Abstract

The suspended particle assemblage in complex coastal waters is a mixture of living phytoplankton, other autochthonous matter, and materials of terrestrial origin. The characterization of suspended particles is important for understanding regional primary productivity and rates of carbon sequestration, the fate of anthropogenic materials released to the coastal environment, as well as its effects on bulk optical properties, which influence the passive optical remote sensing of the coastal ocean. Here, the extensive bio-optical Plumes and Blooms data set is used to characterize the surface particle assemblage in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, a highly productive, upwelling-dominated, coastal site affected by episodic sediment inputs. Available variables sensitive to characteristics of the particle assemblage include particle beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment concentration observations, chlorophyll and particulate organic carbon concentration, particulate and phytoplankton absorption coefficients, and Laser In-situ Scattering and Transmissometry (LISST) 100-X particle sizer observations. Comparisons among these particle assemblage proxy variables indicate good agreement and internal consistency among the data set. Correlations among chlorophyll concentration, particulate organic carbon concentration (POC), HPLC pigments, and proxies sensitive to the entire particle assemblage such as backscattering and LISST data strongly indicate that in spite of its coastal character, variability in the particle assemblage in the Santa Barbara Channel is dominated by its marine biogenic component. Relatively high estimates of the bulk real index of refraction and its positive correlation with chlorophyll and lithogenic silica concentration tentatively indicate that there is minerogenic particle influence in the Santa Barbara Channel that tends to covary with the phytoplankton blooms. Limitations of each particle assemblage proxy and remote-sensing applications are discussed.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in three contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56, 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. W. Brewin, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. J. Lavender, D. E. Raitsos, T. Hirata, J. Uitz, E. Devred, A. Bricaud, A. Ciotti, and B. Gentili, “An intercomparison of bio-optical techniques for detecting dominant phytoplankton size class from satellite remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115, 325–339(2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. B. Mouw and J. A. Yoder, “Optical determination of phytoplankton size composition from global SeaWiFS imagery,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C12018 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Buonassissi and H. M. Dierssen, “A regional comparison of particle size distributions and the power law approximation in oceanic and estuarine surface waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C10028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Global variability of phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment via the particle size distribution,” Biogeosciences 7, 3239–3257 (2010).

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express 18, 15419–15425 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Whitmire, W. S. Pegau, L. Karp-Boss, E. Boss, and T. J. Cowles, “Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 18, 15073–15093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, V. M. Wright, and S. B. Woźniak, “Measurements and characterization of particle size distributions in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).

C. M. Swan, D. A. Siegel, N. B. Nelson, C. A. Carlson, and E. Nasir, “Biogeochemical and hydrographic controls on chromophoric dissolved organic matter distribution in the Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I 56, 2175–2192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. McKee, M. Chami, I. Brown, V. S. Calzado, D. Doxaran, and A. Cunningham, “Role of measurement uncertainties in observed variability in the spectral backscattering ratio: a case study in mineral-rich coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4663–4675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5, 495–507 (2008).

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and H. Loisel, “Seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton groups in the global ocean: a satellite view,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB3011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Anderson, D. A. Siegel, M. A. Brzezinski, and N. Guillocheau, “Controls on temporal patterns in phytoplankton community structure in the Santa Barbara Channel, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C04038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB2024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Agrawal, A. Whitmire, O. A. Mikkelsen, and H. C. Pottsmith, “Light scattering by random shaped particles and consequences on measuring suspended sediments by laser diffraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C04023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Karp-Boss, L. Azevedo, and E. Boss, “LISST-100 measurements of phytoplankton size distribution: evaluation of the effects of cell shape,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Meth. 5, 396–406 (2007).

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, “Inherent optical properties of non-spherical marine-like particles—from theory to observation,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 45, 1–38 (2007).

