Abstract

A compact coupling structure is proposed for highly efficient coupling between a micro/nano fiber and a silicon-on-insulator waveguide. The proposed structure is characterized by high coupling efficiency, wavelength insensitivity, large misalignment tolerance, and easy fabrication. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that coupling efficiency of >90% can be achieved with a taper length of 4.5μm.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, and L. Chen, “Optical 4×4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16, 15915–15922 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yang, W. M. J. Green, and S. Assefa, “Non-Blocking 4×4 electro-optic silicon switch for on-chip photonic networks,” Opt. Express 19, 47–54 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, and S. Laval, “Design, realization, and characterization of 3-D taper for fiber/micro-waveguide coupling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1354–1358 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Barkai, A. Liu, D. Kim, and R. Cohen, “Double-Stage taper for coupling between SOI waveguides and single-mode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3860–3865 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, D. Pan, and C. Hoepfner, “Mode transformer for miniaturized optical circuits,” Opt. Lett. 30, 498–500 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. R. Almeida and R. R. Panepucci, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302–1304 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Wang, J. Jiang, D. M. Chambers, and J. Cai, “Stratified waveguide grating coupler for normal fiber incidence,” Opt. Lett. 30, 845–847 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, and D. Van Thourhout, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Chen, C. Li, and Hon Ki Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. H. Loh, Q. Wang, J. Zhu, K. T. Ng, and Y. C. Lai, “Ultra-compact multilayer Si/SiO2 GRIN lens mode-size converter for coupling single-mode fiber to Si-wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18, 21519–21533 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Wang, and Y. Tang, “High efficiency grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator photonic circuits,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), P2.06.
  12. L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. J. Chen, H. W. Chen, and T. F. Kao, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31, 308–310 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. P. Chen, X. Shen, Z. Hong, and X. Li, “Nanostructure optic-fiber-based devices for optical signal processing,” in Proceedings of the 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC, 2010), 8E2-1.
  15. G. H. Wang, P. Shum, G. B. Ren, X. Yu, J. J. Hu, and C. Lin, “Theoretical investigation of nanowaveguide-based optical coupler using mode expansion transfer matrix,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 1123–1129 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 1025–1035 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. L. Chuang, “Application of the strongly coupled-mode theory to integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 499–509 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Huang, S. Yang, and L. Tong, “Modeling of evanescent coupling between two parallel optical nanowires,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1429–1434 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Z. Hong, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Coupling characteristics between two conical micro/nano fibers: simulation and experiment,” Opt. Exp. 19, 3854–3861 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. R. Nelson, “Coupling optical waveguides by tapers,” Appl. Opt. 14, 3012–3015 (1975).

2011

Z. Hong, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Coupling characteristics between two conical micro/nano fibers: simulation and experiment,” Opt. Exp. 19, 3854–3861 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Yang, W. M. J. Green, and S. Assefa, “Non-Blocking 4×4 electro-optic silicon switch for on-chip photonic networks,” Opt. Express 19, 47–54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

G. H. Wang, P. Shum, G. B. Ren, X. Yu, J. J. Hu, and C. Lin, “Theoretical investigation of nanowaveguide-based optical coupler using mode expansion transfer matrix,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 1123–1129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Loh, Q. Wang, J. Zhu, K. T. Ng, and Y. C. Lai, “Ultra-compact multilayer Si/SiO2 GRIN lens mode-size converter for coupling single-mode fiber to Si-wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18, 21519–21533 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, and L. Chen, “Optical 4×4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16, 15915–15922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Barkai, A. Liu, D. Kim, and R. Cohen, “Double-Stage taper for coupling between SOI waveguides and single-mode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3860–3865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, and D. Van Thourhout, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, and Hon Ki Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

L. J. Chen, H. W. Chen, and T. F. Kao, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31, 308–310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, and S. Laval, “Design, realization, and characterization of 3-D taper for fiber/micro-waveguide coupling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1354–1358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

V. R. Almeida and R. R. Panepucci, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302–1304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819(2003).
[CrossRef]

1987

S. L. Chuang, “Application of the strongly coupled-mode theory to integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 499–509 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1975

Almeida, V. R.

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819(2003).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

Barkai, A.

Cai, J.

Chambers, D. M.

Chen, H. W.

Chen, J. P.

J. P. Chen, X. Shen, Z. Hong, and X. Li, “Nanostructure optic-fiber-based devices for optical signal processing,” in Proceedings of the 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC, 2010), 8E2-1.

Chen, L.

Chen, L. J.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, and Hon Ki Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang, “Application of the strongly coupled-mode theory to integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 499–509 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819(2003).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819(2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoepfner, C.

Hong, Z.

Z. Hong, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Coupling characteristics between two conical micro/nano fibers: simulation and experiment,” Opt. Exp. 19, 3854–3861 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Chen, X. Shen, Z. Hong, and X. Li, “Nanostructure optic-fiber-based devices for optical signal processing,” in Proceedings of the 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC, 2010), 8E2-1.

Hu, J. J.

G. H. Wang, P. Shum, G. B. Ren, X. Yu, J. J. Hu, and C. Lin, “Theoretical investigation of nanowaveguide-based optical coupler using mode expansion transfer matrix,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 1123–1129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.

Jiang, J.

Kao, T. F.

Ki Tsang, Hon

X. Chen, C. Li, and Hon Ki Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Lai, Y. C.

Laval, S.

