Abstract

Use of a grating monochromator causes a problem of higher harmonic contaminations in a synchrotron beamline operating in the soft x ray/vacuum ultraviolet region. Generally gratings are used to experimentally determine the higher harmonic contaminations. In this method, the relative contribution of contaminant wavelengths is measured with respect to the first harmonic wavelength (desired wavelength). The quantitative fit of grating spectra is rather complex, and therefore qualitative analysis is carried out. Analysis of multilayer reflectivity data has become rather simple with recent advances in the theoretical modeling. Therefore we propose to use a multilayer mirror and analyze its reflectivity data for quantitative determination of harmonic contamination in a soft x ray beamline. In the present study we used a Mo/Si multilayer of d=97Å to quantify the spectral purity of 600lines/mm toroidal grating at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 450 MeV synchrotron source. The measured reflectivity spectra at each wavelength is analyzed and the actual contribution of higher harmonics in the incident beam is obtained. Details of methodology and results are discussed.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Kühne and P. Müller, “Higher order contributions in the synchrotron radiation spectrum of a toroidal grating monochromator determined by the use of a transmission grating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2101–2104 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homem, R. Landers, and A. Naves de Brito, “Advances on the Brazilian toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144—147, 1125–1127 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50–1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homen, P. T. Fonseca, and A. aves de Brito, “A synchrotron beamline for delivering high purity vacuum ultraviolet photons,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 115104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. I. Goray, “Numerical analysis of the efficiency of multilayer-coated gratings using integral method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 536, 211–221 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Banerjee, S. Ferrari, D. Chateigner, and A. Gibaud, “Recent advances in characterization of ultra-thin films using specular x-ray reflectivity technique,” Thin Solid Films 450, 23–28 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Caractérisation des surfaces par réflexion rasante de rayons X Application à l’étude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. G. Pelizzo, F. Frassetto, P. Nicolosi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Polarization and higher-order content measurement of a soft-x-ray monochromatized beam with Mo-Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiation News 17(2), 33–35 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Current Science 82, 298–304 (2002).
  12. E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, and R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homen, P. T. Fonseca, and A. aves de Brito, “A synchrotron beamline for delivering high purity vacuum ultraviolet photons,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 115104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

L. I. Goray, “Numerical analysis of the efficiency of multilayer-coated gratings using integral method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 536, 211–221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homem, R. Landers, and A. Naves de Brito, “Advances on the Brazilian toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144—147, 1125–1127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. Banerjee, S. Ferrari, D. Chateigner, and A. Gibaud, “Recent advances in characterization of ultra-thin films using specular x-ray reflectivity technique,” Thin Solid Films 450, 23–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiation News 17(2), 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Current Science 82, 298–304 (2002).

1998 (1)

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50–1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, and R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. Kühne and P. Müller, “Higher order contributions in the synchrotron radiation spectrum of a toroidal grating monochromator determined by the use of a transmission grating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2101–2104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Caractérisation des surfaces par réflexion rasante de rayons X Application à l’étude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, S.

S. Banerjee, S. Ferrari, D. Chateigner, and A. Gibaud, “Recent advances in characterization of ultra-thin films using specular x-ray reflectivity technique,” Thin Solid Films 450, 23–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Canfield, L. R.

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, and R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cavasso Filho, R. L.

R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homen, P. T. Fonseca, and A. aves de Brito, “A synchrotron beamline for delivering high purity vacuum ultraviolet photons,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 115104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homem, R. Landers, and A. Naves de Brito, “Advances on the Brazilian toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144—147, 1125–1127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chateigner, D.

S. Banerjee, S. Ferrari, D. Chateigner, and A. Gibaud, “Recent advances in characterization of ultra-thin films using specular x-ray reflectivity technique,” Thin Solid Films 450, 23–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Croce, P.

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Caractérisation des surfaces par réflexion rasante de rayons X Application à l’étude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

de Brito, A. aves

R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homen, P. T. Fonseca, and A. aves de Brito, “A synchrotron beamline for delivering high purity vacuum ultraviolet photons,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 115104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, S.

S. Banerjee, S. Ferrari, D. Chateigner, and A. Gibaud, “Recent advances in characterization of ultra-thin films using specular x-ray reflectivity technique,” Thin Solid Films 450, 23–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fonseca, P. T.

R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homen, P. T. Fonseca, and A. aves de Brito, “A synchrotron beamline for delivering high purity vacuum ultraviolet photons,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 115104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frassetto, F.

Gibaud, A.

S. Banerjee, S. Ferrari, D. Chateigner, and A. Gibaud, “Recent advances in characterization of ultra-thin films using specular x-ray reflectivity technique,” Thin Solid Films 450, 23–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giglia, A.

Goray, L. I.

L. I. Goray, “Numerical analysis of the efficiency of multilayer-coated gratings using integral method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 536, 211–221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50–1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, and R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Homem, M. G. P.