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, and N. Guillocheau, “Ocean color observations and modeling for an optically complex site: Santa Barbara Channel, California, USA,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, C07011 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15, 7019–7031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Nelson, D. A. Siegel, C. A. Carlson, C. Swan, W. M. Smethie, and S. Khatiwala, “Hydrography of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the North Atlantic,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I 54, 710–731 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. E. McPhee-Shaw, D. A. Siegel, L. Washburn, M. A. Brzezinski, J. L. Jones, A. Leydecker, and J. Melack, “Mechanisms for nutrient delivery to the inner shelf: observations from the Santa Barbara Channel,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 1748–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605–3619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Irwin, Z. V. Finkel, O. M. E. Schofield, and P. G. Falkowski, “Scaling-up from nutrient physiology to the size-structure of phytoplankton communities,” J. Plankton Res. 28, 459–471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental sheld region off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceangr. Methods 4, 237–253 (2006).

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Slade and E. Boss, “Calibrated near-forward volume scattering function obtained from the LISST particle sizer,” Opt. Express 14, 3602–3615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Le Quéré, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, “Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models,” Global Change Biology 11, 2016–2040 (2005).

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 19, GB1006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Marquet, R. A. Quiñones, S. Abades, F. Labra, M. Tognelli, M. Arim, and M. Rivadeneira, “Scaling and power-laws in ecological systems,” J. Exp. Biol. 208, 1749–1769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, and M. J. Behrenfeld, “Independence and interdependencies among global ocean color properties: reassessing the bio-optical assumption,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C07011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Warrick, L. A. K. Mertes, D. A. Siegel, and C. MacKenzie, “Estimating suspended sediment concentrations in turbid coastal waters of the Santa Barbara Channel with SeaWiFS,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 1995–2002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Otero and D. A. Siegel, “Spatial and temporal characteristics of sediment plumes and phytoplankton blooms in the Santa Barbara Channel,” Deep-Sea Res., Part II 51, 1139–1149 (2004).

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Progress in Oceanography 61, 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Woźniak and D. Stramski, “Modeling the optical properties of mineral particles suspended in seawater and their influence on ocean reflectance and chlorophyll estimation from remote sensing algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3489–3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. Risović, “Effect of suspended particulate-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in the remote sensing of seawater,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7092–7101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Rinaldo, A. Maritan, K. K. Cavender-Bares, and S. Chisholm, “Cross-scale ecological dynamics and microbial size spectra in marine ecosystems,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 269, 2051–2059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ciotti, M. Lewis, and J. Cullen, “Assessment of the relationship between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 404–417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Shipe, U. Passow, M. A. Brzezinski, W. M. Graham, D. K. Pak, D. A. Siegel, and A. L. Alldredge, “Effects of the 1997–98 El Niño on seasonal variations in suspended and sinking particles in the Santa Barbara basin,” Progr. Oceanography 54, 105–127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. Peterson, “Optimization of a semi-analytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2705–2714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. Van Heukelem and C. S. Thomas, “Computer-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography method development with applications to the isolation and analysis of phytoplankton pigments,” J. Chromatogr. A 910, 31–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Toole and D. A. Siegel, “Modes and mechanisms of ocean color variability in the Santa Barbara Channel,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 26985–27000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, and J. C. Marty, “Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 19939–19956(2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129–14142(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, “Refractive index of planktonic cells as a measure of cellular carbon and chlorophyll a content,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I 46, 335–351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. B. Field, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, and P. Falkowski, “Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components,” Science 281, 237–240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Falkowski, R. T. Barber, and V. Smetacek, “Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production,” Science 281, 200–206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. J. Behrenfeld and M. P. G. Falkowski, “A consumer’s guide to phytoplankton primary productivity models,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1479–1491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Maffione and D. R. Dana, “Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6057–6067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Jonasz and G. Fournier, “Approximation of the size distribution of marine particles by a sum of log-normal functions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 744–754 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, and T. Platt, “Effect of the particle-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7070–7077 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. Risović, “Two-component model of sea particle size distribution,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I 40, 1459–1473 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and J. C. Kitchen, “Preliminary results from an in situ spectral absorption meter,” Proc. SPIE 1750, 330–337 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanography 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. A. Brzezinski and D. M. Nelson, “Seasonal changes in the silicon cycle within a Gulf Stream warm-core ring,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I 36, 1009–1030 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. J. Lynn and J. J. Simpson, “The California Current System: the seasonal variability of its physical characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 12947–12966 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. A. Brzezinski and D. M. Nelson, “A solvent extraction method for the colorimetric determination of nanomolar concentrations of silicic acid in seawater,” Mar. Chem. 19, 139–151 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

A. Huyer, “Coastal upwelling in the California Current System,” Progr. Oceanog. 12, 259–284 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. Damuth, “Population density and body size in mammals,” Nature 290, 699–700 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

P. Diehl and H. Haardt, “Measurement of the spectral attenuation to support biological research in a “plankton tube” experiment,” Oceanologica Acta 3, 89–96 (1980).

