Abstract

The effect of varying film thickness (h) on the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties of 0.5wt.% perylenediimide-doped polystyrene waveguides is reported. The threshold dependence on h, not previously investigated in detail, is analyzed in terms of the film absorption and photoluminescence, the confinement of the fundamental waveguide mode (TE0), and the presence of high-order modes. For h<400nm and down to 150 nm, the ASE wavelength blueshifts, while the linewidth and threshold increase. The detrimental ASE operation in very thin films is due to the low absorption as well as to the poor confinement of the TE0 mode.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  3. I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107, 1272–1295 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  26. M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photon. 4, 438–446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, P. A. Postigo, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Blue, surface-emitting distributed feedback lasers based on TPD-doped films,” Appl. Opt. 49, 463–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107, 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polyfluorene distributed feedback lasers operating in the green-yellow spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959–6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, Y. Hou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Fluorene-based conjugated polymer optical gain media,” Org. Electron. 4, 165–177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T.-W. Lee, O. O. Park, D. H. Choi, H. N. Cho, and Y. C. Kim, “Low-threshold blue amplified spontaneous emission in a statistical copolymer and its blend,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 424–426 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide-mode structure in conjugated polymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 62, R11929–R11932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

N. Tessler, “Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials,” Adv. Mater. 11, 363–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymers and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382, 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, I.

Andersson, M.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andrew, P.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959–6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959–6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berleb, S.

Boj, P. G.

M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, V. Navarro-Fuster, I. Vragovic, J. M. Villalvilla, I. Alonso, V. Trabadelo, S. Merino, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Efficient organic distributed feedback lasers with imprinted active films,” Opt. Express 19, 22443–22454 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, P. A. Postigo, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Blue, surface-emitting distributed feedback lasers based on TPD-doped films,” Appl. Opt. 49, 463–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boudrioua, A.

A. Boudrioua, Photonic Waveguides: Theory and Applications (Wiley, 2009).

Boundy, R. H.

R. H. Boundy and R. F. Raymond, Styrene: Its Polymers, Copolymers and Derivatives (Reinhold, 1952).

Bradley, D. D. C.

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polyfluorene distributed feedback lasers operating in the green-yellow spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959–6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, Y. Hou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Fluorene-based conjugated polymer optical gain media,” Org. Electron. 4, 165–177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brütting, W.

Calzado, E. M.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, P. A. Postigo, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Blue, surface-emitting distributed feedback lasers based on TPD-doped films,” Appl. Opt. 49, 463–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-L.

C.-L. Chen, Foundations of Guided-Wave Optics (Wiley, 2006).

Cho, H. N.

T.-W. Lee, O. O. Park, D. H. Choi, H. N. Cho, and Y. C. Kim, “Low-threshold blue amplified spontaneous emission in a statistical copolymer and its blend,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 424–426 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. H.

T.-W. Lee, O. O. Park, D. H. Choi, H. N. Cho, and Y. C. Kim, “Low-threshold blue amplified spontaneous emission in a statistical copolymer and its blend,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 424–426 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J.

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photon. 4, 438–446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dehm, S.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Denton, G. J.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382, 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Díaz-García, M. A.

M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, V. Navarro-Fuster, I. Vragovic, J. M. Villalvilla, I. Alonso, V. Trabadelo, S. Merino, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Efficient organic distributed feedback lasers with imprinted active films,” Opt. Express 19, 22443–22454 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, P. A. Postigo, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Blue, surface-emitting distributed feedback lasers based on TPD-doped films,” Appl. Opt. 49, 463–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymers and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

Friend, R. H.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382, 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, U.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giacalone, F.

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

Gómez, R.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymers and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heliotis, G.

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polyfluorene distributed feedback lasers operating in the green-yellow spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959–6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, Y. Hou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Fluorene-based conjugated polymer optical gain media,” Org. Electron. 4, 165–177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hide, F.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymers and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hou, Y.

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, Y. Hou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Fluorene-based conjugated polymer optical gain media,” Org. Electron. 4, 165–177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Juarros, A.

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

T.-W. Lee, O. O. Park, D. H. Choi, H. N. Cho, and Y. C. Kim, “Low-threshold blue amplified spontaneous emission in a statistical copolymer and its blend,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 424–426 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klinkhammer, S.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lanzani, G.

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photon. 4, 438–446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.-W.

T.-W. Lee, O. O. Park, D. H. Choi, H. N. Cho, and Y. C. Kim, “Low-threshold blue amplified spontaneous emission in a statistical copolymer and its blend,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 424–426 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26, 593–595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mappes, T.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martín, N.

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Merino, S.

M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, V. Navarro-Fuster, I. Vragovic, J. M. Villalvilla, I. Alonso, V. Trabadelo, S. Merino, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Efficient organic distributed feedback lasers with imprinted active films,” Opt. Express 19, 22443–22454 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, E. M.

M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mückl, A. G.

Navarro-Fuster, V.

M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, V. Navarro-Fuster, I. Vragovic, J. M. Villalvilla, I. Alonso, V. Trabadelo, S. Merino, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Efficient organic distributed feedback lasers with imprinted active films,” Opt. Express 19, 22443–22454 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, O. O.

