

Morizio, J. C.

S. Lee, J. C. Morizio, and K. M. Johnson, “Novel frame buffer pixel circuits for liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit 39, 132–139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Myunghee, L.

B. J. Hak, L. Myunghee, L. J. Hoon, P. H. Su, L. C. Ju, K. J. Tae, C. C. Sik, K. H. Kwon, K. T. Jin, and C. H. Kyoon, “A current-mode display driver IC using sample-and-hold scheme for QVGA full-color AMOLED displays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2974–2982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nathan, A.

A. Nathan, A. Kumar, K. Sakariya, P. Servati, S. Sambandan, and D. Striakhilev, “Amorphous silicon thin film transistor circuit integration for organic LED displays on glass and plastic,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 1477–1486 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Chaji, S. Alexander, J. M. Dionne, Y. Azizi, C. Church, J. Hamer, J. Spindler, and A. Nathan, “Stable RGBW AMOLED display with OLED degradation compensation using electrical feedback,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE International, 2010), pp. 118–119.

Naviasky, E.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Q. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, “An 852×600 pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1879–1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Newsam, M.

G. Kelly, R. Woodburn, I. Underwood, D. Burns, R. Monteith, M. Newsam, and P. Parmiter, “A full-color QVGA microdisplay using light-emitting-polymer on CMOS,” in ICECS ’06 13th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 760–763.

Notni, G.

C. Grossmann, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “OLED-based pico-projection system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18, 821–826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Scholles, U. Vogel, I. Underwood, G. Notni, C. Zilstorff, K. Meerholz, and G. Haas, “HYPOLED—High-performance OLED microdisplays for mobile multimedia HMD and projection applications,” in the 48th Annual SID Symposium, Seminar and Exhibition 2010, Display Week 2010 (Society for Information Display, 2010), pp. 1926–1929.

Pan, J. W.

Pannasch, S.

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Papadopoulos, N. P.

N. P. Papadopoulos, A. A. Hatzopoulos, and D. K. Papakostas, “An improved optical feedback pixel driver circuit,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 229–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Papakostas, D. K.

N. P. Papadopoulos, A. A. Hatzopoulos, and D. K. Papakostas, “An improved optical feedback pixel driver circuit,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 229–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, I.-S.

B.-D. Choi, I.-S. Park, J.-S. Kim, S.-J. Lee, and B. Bae, “Image quality enhancement in AMOLED microdisplay for mobile projectors,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 313–319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Parmiter, P.

G. Kelly, R. Woodburn, I. Underwood, D. Burns, R. Monteith, M. Newsam, and P. Parmiter, “A full-color QVGA microdisplay using light-emitting-polymer on CMOS,” in ICECS ’06 13th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 760–763.

Prache, O.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Q. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, “An 852×600 pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1879–1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Fellowes, M. V. Wood, A. R. Hastings, R. S. Draper, A. Ghosh, O. Prache, I. Wacyk, T. Ali, and I. Khayrullin, “Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results,” in Head- and Helmet-Mounted Displays Xvi: Design and Applications, P. L. Marasco and P. R. Havig, eds. (SPIE, 2011).

I. Wacyk, O. Prache, and A. Ghosh, “Ultra-high resolution AMOLED,” in Display Technologies and Applications for Defense, Security and Avionics V and Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J. T. Thomas, D. D. Desjardins, J. J. Guell, and K. L. Bernier, eds. (SPIE, 2011).

Prache, O. F.

W. E. Howard and O. F. Prache, “Microdisplays based upon organic light-emitting diodes,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 115–127(2001).
[CrossRef]

Ran, F.

Y. Ji, F. Ran, H.-G. Xu, W.-X. Shen, W.-G. Ji, and M.-H. Xu, “Design on AM-OLED display control ASIC with high gray scale levels,” J. Shanghai Univ. (Engl. Ed.) 15, 310–315(2011).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Xu, F. Ran, and Z. J. Cehn, “A novel OLED controller with fractal scan scheme,” Robot Cim-Int. Manuf. 26, 570–575(2010).
[CrossRef]

Reckziegel, S.

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

V. Gohri, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, T. Rosenow, M. Thomschke, M. Levichkova, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes employing a heterostructure of down-conversion layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 2126–2130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richter, B.

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riehemann, S.