1979

R. W. Eppley and B. J. Peterson, “Particulate organic matter flux and planktonic new production in the deep ocean,” Nature 282, 677–680 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

J. M. Sieburth, V. Smetacek, and J. Lenz, “Pelagic ecosystem structure: heterotrophic compartment of the plankton and their relationship to plankton size fractions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 1256–1263 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, “Optical classification of natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 260–267 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

I. N. McCave, “Vertical flux of particles in the ocean,” Deep Sea Res. 22, 491–502 (1975).

Abades, S.

P. A. Marquet, R. A. Quiñones, S. Abades, F. Labra, M. Tognelli, M. Arim, and M. Rivadeneira, “Scaling and power-laws in ecological systems,” J. Exp. Biol. 208, 1749–1769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, Y. C.

Y. C. Agrawal, A. Whitmire, O. A. Mikkelsen, and H. C. Pottsmith, “Light scattering by random shaped particles and consequences on measuring suspended sediments by laser diffraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C04023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, “Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport,” Marine Geol. 168, 89–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alldredge, A. L.

R. F. Shipe, U. Passow, M. A. Brzezinski, W. M. Graham, D. K. Pak, D. A. Siegel, and A. L. Alldredge, “Effects of the 1997–98 El Niño on seasonal variations in suspended and sinking particles in the Santa Barbara basin,” Progr. Oceanography 54, 105–127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alvain, S.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and H. Loisel, “Seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton groups in the global ocean: a satellite view,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB3011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, C. R.

C. R. Anderson, D. A. Siegel, M. A. Brzezinski, and N. Guillocheau, “Controls on temporal patterns in phytoplankton community structure in the Santa Barbara Channel, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C04038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in three contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56, 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arim, M.

P. A. Marquet, R. A. Quiñones, S. Abades, F. Labra, M. Tognelli, M. Arim, and M. Rivadeneira, “Scaling and power-laws in ecological systems,” J. Exp. Biol. 208, 1749–1769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

Aumont, O.

C. Le Quéré, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, “Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models,” Global Change Biology 11, 2016–2040 (2005).

Azevedo, L.

L. Karp-Boss, L. Azevedo, and E. Boss, “LISST-100 measurements of phytoplankton size distribution: evaluation of the effects of cell shape,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Meth. 5, 396–406 (2007).

Babin, M.

A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, M. Babin, M. Twardowsky, and C. Grob, “Diel and spatial variability of the particle size distribution, notably of submicron particles, in the South Pacific Ocean,” presented at Ocean Optics XIX, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Italy, 2008.

Baker, K. S.

R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, “Optical classification of natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 260–267 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Baratange, F.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barber, R. T.

P. G. Falkowski, R. T. Barber, and V. Smetacek, “Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production,” Science 281, 200–206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129–14142(2001).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express 18, 15419–15425 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).

T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB2024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 19, GB1006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, and M. J. Behrenfeld, “Independence and interdependencies among global ocean color properties: reassessing the bio-optical assumption,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C07011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Field, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, and P. Falkowski, “Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components,” Science 281, 237–240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld and M. P. G. Falkowski, “A consumer’s guide to phytoplankton primary productivity models,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1479–1491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berseneva, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bogucki, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Progress in Oceanography 61, 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bopp, L.

C. Le Quéré, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, “Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models,” Global Change Biology 11, 2016–2040 (2005).

Boss, E.

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express 18, 15419–15425 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Whitmire, W. S. Pegau, L. Karp-Boss, E. Boss, and T. J. Cowles, “Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 18, 15073–15093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).

T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB2024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, “Inherent optical properties of non-spherical marine-like particles—from theory to observation,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 45, 1–38 (2007).

