Abstract

We present an elliptic spot illumination system for a color filter–liquid-crystal-on-silicon (CF-LCoS) pico projector employing a specifically designed free-form lens and a cylindrical lens to improve on previous designs in terms of optical efficiency while yielding an ultracompact and low-cost optical architecture. The detailed design description of the optical system is thoroughly investigated. Simulation results coincide well with the theoretical calculation. The single 1mm×1mm LED chip-powered optical engine, which employs a CF-LCoS panel with a diagonal of 0.28 in and an aspect ratio of 43, has an estimated output efficiency over 9.8% (11.8 lm@1 W) and an ANSI 9-point uniformity over 88.5%, with the ultrasmall volume 24mm×19mm×7mm. Compared to the circular spot-illuminated projection system, a total increment of about 23% of system efficiency is available with this improved optical engine. It is believed that there would be a huge market potential to commercialize our design.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. B. Dove and M. Kisco, “Arrangement for projection displays employing reflective light valves,” U.S. patent 658, 060 (1997).
  2. M. G. Robinson, J. Korah, G. Sharp, and J. Birge, “High contrast color splitting architecture using color polarization filters,” SID Symposium Digest31, 92–95 (2000).
  3. J. A. Shimizu, “Single panel reflective LCD optics,” in 1999 International Display Workshop (IDW ’99) (1999), 989–992.
  4. M. L. Jepsen, “Rear projection TV: single panel CF-LCoS lumen throughput,” SID Symposium Digest34, 122 (2003).
  5. H. C. Huang, B. L. Zhang, H. S. Kwok, P. W. Cheng, and Y. C. Chen, “Color filter liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers36, 880–883 (2005).
  6. F. Fournier, and J. Rolland, “Optimization of freeform lightpipes for light-emitting-diode projectors,” Appl. Opt. 47, 957–966 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. K. Zhen, Z. Ye, and F. H. Yu, “Ultrahigh-performance lamp illumination system with compound parabolic retroreflector for a single liquid-crystal-on-silicon panel display,” Opt. Eng. 46, 054001 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Vangiel, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Using a fly’s eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources,” Opt. Eng. 46, 043001 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Meuret, B. Vangiel, F. Christiaens, and H. Thienpont, “Efficient illumination in LED-based projection systems using lenslet integrators,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619605(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Pan, C. M. Wang, H. C. Lan, W. S. Sun, and J. Y. Chang, “Homogenized LED-illumination using microlens arrays for a pocket-sized projector,” Opt. Express 15, 10483–10491 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. G. Chen, P. Liu, and F. H. Yu, “Optimization design of single freeform lens based illumination system for CF-CF-LCoS handheld pico-projectors,” Opt. Eng.51, 033002 (2012).
  12. W. Z. Zhang, X. Y. Li, Q. X. Liu, and F. H. Yu, “Compact LED based CF-LCoS optical engine for mobile projection,” Proc. SPIE 7506, 75061Y (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. C. Chen, C. M. Tsai, and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of LCoS optical engine and optimization with genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 5, 293–305 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. K. Zhen, Z. Ye, W. Z. Zhang, T. Y. Zhao, and F. H. Yu, “Illumination system with compound parabolic retro-reflector for single LCOS panel projection display,” J. Zhejiang University, Science, A 8, 2021–2026 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. J. Cassarly and M. J. Hayford, “Illumination optimization: The revolution has begun,” Proc. SPIE 4832, 258 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. J. Koshel, “Simplex optimization method for illumination design,” Opt. Lett. 30, 649–651 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. “MATLAB DDE client module,” http://www.mathworks.com/products/matlab/ .
  18. “TracePro,” http://www.lambdares.com/ .
  19. http://iview.apaci.com.hk/en/products/index.php .