C. Grossmann, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “OLED-based pico-projection system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18, 821–826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosenow, T.

V. Gohri, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, T. Rosenow, M. Thomschke, M. Levichkova, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes employing a heterostructure of down-conversion layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 2126–2130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sakariya, K.

A. Nathan, A. Kumar, K. Sakariya, P. Servati, S. Sambandan, and D. Striakhilev, “Amorphous silicon thin film transistor circuit integration for organic LED displays on glass and plastic,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 1477–1486 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sambandan, S.

A. Nathan, A. Kumar, K. Sakariya, P. Servati, S. Sambandan, and D. Striakhilev, “Amorphous silicon thin film transistor circuit integration for organic LED displays on glass and plastic,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 1477–1486 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scholles, M.

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Scholles, U. Vogel, I. Underwood, G. Notni, C. Zilstorff, K. Meerholz, and G. Haas, “HYPOLED—High-performance OLED microdisplays for mobile multimedia HMD and projection applications,” in the 48th Annual SID Symposium, Seminar and Exhibition 2010, Display Week 2010 (Society for Information Display, 2010), pp. 1926–1929.

Servati, P.

A. Nathan, A. Kumar, K. Sakariya, P. Servati, S. Sambandan, and D. Striakhilev, “Amorphous silicon thin film transistor circuit integration for organic LED displays on glass and plastic,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 1477–1486 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, W.-X.

Y. Ji, F. Ran, H.-G. Xu, W.-X. Shen, W.-G. Ji, and M.-H. Xu, “Design on AM-OLED display control ASIC with high gray scale levels,” J. Shanghai Univ. (Engl. Ed.) 15, 310–315(2011).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, J. A.

P. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, J. Dean, and R. Albu, “Design aspects of a scrolling color LCoS display,” Displays 23, 99–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sik, C. C.

B. J. Hak, L. Myunghee, L. J. Hoon, P. H. Su, L. C. Ju, K. J. Tae, C. C. Sik, K. H. Kwon, K. T. Jin, and C. H. Kyoon, “A current-mode display driver IC using sample-and-hold scheme for QVGA full-color AMOLED displays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2974–2982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slaughter, J.

D. Dudley, W. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirroir device (DMD) applications,” in Moems Display and Imaging Systems, H. Urey, ed. (SPIE, 2003), pp. 14–25.

Spindler, J.

G. R. Chaji, S. Alexander, J. M. Dionne, Y. Azizi, C. Church, J. Hamer, J. Spindler, and A. Nathan, “Stable RGBW AMOLED display with OLED degradation compensation using electrical feedback,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE International, 2010), pp. 118–119.

Striakhilev, D.

A. Nathan, A. Kumar, K. Sakariya, P. Servati, S. Sambandan, and D. Striakhilev, “Amorphous silicon thin film transistor circuit integration for organic LED displays on glass and plastic,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 1477–1486 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, P. H.

B. J. Hak, L. Myunghee, L. J. Hoon, P. H. Su, L. C. Ju, K. J. Tae, C. C. Sik, K. H. Kwon, K. T. Jin, and C. H. Kyoon, “A current-mode display driver IC using sample-and-hold scheme for QVGA full-color AMOLED displays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2974–2982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Svilainis, L.

L. Svilainis, “LED brightness control for video display application,” Displays 29, 506–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tae, K. J.

B. J. Hak, L. Myunghee, L. J. Hoon, P. H. Su, L. C. Ju, K. J. Tae, C. C. Sik, K. H. Kwon, K. T. Jin, and C. H. Kyoon, “A current-mode display driver IC using sample-and-hold scheme for QVGA full-color AMOLED displays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2974–2982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Talha, M. M.

Tao, C.

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thomschke, M.

V. Gohri, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, T. Rosenow, M. Thomschke, M. Levichkova, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes employing a heterostructure of down-conversion layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 2126–2130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Torker, M.

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J.-C.

C.-D. Liao and J.-C. Tsai, “The evolution of MEMS displays,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 56, 1057–1065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. H.

Tunnermann, A.

C. Grossmann, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “OLED-based pico-projection system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18, 821–826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, I.

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Kelly, R. Woodburn, I. Underwood, D. Burns, R. Monteith, M. Newsam, and P. Parmiter, “A full-color QVGA microdisplay using light-emitting-polymer on CMOS,” in ICECS ’06 13th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 760–763.