L. Karp-Boss, L. Azevedo, and E. Boss, “LISST-100 measurements of phytoplankton size distribution: evaluation of the effects of cell shape,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Meth. 5, 396–406 (2007).

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15, 7019–7031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Slade and E. Boss, “Calibrated near-forward volume scattering function obtained from the LISST particle sizer,” Opt. Express 14, 3602–3615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 19, GB1006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Progress in Oceanography 61, 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129–14142(2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Mikkelsen, H. Dierssen, and E. Boss (Personal communication, 2010).

Brewin, R. J. W.

R. J. W. Brewin, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. J. Lavender, D. E. Raitsos, T. Hirata, J. Uitz, E. Devred, A. Bricaud, A. Ciotti, and B. Gentili, “An intercomparison of bio-optical techniques for detecting dominant phytoplankton size class from satellite remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115, 325–339(2011).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

R. J. W. Brewin, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. J. Lavender, D. E. Raitsos, T. Hirata, J. Uitz, E. Devred, A. Bricaud, A. Ciotti, and B. Gentili, “An intercomparison of bio-optical techniques for detecting dominant phytoplankton size class from satellite remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115, 325–339(2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental sheld region off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceangr. Methods 4, 237–253 (2006).

Brown, I.

Brzezinski, M. A.

C. R. Anderson, D. A. Siegel, M. A. Brzezinski, and N. Guillocheau, “Controls on temporal patterns in phytoplankton community structure in the Santa Barbara Channel, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C04038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. E. McPhee-Shaw, D. A. Siegel, L. Washburn, M. A. Brzezinski, J. L. Jones, A. Leydecker, and J. Melack, “Mechanisms for nutrient delivery to the inner shelf: observations from the Santa Barbara Channel,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 1748–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Shipe, U. Passow, M. A. Brzezinski, W. M. Graham, D. K. Pak, D. A. Siegel, and A. L. Alldredge, “Effects of the 1997–98 El Niño on seasonal variations in suspended and sinking particles in the Santa Barbara basin,” Progr. Oceanography 54, 105–127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Brzezinski and D. M. Nelson, “Seasonal changes in the silicon cycle within a Gulf Stream warm-core ring,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I 36, 1009–1030 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Brzezinski and D. M. Nelson, “A solvent extraction method for the colorimetric determination of nanomolar concentrations of silicic acid in seawater,” Mar. Chem. 19, 139–151 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Buitenhuis, E. T.

C. Le Quéré, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, “Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models,” Global Change Biology 11, 2016–2040 (2005).

Buonassissi, C. J.

C. J. Buonassissi and H. M. Dierssen, “A regional comparison of particle size distributions and the power law approximation in oceanic and estuarine surface waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C10028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Calzado, V. S.

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R. J. Lynn and J. J. Simpson, “The California Current System: the seasonal variability of its physical characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 12947–12966 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Slade, W. H.

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).

W. H. Slade and E. Boss, “Calibrated near-forward volume scattering function obtained from the LISST particle sizer,” Opt. Express 14, 3602–3615 (2006).
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Smetacek, V.

P. G. Falkowski, R. T. Barber, and V. Smetacek, “Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production,” Science 281, 200–206 (1998).
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J. M. Sieburth, V. Smetacek, and J. Lenz, “Pelagic ecosystem structure: heterotrophic compartment of the plankton and their relationship to plankton size fractions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 1256–1263 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Smethie, W. M.

N. B. Nelson, D. A. Siegel, C. A. Carlson, C. Swan, W. M. Smethie, and S. Khatiwala, “Hydrography of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the North Atlantic,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I 54, 710–731 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

Sokal, R. R.

R. R. Sokal and F. J. Rohlf, Biometry: The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research, 2nd ed. (W. H. Freeman, 1981).

Sorensen, J. C.

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, and E. Fields, BBOP Data Processing and Sampling Procedures, v1, US JGOFS planning report No. 19 (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1995).

Steeman Nielsen, E.

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, Jerlov and E. Steeman Nielsen, eds. (Academic, 1974), pp. 1–24.

Stramski, D.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, V. M. Wright, and S. B. Woźniak, “Measurements and characterization of particle size distributions in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5, 495–507 (2008).