L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, and S. Laval, “Design, realization, and characterization of 3-D taper for fiber/micro-waveguide coupling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1354–1358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Roux, X.

L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, and S. Laval, “Design, realization, and characterization of 3-D taper for fiber/micro-waveguide coupling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1354–1358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Li, C.

X. Chen, C. Li, and Hon Ki Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Z. Hong, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Coupling characteristics between two conical micro/nano fibers: simulation and experiment,” Opt. Exp. 19, 3854–3861 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Chen, X. Shen, Z. Hong, and X. Li, “Nanostructure optic-fiber-based devices for optical signal processing,” in Proceedings of the 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC, 2010), 8E2-1.

Lim, D. R.

Lin, C.

G. H. Wang, P. Shum, G. B. Ren, X. Yu, J. J. Hu, and C. Lin, “Theoretical investigation of nanowaveguide-based optical coupler using mode expansion transfer matrix,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 1123–1129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

Loh, T. H.

Lou, J.

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819(2003).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819(2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819(2003).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, A. R.

Ng, K. T.

Pan, D.

Panepucci, R. R.

Ren, G. B.

G. H. Wang, P. Shum, G. B. Ren, X. Yu, J. J. Hu, and C. Lin, “Theoretical investigation of nanowaveguide-based optical coupler using mode expansion transfer matrix,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 1123–1129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, and D. Van Thourhout, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819(2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X.

J. P. Chen, X. Shen, Z. Hong, and X. Li, “Nanostructure optic-fiber-based devices for optical signal processing,” in Proceedings of the 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC, 2010), 8E2-1.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Shum, P.

G. H. Wang, P. Shum, G. B. Ren, X. Yu, J. J. Hu, and C. Lin, “Theoretical investigation of nanowaveguide-based optical coupler using mode expansion transfer matrix,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 1123–1129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Z. Wang, and Y. Tang, “High efficiency grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator photonic circuits,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), P2.06.

Tong, L.

Van Thourhout, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, and D. Van Thourhout, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vermeulen, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, and D. Van Thourhout, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, and S. Laval, “Design, realization, and characterization of 3-D taper for fiber/micro-waveguide coupling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1354–1358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

Wang, G. H.

G. H. Wang, P. Shum, G. B. Ren, X. Yu, J. J. Hu, and C. Lin, “Theoretical investigation of nanowaveguide-based optical coupler using mode expansion transfer matrix,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 1123–1129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Wang, Q.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, and Y. Tang, “High efficiency grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator photonic circuits,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), P2.06.

Yang, M.

Yang, S.

Yu, X.

G. H. Wang, P. Shum, G. B. Ren, X. Yu, J. J. Hu, and C. Lin, “Theoretical investigation of nanowaveguide-based optical coupler using mode expansion transfer matrix,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 1123–1129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Z. Hong, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Coupling characteristics between two conical micro/nano fibers: simulation and experiment,” Opt. Exp. 19, 3854–3861 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, and D. Van Thourhout, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. L. Chuang, “Application of the strongly coupled-mode theory to integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 499–509 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, and S. Laval, “Design, realization, and characterization of 3-D taper for fiber/micro-waveguide coupling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1354–1358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

X. Chen, C. Li, and Hon Ki Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

G. H. Wang, P. Shum, G. B. Ren, X. Yu, J. J. Hu, and C. Lin, “Theoretical investigation of nanowaveguide-based optical coupler using mode expansion transfer matrix,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 1123–1129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819(2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp.

Z. Hong, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Coupling characteristics between two conical micro/nano fibers: simulation and experiment,” Opt. Exp. 19, 3854–3861 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. P. Chen, X. Shen, Z. Hong, and X. Li, “Nanostructure optic-fiber-based devices for optical signal processing,” in Proceedings of the 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC, 2010), 8E2-1.

Z. Wang, and Y. Tang, “High efficiency grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator photonic circuits,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), P2.06.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (525 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of the coupling scheme between an MNOF and a tapered SOI waveguide. (a) 3D view; (b) cross-sectional view; (c) top view.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Stepwise approximation used in our theoretical analysis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical power distribution along z direction in the SOI waveguide (input from the MNOF). Optical power is normalized to input power. Solid curve is for the tapered SOI waveguide, and dashed curve for uniform SOI waveguide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical power flow pattern (Media 1) in the MNOF and SOI waveguide.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Coupling efficiency changes as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Coupling efficiency changes as a function of overlap length between the MNOF and the SOI waveguide.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Coupling efficiency changes as a function of taper length.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Coupling efficiency changes as a function of taper tip width.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Coupling efficiency changes as a function of (a) lateral and (b) vertical misalignment.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Optical power distribution along z direction in one of the silica strips. Power is normalized by input power.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ddz[a(z)b(z)]=j·[γaKabKbaγb][a(z)b(z)],
γa=βa+(K˜aaCabK˜ba)/(1CabCba),
γb=βb+(K˜bbCbaK˜ab)/(1CabCba),
Kab=(K˜abK˜bbCab)/(1CabCba),
Kba=(K˜baK˜aaCba)/(1CabCba).
[a(z)b(z)]=(nMn)exp(jφ(z))[a(0)b(0)],
Mn=[cos(ψndz)jΔnψnsin(ψndz)jKab(n)ψnsin(ψndz)jKba(n)ψnsin(ψndz)cos(ψndz)+jΔnψnsin(ψndz)],
ψn=Δn2+Kab(n)Kba(n),
Δn=γb(n)γa(n)2,

Metrics