M. Scholles, U. Vogel, I. Underwood, G. Notni, C. Zilstorff, K. Meerholz, and G. Haas, “HYPOLED—High-performance OLED microdisplays for mobile multimedia HMD and projection applications,” in the 48th Annual SID Symposium, Seminar and Exhibition 2010, Display Week 2010 (Society for Information Display, 2010), pp. 1926–1929.

D. Armitage, I. Underwood, and S. T. Wu, Introduction to Microdisplays (John Wiley & Sons, 2006).

Van Kessel, P. F.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Velichkovsky, B.

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vettese, D.

D. Vettese, “Microdisplays liquid crystal on silicon,” Nat. Photon. 4, 752–754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, U.

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Scholles, U. Vogel, I. Underwood, G. Notni, C. Zilstorff, K. Meerholz, and G. Haas, “HYPOLED—High-performance OLED microdisplays for mobile multimedia HMD and projection applications,” in the 48th Annual SID Symposium, Seminar and Exhibition 2010, Display Week 2010 (Society for Information Display, 2010), pp. 1926–1929.

Wacyk, I.

I. Wacyk, O. Prache, and A. Ghosh, “Ultra-high resolution AMOLED,” in Display Technologies and Applications for Defense, Security and Avionics V and Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J. T. Thomas, D. D. Desjardins, J. J. Guell, and K. L. Bernier, eds. (SPIE, 2011).

D. A. Fellowes, M. V. Wood, A. R. Hastings, R. S. Draper, A. Ghosh, O. Prache, I. Wacyk, T. Ali, and I. Khayrullin, “Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results,” in Head- and Helmet-Mounted Displays Xvi: Design and Applications, P. L. Marasco and P. R. Havig, eds. (SPIE, 2011).

Wang, C. M.

Wang, Y. T.

Wheeler, D.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Q. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, “An 852×600 pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1879–1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, J. E.

Wood, M. V.

D. A. Fellowes, M. V. Wood, A. R. Hastings, R. S. Draper, A. Ghosh, O. Prache, I. Wacyk, T. Ali, and I. Khayrullin, “Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results,” in Head- and Helmet-Mounted Displays Xvi: Design and Applications, P. L. Marasco and P. R. Havig, eds. (SPIE, 2011).

Woodburn, R.

G. Kelly, R. Woodburn, I. Underwood, D. Burns, R. Monteith, M. Newsam, and P. Parmiter, “A full-color QVGA microdisplay using light-emitting-polymer on CMOS,” in ICECS ’06 13th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 760–763.

Wu, S. T.

D. Armitage, I. Underwood, and S. T. Wu, Introduction to Microdisplays (John Wiley & Sons, 2006).

Xie, G. H.

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. F.

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.-G.

Y. Ji, F. Ran, H.-G. Xu, W.-X. Shen, W.-G. Ji, and M.-H. Xu, “Design on AM-OLED display control ASIC with high gray scale levels,” J. Shanghai Univ. (Engl. Ed.) 15, 310–315(2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. H.

M. H. Xu, F. Ran, and Z. J. Cehn, “A novel OLED controller with fractal scan scheme,” Robot Cim-Int. Manuf. 26, 570–575(2010).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Xu, “Fractal methodology research and IP core implementation for FPD greyscale controlling (in Chinese),” Doctoral dissertation (Shanghai University, 2006).

Xu, M.-H.

Y. Ji, F. Ran, H.-G. Xu, W.-X. Shen, W.-G. Ji, and M.-H. Xu, “Design on AM-OLED display control ASIC with high gray scale levels,” J. Shanghai Univ. (Engl. Ed.) 15, 310–315(2011).
[CrossRef]

Xue, Q.

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yi, H.

H. Yi, R. Hattori, and J. Kanicki, “Improved a-Si:H TFT pixel electrode circuits for active-matrix organic light emitting displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1322–1325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

Zhang, T. Y.

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C. M.

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zilstorff, C.