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Woźniak and D. Stramski, “Modeling the optical properties of mineral particles suspended in seawater and their influence on ocean reflectance and chlorophyll estimation from remote sensing algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3489–3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Progress in Oceanography 61, 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3001–3011 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, “Refractive index of planktonic cells as a measure of cellular carbon and chlorophyll a content,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I 46, 335–351 (1999).
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A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, M. Babin, M. Twardowsky, and C. Grob, “Diel and spatial variability of the particle size distribution, notably of submicron particles, in the South Pacific Ocean,” presented at Ocean Optics XIX, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Italy, 2008.

Sullivan, J. M.

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sundman, L. K.

Swan, C.

N. B. Nelson, D. A. Siegel, C. A. Carlson, C. Swan, W. M. Smethie, and S. Khatiwala, “Hydrography of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the North Atlantic,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I 54, 710–731 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Swan, C. M.

C. M. Swan, D. A. Siegel, N. B. Nelson, C. A. Carlson, and E. Nasir, “Biogeochemical and hydrographic controls on chromophoric dissolved organic matter distribution in the Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I 56, 2175–2192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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P. A. Marquet, R. A. Quiñones, S. Abades, F. Labra, M. Tognelli, M. Arim, and M. Rivadeneira, “Scaling and power-laws in ecological systems,” J. Exp. Biol. 208, 1749–1769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toole, D. A.

Twardowski, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5, 495–507 (2008).

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129–14142(2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Twardowsky, M.

A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, M. Babin, M. Twardowsky, and C. Grob, “Diel and spatial variability of the particle size distribution, notably of submicron particles, in the South Pacific Ocean,” presented at Ocean Optics XIX, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Italy, 2008.

Uitz, J.

R. J. W. Brewin, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. J. Lavender, D. E. Raitsos, T. Hirata, J. Uitz, E. Devred, A. Bricaud, A. Ciotti, and B. Gentili, “An intercomparison of bio-optical techniques for detecting dominant phytoplankton size class from satellite remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115, 325–339(2011).
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J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).
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C. Le Quéré, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, “Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models,” Global Change Biology 11, 2016–2040 (2005).

Ulloa, O.

Van Heukelem, L.

L. Van Heukelem and C. S. Thomas, “Computer-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography method development with applications to the isolation and analysis of phytoplankton pigments,” J. Chromatogr. A 910, 31–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vellucci, V.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in three contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56, 955–973 (2011).
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F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, and J. C. Marty, “Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 19939–19956(2001).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Progress in Oceanography 61, 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Warrick, J. A.

J. A. Warrick, L. A. K. Mertes, D. A. Siegel, and C. MacKenzie, “Estimating suspended sediment concentrations in turbid coastal waters of the Santa Barbara Channel with SeaWiFS,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 1995–2002 (2004).
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Washburn, L.

E. E. McPhee-Shaw, D. A. Siegel, L. Washburn, M. A. Brzezinski, J. L. Jones, A. Leydecker, and J. Melack, “Mechanisms for nutrient delivery to the inner shelf: observations from the Santa Barbara Channel,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 1748–1766 (2007).
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Watson, A. J.

C. Le Quéré, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, “Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models,” Global Change Biology 11, 2016–2040 (2005).

Westberry, T. K.

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express 18, 15419–15425 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).

T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB2024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Whitmire, A.

Y. C. Agrawal, A. Whitmire, O. A. Mikkelsen, and H. C. Pottsmith, “Light scattering by random shaped particles and consequences on measuring suspended sediments by laser diffraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C04023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Whitmire, A. L.

Wolf-Gladrow, D.

C. Le Quéré, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, “Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models,” Global Change Biology 11, 2016–2040 (2005).

Wozniak, S. B.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, V. M. Wright, and S. B. Woźniak, “Measurements and characterization of particle size distributions in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Woźniak and D. Stramski, “Modeling the optical properties of mineral particles suspended in seawater and their influence on ocean reflectance and chlorophyll estimation from remote sensing algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3489–3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wright, V. M.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, V. M. Wright, and S. B. Woźniak, “Measurements and characterization of particle size distributions in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08024 (2010).
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Yoder, J. A.