2009 (2)

W. Z. Zhang, X. Y. Li, Q. X. Liu, and F. H. Yu, “Compact LED based CF-LCoS optical engine for mobile projection,” Proc. SPIE 7506, 75061Y (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chen, C. M. Tsai, and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of LCoS optical engine and optimization with genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 5, 293–305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

Y. K. Zhen, Z. Ye, and F. H. Yu, “Ultrahigh-performance lamp illumination system with compound parabolic retroreflector for a single liquid-crystal-on-silicon panel display,” Opt. Eng. 46, 054001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Vangiel, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Using a fly’s eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources,” Opt. Eng. 46, 043001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Zhen, Z. Ye, W. Z. Zhang, T. Y. Zhao, and F. H. Yu, “Illumination system with compound parabolic retro-reflector for single LCOS panel projection display,” J. Zhejiang University, Science, A 8, 2021–2026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pan, C. M. Wang, H. C. Lan, W. S. Sun, and J. Y. Chang, “Homogenized LED-illumination using microlens arrays for a pocket-sized projector,” Opt. Express 15, 10483–10491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Meuret, B. Vangiel, F. Christiaens, and H. Thienpont, “Efficient illumination in LED-based projection systems using lenslet integrators,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619605(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

W. J. Cassarly and M. J. Hayford, “Illumination optimization: The revolution has begun,” Proc. SPIE 4832, 258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Birge, J.

M. G. Robinson, J. Korah, G. Sharp, and J. Birge, “High contrast color splitting architecture using color polarization filters,” SID Symposium Digest31, 92–95 (2000).

Cassarly, W. J.

W. J. Cassarly and M. J. Hayford, “Illumination optimization: The revolution has begun,” Proc. SPIE 4832, 258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Chen, C. M. Tsai, and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of LCoS optical engine and optimization with genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 5, 293–305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, E. G.

E. G. Chen, P. Liu, and F. H. Yu, “Optimization design of single freeform lens based illumination system for CF-CF-LCoS handheld pico-projectors,” Opt. Eng.51, 033002 (2012).

Chen, Y. C.

H. C. Huang, B. L. Zhang, H. S. Kwok, P. W. Cheng, and Y. C. Chen, “Color filter liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers36, 880–883 (2005).

Cheng, P. W.

H. C. Huang, B. L. Zhang, H. S. Kwok, P. W. Cheng, and Y. C. Chen, “Color filter liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers36, 880–883 (2005).

Christiaens, F.

Y. Meuret, B. Vangiel, F. Christiaens, and H. Thienpont, “Efficient illumination in LED-based projection systems using lenslet integrators,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619605(2006).
[CrossRef]

Dove, D. B.

D. B. Dove and M. Kisco, “Arrangement for projection displays employing reflective light valves,” U.S. patent 658, 060 (1997).

Fang, Y. C.

C. C. Chen, C. M. Tsai, and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of LCoS optical engine and optimization with genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 5, 293–305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, F.

Hayford, M. J.

W. J. Cassarly and M. J. Hayford, “Illumination optimization: The revolution has begun,” Proc. SPIE 4832, 258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. C.

H. C. Huang, B. L. Zhang, H. S. Kwok, P. W. Cheng, and Y. C. Chen, “Color filter liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers36, 880–883 (2005).

Jepsen, M. L.

M. L. Jepsen, “Rear projection TV: single panel CF-LCoS lumen throughput,” SID Symposium Digest34, 122 (2003).

Kisco, M.

D. B. Dove and M. Kisco, “Arrangement for projection displays employing reflective light valves,” U.S. patent 658, 060 (1997).

Korah, J.

M. G. Robinson, J. Korah, G. Sharp, and J. Birge, “High contrast color splitting architecture using color polarization filters,” SID Symposium Digest31, 92–95 (2000).

Koshel, R. J.

Kwok, H. S.

H. C. Huang, B. L. Zhang, H. S. Kwok, P. W. Cheng, and Y. C. Chen, “Color filter liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers36, 880–883 (2005).

Lan, H. C.

Li, X. Y.

W. Z. Zhang, X. Y. Li, Q. X. Liu, and F. H. Yu, “Compact LED based CF-LCoS optical engine for mobile projection,” Proc. SPIE 7506, 75061Y (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P.

E. G. Chen, P. Liu, and F. H. Yu, “Optimization design of single freeform lens based illumination system for CF-CF-LCoS handheld pico-projectors,” Opt. Eng.51, 033002 (2012).

Liu, Q. X.

W. Z. Zhang, X. Y. Li, Q. X. Liu, and F. H. Yu, “Compact LED based CF-LCoS optical engine for mobile projection,” Proc. SPIE 7506, 75061Y (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meuret, Y.

B. Vangiel, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Using a fly’s eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources,” Opt. Eng. 46, 043001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Meuret, B. Vangiel, F. Christiaens, and H. Thienpont, “Efficient illumination in LED-based projection systems using lenslet integrators,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619605(2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. W.