M. Scholles, U. Vogel, I. Underwood, G. Notni, C. Zilstorff, K. Meerholz, and G. Haas, “HYPOLED—High-performance OLED microdisplays for mobile multimedia HMD and projection applications,” in the 48th Annual SID Symposium, Seminar and Exhibition 2010, Display Week 2010 (Society for Information Display, 2010), pp. 1926–1929.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Displays (2)

L. Svilainis, “LED brightness control for video display application,” Displays 29, 506–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, J. Dean, and R. Albu, “Design aspects of a scrolling color LCoS display,” Displays 23, 99–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

W. E. Howard and O. F. Prache, “Microdisplays based upon organic light-emitting diodes,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 115–127(2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit (1)

S. Lee, J. C. Morizio, and K. M. Johnson, “Novel frame buffer pixel circuits for liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit 39, 132–139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (3)

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Q. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, “An 852×600 pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1879–1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Hak, L. Myunghee, L. J. Hoon, P. H. Su, L. C. Ju, K. J. Tae, C. C. Sik, K. H. Kwon, K. T. Jin, and C. H. Kyoon, “A current-mode display driver IC using sample-and-hold scheme for QVGA full-color AMOLED displays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2974–2982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Nathan, A. Kumar, K. Sakariya, P. Servati, S. Sambandan, and D. Striakhilev, “Amorphous silicon thin film transistor circuit integration for organic LED displays on glass and plastic,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 1477–1486 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

B.-D. Choi, I.-S. Park, J.-S. Kim, S.-J. Lee, and B. Bae, “Image quality enhancement in AMOLED microdisplay for mobile projectors,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 313–319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

H. Yi, R. Hattori, and J. Kanicki, “Improved a-Si:H TFT pixel electrode circuits for active-matrix organic light emitting displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1322–1325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Papadopoulos, A. A. Hatzopoulos, and D. K. Papakostas, “An improved optical feedback pixel driver circuit,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 229–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (1)

C.-D. Liao and J.-C. Tsai, “The evolution of MEMS displays,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 56, 1057–1065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Shanghai Univ. (Engl. Ed.) (1)

Y. Ji, F. Ran, H.-G. Xu, W.-X. Shen, W.-G. Ji, and M.-H. Xu, “Design on AM-OLED display control ASIC with high gray scale levels,” J. Shanghai Univ. (Engl. Ed.) 15, 310–315(2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (2)

U. Vogel, D. Kreye, B. Richter, G. Bunk, S. Reckziegel, R. Herold, M. Scholles, M. Torker, C. Grillberger, J. Amelung, S. T. Graupner, S. Pannasch, M. Heubner, and B. Velichkovsky, “Bi-directional OLED microdisplay for interactive see-through HMDs: Study toward integration of eye-tracking and informational facilities,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 175–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Grossmann, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “OLED-based pico-projection system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18, 821–826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

D. Vettese, “Microdisplays liquid crystal on silicon,” Nat. Photon. 4, 752–754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Org. Electron. (2)

V. Gohri, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, T. Rosenow, M. Thomschke, M. Levichkova, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes employing a heterostructure of down-conversion layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 2126–2130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Xie, Q. Xue, P. Chen, C. Tao, C. M. Zhao, J. H. Lu, Z. X. Gong, T. Y. Zhang, R. Huang, H. A. Du, W. F. Xie, J. Y. Hou, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, “Highly efficient and low-cost top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes for monochromatic microdisplays,” Org. Electron. 11, 407–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (2)

J. Kimmel, J. Hautanen, and T. Levola, “Display technologies for portable communication devices,” Proc. IEEE 90, 581–590 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robot Cim-Int. Manuf. (1)

M. H. Xu, F. Ran, and Z. J. Cehn, “A novel OLED controller with fractal scan scheme,” Robot Cim-Int. Manuf. 26, 570–575(2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

L. Banks, “High performance ferroelectric LC microdisplay,” in ASID ’99. Proceedings of the 5th Asian Symposium on Information Display (1999), 333–337.

M. H. Xu, “Fractal methodology research and IP core implementation for FPD greyscale controlling (in Chinese),” Doctoral dissertation (Shanghai University, 2006).

Z. J. Chen, “Scan model and theory research for flat panel display (in Chinese),” Doctoral dissertation (Shanghai University, 2009).

D. Armitage, I. Underwood, and S. T. Wu, Introduction to Microdisplays (John Wiley & Sons, 2006).

M. Scholles, U. Vogel, I. Underwood, G. Notni, C. Zilstorff, K. Meerholz, and G. Haas, “HYPOLED—High-performance OLED microdisplays for mobile multimedia HMD and projection applications,” in the 48th Annual SID Symposium, Seminar and Exhibition 2010, Display Week 2010 (Society for Information Display, 2010), pp. 1926–1929.