C. B. Mouw and J. A. Yoder, “Optical determination of phytoplankton size composition from global SeaWiFS imagery,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C12018 (2010).
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Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129–14142(2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
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W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
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Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci.

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).

Appl. Opt.

S. B. Woźniak and D. Stramski, “Modeling the optical properties of mineral particles suspended in seawater and their influence on ocean reflectance and chlorophyll estimation from remote sensing algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3489–3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
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D. Risović, “Effect of suspended particulate-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in the remote sensing of seawater,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7092–7101 (2002).
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C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
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W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
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R. A. Maffione and D. R. Dana, “Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6057–6067 (1997).
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D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, D. W. Menzies, M. J. Neumann, and R. C. Smith, “Remote-sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment: impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability,” Appl. Opt. 39, 456–469 (2000).
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Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5755–5772 (2002).
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M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605–3619 (2006).
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D. McKee, M. Chami, I. Brown, V. S. Calzado, D. Doxaran, and A. Cunningham, “Role of measurement uncertainties in observed variability in the spectral backscattering ratio: a case study in mineral-rich coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4663–4675 (2009).
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H. Loisel and D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3001–3011 (2000).
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S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. Peterson, “Optimization of a semi-analytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2705–2714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biogeosciences

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5, 495–507 (2008).

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Global variability of phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment via the particle size distribution,” Biogeosciences 7, 3239–3257 (2010).

Deep Sea Res.

I. N. McCave, “Vertical flux of particles in the ocean,” Deep Sea Res. 22, 491–502 (1975).

Deep-Sea Res., Part I

M. A. Brzezinski and D. M. Nelson, “Seasonal changes in the silicon cycle within a Gulf Stream warm-core ring,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I 36, 1009–1030 (1989).
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N. B. Nelson, D. A. Siegel, C. A. Carlson, C. Swan, W. M. Smethie, and S. Khatiwala, “Hydrography of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the North Atlantic,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I 54, 710–731 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Swan, D. A. Siegel, N. B. Nelson, C. A. Carlson, and E. Nasir, “Biogeochemical and hydrographic controls on chromophoric dissolved organic matter distribution in the Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I 56, 2175–2192 (2009).
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D. Stramski, “Refractive index of planktonic cells as a measure of cellular carbon and chlorophyll a content,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I 46, 335–351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res., Part II

M. P. Otero and D. A. Siegel, “Spatial and temporal characteristics of sediment plumes and phytoplankton blooms in the Santa Barbara Channel,” Deep-Sea Res., Part II 51, 1139–1149 (2004).

Global Biogeochem Cycles

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 19, GB1006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB2024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and H. Loisel, “Seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton groups in the global ocean: a satellite view,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB3011 (2008).
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Global Change Biology

C. Le Quéré, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, “Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models,” Global Change Biology 11, 2016–2040 (2005).

Int. J. Remote Sens.

J. A. Warrick, L. A. K. Mertes, D. A. Siegel, and C. MacKenzie, “Estimating suspended sediment concentrations in turbid coastal waters of the Santa Barbara Channel with SeaWiFS,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 1995–2002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chromatogr. A

L. Van Heukelem and C. S. Thomas, “Computer-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography method development with applications to the isolation and analysis of phytoplankton pigments,” J. Chromatogr. A 910, 31–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Biol.

P. A. Marquet, R. A. Quiñones, S. Abades, F. Labra, M. Tognelli, M. Arim, and M. Rivadeneira, “Scaling and power-laws in ecological systems,” J. Exp. Biol. 208, 1749–1769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, and J. C. Marty, “Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 19939–19956(2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129–14142(2001).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, V. M. Wright, and S. B. Woźniak, “Measurements and characterization of particle size distributions in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08024 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Agrawal, A. Whitmire, O. A. Mikkelsen, and H. C. Pottsmith, “Light scattering by random shaped particles and consequences on measuring suspended sediments by laser diffraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C04023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Toole and D. A. Siegel, “Modes and mechanisms of ocean color variability in the Santa Barbara Channel,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 26985–27000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Buonassissi and H. M. Dierssen, “A regional comparison of particle size distributions and the power law approximation in oceanic and estuarine surface waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C10028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Anderson, D. A. Siegel, M. A. Brzezinski, and N. Guillocheau, “Controls on temporal patterns in phytoplankton community structure in the Santa Barbara Channel, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C04038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, and N. Guillocheau, “Ocean color observations and modeling for an optically complex site: Santa Barbara Channel, California, USA,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, C07011 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Lynn and J. J. Simpson, “The California Current System: the seasonal variability of its physical characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 12947–12966 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Mouw and J. A. Yoder, “Optical determination of phytoplankton size composition from global SeaWiFS imagery,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C12018 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, and M. J. Behrenfeld, “Independence and interdependencies among global ocean color properties: reassessing the bio-optical assumption,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C07011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020 (2005).
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J. Plankton Res.