T.-W. Lee, O. O. Park, D. H. Choi, H. N. Cho, and Y. C. Kim, “Low-threshold blue amplified spontaneous emission in a statistical copolymer and its blend,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 424–426 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pei, Q.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Postigo, P. A.

Quintana, J. A.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, P. A. Postigo, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Blue, surface-emitting distributed feedback lasers based on TPD-doped films,” Appl. Opt. 49, 463–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez, M. G.

Raymond, R. F.

R. H. Boundy and R. F. Raymond, Styrene: Its Polymers, Copolymers and Derivatives (Reinhold, 1952).

Retolaza, A.

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Riechel, S.

Safonov, A. N.

A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide-mode structure in conjugated polymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 62, R11929–R11932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107, 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959–6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide-mode structure in conjugated polymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 62, R11929–R11932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B.

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymers and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Segura, J. L.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheridan, A. K.

A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide-mode structure in conjugated polymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 62, R11929–R11932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stavrinou, P. N.

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polyfluorene distributed feedback lasers operating in the green-yellow spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, “Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials,” Adv. Mater. 11, 363–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382, 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trabadelo, V.

M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, V. Navarro-Fuster, I. Vragovic, J. M. Villalvilla, I. Alonso, V. Trabadelo, S. Merino, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Efficient organic distributed feedback lasers with imprinted active films,” Opt. Express 19, 22443–22454 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107, 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959–6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide-mode structure in conjugated polymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 62, R11929–R11932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vannahme, C.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Veenstra, S.

M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Villalvilla, J. M.

M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, V. Navarro-Fuster, I. Vragovic, J. M. Villalvilla, I. Alonso, V. Trabadelo, S. Merino, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Efficient organic distributed feedback lasers with imprinted active films,” Opt. Express 19, 22443–22454 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, P. A. Postigo, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Blue, surface-emitting distributed feedback lasers based on TPD-doped films,” Appl. Opt. 49, 463–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vragovic, I.

Wittwer, V.

Woggon, T.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xia, R.

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polyfluorene distributed feedback lasers operating in the green-yellow spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959–6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, Y. Hou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Fluorene-based conjugated polymer optical gain media,” Org. Electron. 4, 165–177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

N. Tessler, “Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials,” Adv. Mater. 11, 363–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polyfluorene distributed feedback lasers operating in the green-yellow spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-W. Lee, O. O. Park, D. H. Choi, H. N. Cho, and Y. C. Kim, “Low-threshold blue amplified spontaneous emission in a statistical copolymer and its blend,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 424–426 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymers and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107, 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959–6966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photon. 4, 438–446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382, 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Org. Electron.

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, Y. Hou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Fluorene-based conjugated polymer optical gain media,” Org. Electron. 4, 165–177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide-mode structure in conjugated polymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 62, R11929–R11932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. H. Boundy and R. F. Raymond, Styrene: Its Polymers, Copolymers and Derivatives (Reinhold, 1952).

A. Boudrioua, Photonic Waveguides: Theory and Applications (Wiley, 2009).

C.-L. Chen, Foundations of Guided-Wave Optics (Wiley, 2006).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorbance (dashed line in left axis), PL and ASE (thin and thick full lines, respectively, in right axis) spectra of a PDI-C6-doped PS film with h=1070nm. Inset, chemical structure of PDI-C6.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Emission linewidth (triangles in left axis) and output intensity at 579 nm (squares in right axis) as a function of pump intensity for a PDI-C6-doped PS film with h=1070nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Effective refractive index (neff) for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes as a function of film thickness for PDI-C6-doped PS films deposited over SiO2 substrates. Lines are calculations with the propagation wave equation at λ=579nm (full and dashed lines for TE and TM modes, respectively); symbols are experimental neff values determined by the m-line technique at λ=578nm (triangles and squares for TE and TM modes, respectively).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

ASE wavelength and λASE (triangles in left axis), and ASE linewidth and FWHMASE (squares in right axis) as a function of film thickness; error is (±0.4) in the λASE and (±0.8) in the FWHMASE.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

ASE thresholds (Ith-ASE), determined from plots similar to that of Fig. 2 as a function of film thickness; error in Ith-ASE is around 10%.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Absorbance at 532 nm (triangles in left axis) and total PL intensity (squares in right axis) as a function of film thickness. Straight lines are linear fits to experimental data. Inset, decay of the pump intensity with depth (d) inside the film, relative to its value at the air–film interface [Ip(d)/Ip(0)].

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Film thickness dependence of the normalized ASE threshold (Ith-ASEnorm, squares in left axis), defined as the ASE thresholds (Ith-ASE) multiplied by the total PL intensity, and of the penetration depth in substrate (xs) and cover (xc) of the TE0 mode (full line, right axis).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Electric field amplitude of waveguide modes as a function of the distance from the air–film interface (d): (a) TE0 mode in waveguides of h=260, 500, and 800 nm; (b) high-order modes in waveguides of h=800nm (TE1, full line) and h=1070nm (TE1 and TE2, dashed lines).

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