“ http://olightek.en.alibaba.com/ ”.

L. J. Hornbeck, “Combining digital optical MEMS, CMOS and algorithms for unique display solutions,” in Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE International, 2007), pp. 17–24.

D. Dudley, W. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirroir device (DMD) applications,” in Moems Display and Imaging Systems, H. Urey, ed. (SPIE, 2003), pp. 14–25.

D. A. Fellowes, M. V. Wood, A. R. Hastings, R. S. Draper, A. Ghosh, O. Prache, I. Wacyk, T. Ali, and I. Khayrullin, “Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results,” in Head- and Helmet-Mounted Displays Xvi: Design and Applications, P. L. Marasco and P. R. Havig, eds. (SPIE, 2011).

I. Wacyk, O. Prache, and A. Ghosh, “Ultra-high resolution AMOLED,” in Display Technologies and Applications for Defense, Security and Avionics V and Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J. T. Thomas, D. D. Desjardins, J. J. Guell, and K. L. Bernier, eds. (SPIE, 2011).

G. Kelly, R. Woodburn, I. Underwood, D. Burns, R. Monteith, M. Newsam, and P. Parmiter, “A full-color QVGA microdisplay using light-emitting-polymer on CMOS,” in ICECS ’06 13th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 760–763.

G. R. Chaji, S. Alexander, J. M. Dionne, Y. Azizi, C. Church, J. Hamer, J. Spindler, and A. Nathan, “Stable RGBW AMOLED display with OLED degradation compensation using electrical feedback,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC) (IEEE International, 2010), pp. 118–119.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Common structure of the traditional circuit driver.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

OLED characteristic for I-V (current density versus voltage) and L-V (luminous intensity versus voltage) voltage.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

OLED characteristic for normalized transient lighting response.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Three digital scan strategies: (a) direct scan strategy, (b) field scan strategy, and (c) sub-field scan strategy.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Examples of the bit scan sequences for 16 gray levels: (a) traditional bit scan sequence and (b) optimal bit scan sequence.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optimal scan structure of 2, 3, 4 bit pixel data.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Fractal model for optimal scan: (a) 4-bit fractal model, (b) 8-bit fractal model, and (c) N fractal model).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Relationships between the gray level and the pixel data: (a) gray levels for the optimal scan and the traditional scan, (b) normalized gray levels for the optimal scan and the traditional scan, (c) gray levels for correction schemes, (d) the normalized residuals of linear fit with the least square method for the optimal scan and correction schemes, (e) gray level after gamma correction, and (f) normalized gray levels after gamma correction.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Correction scheme for the optimal scan.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Functional diagram of the optimal scan microdisplay system.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Photomicrograph of the OLED-on-silicon microdisplay backplane test chip.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Simulation for the most left and right pixels in the same row.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Simulation for the most top and bottom pixels in the same column.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Measured pixel rising time and falling time.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Gray levels of skewed gray weight.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Photograph of the OLED-on-silicon microdisplay in the stripe test mode.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Gray level comparison between the optimal scan strategy and the traditional sub-field scan strategy applied in the microdisplay developing platform: (a) the optimal scan strategy, and (b) the traditional sub-field scan strategy.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Gray Weight for 10-bit Pixel Data

Tables Icon

Table 2. Clock Period, Clock Frequency and Subspace Scan Period for Different Scan Strategies

Tables Icon

Table 3. Gray Errors Aroused by the Current Falling Time

Tables Icon

Table 4. Skewed Gray Weight

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Mb+1=(L2bMb¯OOMb)b=1,2,3,,
lij={1i=j0iji,j=1,2,3,,2b
a¯i,j=ami+1,nj+1i=1,2,3,,m;j=1,2,3,,n;
{t=tmb·2b1tm=0,1,2,,b·2b11ξ=x2b1x=0,1,,2b11.
Lc=Round(Lmax(LoLmax)1/γ),
Tsp=1Lmax×Fr.
Tck=TspNck=Tsp·Nsub·DwNp=Dwb·Fr·Np.
Tck=TspNck+Ncc=Dwb·Fr·(Np+Ncc·Dw·2b1).
Tunit=Dw2b·Fr·Np.

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