A. J. Irwin, Z. V. Finkel, O. M. E. Schofield, and P. G. Falkowski, “Scaling-up from nutrient physiology to the size-structure of phytoplankton communities,” J. Plankton Res. 28, 459–471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceangr. Methods

A. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental sheld region off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceangr. Methods 4, 237–253 (2006).

Limnol. Oceanogr.

S. Menden-Deuer and E. J. Lessard, “Carbon to volume relationships for dinoflagellates, diatoms, and other protist plankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 569–579 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Mean (solid lines) and median (dotted lines) surface hyperspectral component absorption coefficients for phytoplankton (green, N=335), colored dissolved matter (red, N=339), and detrital particles (blue, N=341). (b) Mean (red triangles, error bars represent one standard deviation) and median (green circles) particle beam attenuation coefficient at the surface at all PnB stations (N=277). The slope of the regression line (black dotted line) is the power-law spectral slope of particle beam attenuation (γ=0.46). See Subsection 3.A for details on spectral slopes of individual spectra. (c) Mean (red solid line with triangles, error bars represent one standard deviation) and median (green dotted line with circles) particle backscattering coefficient at the surface at all PnB stations (N=260 for 442, 510, and 589 nm channels, N=221 for the 671 nm channel, and N=39 for the 420 and 700 nm channels). The slope of the regression line (black dashed line) is the power-law spectral slope of particle backscattering (η=1.00), calculated using the 442, 510, and 589 nm channels. See Subsection 3.A for details on spectral slopes of individual spectra. The mean (blue solid line with inverted triangles) and median (cyan dotted line with squares) particle backscattering probability [P(bbp(λ); the spectrally averaged value is denoted b˜bp elsewhere] is also shown (dimensionless, shown on the same y-axis scale as the backscattering). The value of particulate backscattering probability corresponding to the Petzold phase function, i.e., 0.0183 [21,71] is shown in a magenta dotted line for comparison. (d) Mean (red triangles, error bars represent one standard deviation) and median (green circles) in situ remote-sensing reflectance just below the sea surface (N=303). (e) Mean (red triangles, error bars represent one standard deviation) and median (green circles) surface particle size distribution, expressed as bin-width normalized volume concentration (μL/L/μm), measured by the LISST-100X (N=100). (f) Mean (red triangles, error bars represent one standard deviation) and median (green circles) surface particle size distribution, expressed as differential number concentration in SI units (m4, Eq. 1), as measured by the LISST-100X (N=100). The slope of the regression line (black) is the power-law PSD slope (ξ=3.49), and the intercept is the reference number concentration at particle diameter 2 μm [log10(No)=16.3]. See Subsection 3.A for details on PSD parameters of individual PSD measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Linear regression (in log10-space) between Chl and POC for the SBC. (b) Linear regression between POC (in log10-space) and the particle backscattering coefficient at 510 nm for the SBC. A few outliers are excluded from the regression and plotted in black circles. (c) Linear regression between POC (in log10-space) and the LISST-based PSD slope ξ. (d) Linear regression between analytically measured POC and an estimate of POC using the LISST PSD parameters and the allometric relationships of Menden-Deuer and Lessard [60]. POC is in mgm3. Eight outliers (black circles) were not included in the regression calculation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Linear regression between percent picoplankton (black “×”) or percent microplankton (red circles) as calculated from HPLC data via the diagnostic pigments method of Vidussi et al. [5] (x-axis) or from the LISST-100X data (y-axis), using the PSD slope, ξ, and the method of Kostadinov et al. [7]. (b) Linear regression between the LISST-based PSD slope ξ and the corresponding PSD slope modeled from the particle beam attenuation slope