Robinson, M. G.

M. G. Robinson, J. Korah, G. Sharp, and J. Birge, “High contrast color splitting architecture using color polarization filters,” SID Symposium Digest31, 92–95 (2000).

Rolland, J.

Sharp, G.

M. G. Robinson, J. Korah, G. Sharp, and J. Birge, “High contrast color splitting architecture using color polarization filters,” SID Symposium Digest31, 92–95 (2000).

Shimizu, J. A.

J. A. Shimizu, “Single panel reflective LCD optics,” in 1999 International Display Workshop (IDW ’99) (1999), 989–992.

Sun, W. S.

Thienpont, H.

B. Vangiel, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Using a fly’s eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources,” Opt. Eng. 46, 043001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Meuret, B. Vangiel, F. Christiaens, and H. Thienpont, “Efficient illumination in LED-based projection systems using lenslet integrators,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619605(2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. M.

C. C. Chen, C. M. Tsai, and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of LCoS optical engine and optimization with genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 5, 293–305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vangiel, B.

B. Vangiel, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Using a fly’s eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources,” Opt. Eng. 46, 043001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Meuret, B. Vangiel, F. Christiaens, and H. Thienpont, “Efficient illumination in LED-based projection systems using lenslet integrators,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619605(2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. M.

Ye, Z.

Y. K. Zhen, Z. Ye, W. Z. Zhang, T. Y. Zhao, and F. H. Yu, “Illumination system with compound parabolic retro-reflector for single LCOS panel projection display,” J. Zhejiang University, Science, A 8, 2021–2026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Zhen, Z. Ye, and F. H. Yu, “Ultrahigh-performance lamp illumination system with compound parabolic retroreflector for a single liquid-crystal-on-silicon panel display,” Opt. Eng. 46, 054001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. H.

W. Z. Zhang, X. Y. Li, Q. X. Liu, and F. H. Yu, “Compact LED based CF-LCoS optical engine for mobile projection,” Proc. SPIE 7506, 75061Y (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Zhen, Z. Ye, and F. H. Yu, “Ultrahigh-performance lamp illumination system with compound parabolic retroreflector for a single liquid-crystal-on-silicon panel display,” Opt. Eng. 46, 054001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Zhen, Z. Ye, W. Z. Zhang, T. Y. Zhao, and F. H. Yu, “Illumination system with compound parabolic retro-reflector for single LCOS panel projection display,” J. Zhejiang University, Science, A 8, 2021–2026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Chen, P. Liu, and F. H. Yu, “Optimization design of single freeform lens based illumination system for CF-CF-LCoS handheld pico-projectors,” Opt. Eng.51, 033002 (2012).

Zhang, B. L.

H. C. Huang, B. L. Zhang, H. S. Kwok, P. W. Cheng, and Y. C. Chen, “Color filter liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers36, 880–883 (2005).

Zhang, W. Z.

W. Z. Zhang, X. Y. Li, Q. X. Liu, and F. H. Yu, “Compact LED based CF-LCoS optical engine for mobile projection,” Proc. SPIE 7506, 75061Y (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Zhen, Z. Ye, W. Z. Zhang, T. Y. Zhao, and F. H. Yu, “Illumination system with compound parabolic retro-reflector for single LCOS panel projection display,” J. Zhejiang University, Science, A 8, 2021–2026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, T. Y.

Y. K. Zhen, Z. Ye, W. Z. Zhang, T. Y. Zhao, and F. H. Yu, “Illumination system with compound parabolic retro-reflector for single LCOS panel projection display,” J. Zhejiang University, Science, A 8, 2021–2026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhen, Y. K.

Y. K. Zhen, Z. Ye, W. Z. Zhang, T. Y. Zhao, and F. H. Yu, “Illumination system with compound parabolic retro-reflector for single LCOS panel projection display,” J. Zhejiang University, Science, A 8, 2021–2026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Zhen, Z. Ye, and F. H. Yu, “Ultrahigh-performance lamp illumination system with compound parabolic retroreflector for a single liquid-crystal-on-silicon panel display,” Opt. Eng. 46, 054001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

C. C. Chen, C. M. Tsai, and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of LCoS optical engine and optimization with genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 5, 293–305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhejiang University, Science, A (1)

Y. K. Zhen, Z. Ye, W. Z. Zhang, T. Y. Zhao, and F. H. Yu, “Illumination system with compound parabolic retro-reflector for single LCOS panel projection display,” J. Zhejiang University, Science, A 8, 2021–2026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