R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homem, R. Landers, and A. Naves de Brito, “Advances on the Brazilian toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144—147, 1125–1127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Homen, M. G. P.

R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homen, P. T. Fonseca, and A. aves de Brito, “A synchrotron beamline for delivering high purity vacuum ultraviolet photons,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 115104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korde, R.

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, and R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kühne, M.

M. Kühne and P. Müller, “Higher order contributions in the synchrotron radiation spectrum of a toroidal grating monochromator determined by the use of a transmission grating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2101–2104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Landers, R.

R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homem, R. Landers, and A. Naves de Brito, “Advances on the Brazilian toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144—147, 1125–1127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lodha, G. S.

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiation News 17(2), 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Current Science 82, 298–304 (2002).

Mahne, N.

Modi, M. H.

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiation News 17(2), 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Current Science 82, 298–304 (2002).

Müller, P.

M. Kühne and P. Müller, “Higher order contributions in the synchrotron radiation spectrum of a toroidal grating monochromator determined by the use of a transmission grating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2101–2104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nandedkar, R. V.

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiation News 17(2), 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Current Science 82, 298–304 (2002).

Nannarone, S.

Naves de Brito, A.

R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homem, R. Landers, and A. Naves de Brito, “Advances on the Brazilian toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144—147, 1125–1127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nayak, M.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Current Science 82, 298–304 (2002).

Nevot, L.

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Caractérisation des surfaces par réflexion rasante de rayons X Application à l’étude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nicolosi, P.

Parratt, L. G.

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Pelizzo, M. G.

Raghuvanshi, V. K.

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiation News 17(2), 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Current Science 82, 298–304 (2002).

Sawhney, K. J. S.

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiation News 17(2), 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Current Science 82, 298–304 (2002).

Sinha, A. K.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Current Science 82, 298–304 (2002).

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50–1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verma, A.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Current Science 82, 298–304 (2002).

Vest, R. E.

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, and R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Current Science (1)

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Current Science 82, 298–304 (2002).

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (3)

E. M. Gullikson, R. Korde, L. R. Canfield, and R. E. Vest, “Stable silicon photodiodes for absolute intensity measurements in the VUV and soft x-ray regions,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homem, R. Landers, and A. Naves de Brito, “Advances on the Brazilian toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144—147, 1125–1127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50–1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (1)

L. I. Goray, “Numerical analysis of the efficiency of multilayer-coated gratings using integral method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 536, 211–221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Caractérisation des surfaces par réflexion rasante de rayons X Application à l’étude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

R. L. Cavasso Filho, M. G. P. Homen, P. T. Fonseca, and A. aves de Brito, “A synchrotron beamline for delivering high purity vacuum ultraviolet photons,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 115104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kühne and P. Müller, “Higher order contributions in the synchrotron radiation spectrum of a toroidal grating monochromator determined by the use of a transmission grating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2101–2104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Synchrotron Radiation News (1)

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiation News 17(2), 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. Banerjee, S. Ferrari, D. Chateigner, and A. Gibaud, “Recent advances in characterization of ultra-thin films using specular x-ray reflectivity technique,” Thin Solid Films 450, 23–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the reflectivity beamline is shown. The beamline is composed of pre- and post-focusing toroidal mirrors and a TGM. The high-vacuum reflectometer station is isolated from the ultrahigh-vacuum environment of the beamline by a differential pumping system which maintains three orders of vacuum difference between the beamline and the experimental station.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reflection spectra of a test grating of 1200lines/mm measured using 200 Å incident wavelength, which is contaminated with higher harmonics coming from the TGM of the beamline. Reflection peaks corresponding to 200 Å incident wavelength and its higher harmonics are marked appropriately along with the reflection order and corresponding wavelength.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

GIXR spectra of the Mo/Si multilayer measured using λ=1.54Å is shown along with the fitted curve (continuous line). The best fit is obtained with the multilayer period value of d=96.6Å (34.8ÅMo/61.8ÅSi)×60. Roughness of the Mo and Si layers is found to be 4.0 Å and 8.4 Å, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Open circle shows the measured SXR curve of the Mo/Si multilayer using λ=260Å. Continuous line represents the simulated SXR spectra for the same wavelength and using the multilayer parameters obtained from the GIXR analysis.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured reflectivity curve at λ=260Å is fitted by taking into account the fractional contribution of higher harmonics λ/2=130Å (dotted curve) and λ/3=86.66Å (dashed curve). Further details are given in the text.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured and fitted SXR curves at different wavelengths indicated in the graph. For the sake of clarity the curves are vertically shifted.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The fractional composition of higher harmonics calculated from the SXR analysis in different wavelengths coming from the TGM of the reflectivity beamline.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Open circles show the measured SXR curve of the Mo/Si multilayer at λ=260Å using an Al edge filter. The filter significantly suppresses the Bragg peaks corresponding to higher harmonics λ/2 and λ/3. The fit results suggest that the higher harmonic content is reduced to <0.5% for λ=260Å with the Al filter.

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