as γcp+3. (c) Linear regression of Ciotti et al. [62,63] estimate of percent picoplankton versus estimates derived from the LISST-based PSD slope ξ (black “×”) and from the slope of the particle beam attenuation (red circles). An outlier in the LISST versus Ciotti data has been excluded from the regression and is plotted with a black “o” instead. (d) Linear regression of the particulate backscattering spectral slope η versus the LISST-based PSD slope ξ (black “×”) or versus ξ estimated as γcp+3 (red circles). The theoretical LUT used to derive ξ from remotely-sensed η for the global ocean in the Kostadinov et al. PSD algorithm [31] is also shown with its confidence intervals (one standard deviation).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Linear regressions between Chl (in log10-space) and the percent picoplankton (black “×”) or percent microplankton (red “o”) as calculated from HPLC data using the Vidussi et al. [5] method. (b) Linear regression between HPLC-determined picoplankton contribution to biomass and percent picoplankton determined from the PSD slope estimated as γcp+3, using the Kostadinov et al. method [7]. (c) Linear regression between the spectral slope of particle backscattering, η, and the percent picoplankton determined from HPLC data (black “×”) or the Ciotti et al. Sf parameter [62,63] (red “o”). (d) Linear regression between percent picoplankton determined from HPLC measurements and the Ciotti et al. Sf parameter [62,63].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Plot of the PSD slope (x-axis) as determined from LISST 100-X data (black “×”) or estimated from AC-9 particle beam attenuation data (γcp+3, red dots) versus the particle backscattering probability (y-axis). The superimposed contours indicate the estimated bulk real index of refraction of the particles relative to seawater, np, after Twardowski et al. [30]. The color bar indicates the value of the contours, which are labeled at np=0.04 intervals. (b) Linear regression between Chl in log10-space and the real index of refraction as estimated by the model of Twardowski et al. [30] using the particle beam attenuation slope and backscattering probability [red dots in (a)].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Comparison of in situ Hydrioscat-6 measurements of particulate backscattering at 442 nm with the corresponding retrievals by several bio-optical algorithms. The algorithms used are: QAA ([56], black “×”), GSM ([94,95], green circles), and Loisel and Stramski [36,93] (red triangles). (b) Comparison of the in situ particulate backscattering slope, η, determined from Hydroscat-6 measurements and η retrieved by the QAA algorithm from in situ PnB reflectance measurements. (c) Linear regression between the PSD slope as determined from LISST-100X measurements (black “×”) or as derived from the particulate beam attenuation coefficient slope (γcp+3, red circles) and the PSD slope as retrieved from in situ PnB remote-sensing reflectance via the algorithm of Kostadinov et al. [31]. (d) Linear regression and the PSD slope as retrieved from in situ PnB remote-sensing reflectance via the algorithm of Kostadinov et al. [31]. (d) Linear regression between percent and the PSD slope as retrieved from in situ PnB remote-sensing reflectance via the algorithm of Kostadinov et al. [31]. (d) Linear regression picoplankton determined from HPLC measurements (black “×”) or the Ciotti et al. Sf parameter [62,63] (red circles) and the percent picoplankton determined from in situ PnB remote-sensing reflectance using the method of Kostadinov et al. [7,31] (integration limits as stated in Subsection 2.B).

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Table of Particle Size and Composition Proxies Used in the Presented Analysesa

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Table 2. Table of R2 Values of Regressions Between the Various Proxies of Particle Sizea

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Table 3. Linear Correlation Coefficients Between PnB Variables Relevant to Particle Assemblage Compositionab

Equations (5)

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N(D)=No(DDo)ξ,
cp(λ)=cp(λo)(λλo)γcp.
bbp(λ)=2πχp[β(140,λ)βw(140,λ)].
bbp(λ)=bbp(λo)(λλo)η.
Rrs(0,λ)=Lu(0,λ)Ed(0,λ).

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