Y. K. Zhen, Z. Ye, and F. H. Yu, “Ultrahigh-performance lamp illumination system with compound parabolic retroreflector for a single liquid-crystal-on-silicon panel display,” Opt. Eng. 46, 054001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Vangiel, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Using a fly’s eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources,” Opt. Eng. 46, 043001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

W. J. Cassarly and M. J. Hayford, “Illumination optimization: The revolution has begun,” Proc. SPIE 4832, 258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Meuret, B. Vangiel, F. Christiaens, and H. Thienpont, “Efficient illumination in LED-based projection systems using lenslet integrators,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619605(2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Zhang, X. Y. Li, Q. X. Liu, and F. H. Yu, “Compact LED based CF-LCoS optical engine for mobile projection,” Proc. SPIE 7506, 75061Y (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

D. B. Dove and M. Kisco, “Arrangement for projection displays employing reflective light valves,” U.S. patent 658, 060 (1997).

M. G. Robinson, J. Korah, G. Sharp, and J. Birge, “High contrast color splitting architecture using color polarization filters,” SID Symposium Digest31, 92–95 (2000).

J. A. Shimizu, “Single panel reflective LCD optics,” in 1999 International Display Workshop (IDW ’99) (1999), 989–992.

M. L. Jepsen, “Rear projection TV: single panel CF-LCoS lumen throughput,” SID Symposium Digest34, 122 (2003).

H. C. Huang, B. L. Zhang, H. S. Kwok, P. W. Cheng, and Y. C. Chen, “Color filter liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers36, 880–883 (2005).

E. G. Chen, P. Liu, and F. H. Yu, “Optimization design of single freeform lens based illumination system for CF-CF-LCoS handheld pico-projectors,” Opt. Eng.51, 033002 (2012).

“MATLAB DDE client module,” http://www.mathworks.com/products/matlab/ .

“TracePro,” http://www.lambdares.com/ .

http://iview.apaci.com.hk/en/products/index.php .

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic drawing of the CF-LCoS illumination system for pico-projection. (a) Edge-ray tracing in the illumination system. (b) Corresponding beam reshapement on CF-LCoS.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Angle-to-area mapping between the LED emitting angle θin and the illumination radius r on LCoS.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Edge-ray derivation for the cylindrical lens.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Design flow chart of the illumination system.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Compact optical architecture (24mm×19mm×7mm) for a LED-based projector employing a single Himax 0.28-in LCoS panel (aspect ratio 43).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Three-dimensional view of the cylindrical lens.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Polar candela distribution plot for the emergent rays from the designed free-form lens.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Polar candela distribution plot on LCoS.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Illuminance map on screen with a transmission efficiency of 61.3% and a spatial uniformity over 88.5% (ANSI nine points).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Over-filled energy loss of 28.9% outside the active area of the 0.28-in LCoS.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) Optical layout of single lens illumination-based optical engine. (b) Corresponding illuminance map on the screen.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Increased irradiance distribution on the screen while introducing the cylindrical lens into the system.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Illumination System Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2. Output Flux Comparisons of the Optical Engines

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I02πdϕ0θin_maxcosθinsinθindθin=E0ra2πrdr.
r=d0tanθin+(z2d0)tanβ0+(d0+d1+d2z2)tanβ1,
dz2dθin=d0(sinβ1sinθin)cos2θin(n2sin2θincosβ1)+(z2d0)(sinβ1sinθin)[cosθinn2sin2θin+sin2θincosθin(n2sin2θin)12](n2sin2θin)32cosβ1(n2sin2θin)1sinθinsinβ1sin2θinn2sin2θincosβ1n2sin2θin,
Etendue1=πA1sin2β1=Etendue0,
Etendue2=π2rarbsinβ1sinθout=Etendue0,
θout=arcsin(rasinβ1rb).
θout=arcsin(δsinβ1).
ra=y2(lz2)tanβ1,
{z3=dy3=y2(dz2)tanβ1,
{z4=d+y3Rcosγtanβ2y4=Rcosγ,
δ=ratanβ2Rcosγ(tanβ2tanθout)[(ld)tanβ2y2+(dz2)tanβ1]tanθout.
Merit Function=[WE(EcEt)2+WU(UcUt)2+Wη(ηcηt)2],

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