Abstract

In this paper, methods of welding and sealing optically transparent materials using an ultrashort pulsed (USP) fiber laser are demonstrated which overcome the limit of small area welding of optical materials. First, the interaction of USP fiber laser radiation inside glass was studied and single line welding results with different laser parameters were investigated. Then multiline scanning was used to obtain successful area bonding. Finally, complete four-edge sealing of fused silica substrates with a USP laser was demonstrated and the hermetic seal was confirmed by water immersion test. This laser microwelding technique can be extended to various applications in the semiconductor industry and precision optic manufacturing.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J. Q. Lu, and R. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Greco, F. Marchesini, and G. Molesini, “Optical contact and van der Waals interactions: the role of the surface topography in determining the bonding strength of thick glass plates,” J. Opt. A 3, 85–88 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Wild, A. Gillner, and R. Poprawe, “Locally selective bonding of silicon and glass with laser,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 63–69 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Yao, B. Xu, X. Zhang, J. Huang, J. Fu, and Y. Wu, “Interface microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welding copper-steel dissimilar joint,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 807–814 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Cao and M. Jahazi, “Effect of welding speed on butt joint quality of Ti-6Al-4V alloy welded using a high-power Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 1231–1241 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26, 277–279 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Huang and Z. Guo, “Ultra-short pulsed laser PDMS thin-layer separation and micro-fabrication,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 055007 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Huang and Z. Guo, “Human dermis separation via ultra-short pulsed laser plasma-mediated ablation,” J. Phys. D 42, 165204 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Y. Sajjadi, K. Mitra, and M. Grace, “Ablation of subsurface tumors using an ultra-short pulse laser,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 451–456 (2010).
  10. L. Shah, A. Arai, S. Eaton, and P. Herman, “Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 1999–2006 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. B. Schaffer, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 351–354 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 257–261 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 85–89 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 2, 57–63 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Vukeli, P. Kongsuwan, and Y. L. Yao, “Ultrafast laser induced structural modification of fused silica—Part I: feature formation mechanisms,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 132, 061012 (2010).
  18. A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass—glass and glass—silicon,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 171–175(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Cvecek, I. Miyamoto, J. Strauss, M. Wolf, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Sample preparation method for glass welding by ultrashort laser pulses yields higher seam strength,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1941–1944 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 257–261 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Cvecek, I. Miyamoto, J. Strauss, M. Wolf, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Sample preparation method for glass welding by ultrashort laser pulses yields higher seam strength,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1941–1944 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. Vukeli, P. Kongsuwan, and Y. L. Yao, “Ultrafast laser induced structural modification of fused silica—Part I: feature formation mechanisms,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 132, 061012 (2010).

A. Y. Sajjadi, K. Mitra, and M. Grace, “Ablation of subsurface tumors using an ultra-short pulse laser,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 451–456 (2010).

2009 (4)

H. Huang and Z. Guo, “Ultra-short pulsed laser PDMS thin-layer separation and micro-fabrication,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 055007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang and Z. Guo, “Human dermis separation via ultra-short pulsed laser plasma-mediated ablation,” J. Phys. D 42, 165204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Yao, B. Xu, X. Zhang, J. Huang, J. Fu, and Y. Wu, “Interface microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welding copper-steel dissimilar joint,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 807–814 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao and M. Jahazi, “Effect of welding speed on butt joint quality of Ti-6Al-4V alloy welded using a high-power Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 1231–1241 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass—glass and glass—silicon,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 171–175(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 85–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 2, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J. Q. Lu, and R. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

L. Shah, A. Arai, S. Eaton, and P. Herman, “Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 1999–2006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

V. Greco, F. Marchesini, and G. Molesini, “Optical contact and van der Waals interactions: the role of the surface topography in determining the bonding strength of thick glass plates,” J. Opt. A 3, 85–88 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wild, A. Gillner, and R. Poprawe, “Locally selective bonding of silicon and glass with laser,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 63–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26, 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

Brenk, U.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass—glass and glass—silicon,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 171–175(2008).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X.

X. Cao and M. Jahazi, “Effect of welding speed on butt joint quality of Ti-6Al-4V alloy welded using a high-power Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 1231–1241 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cvecek, K.

Döring, S.

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 257–261 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S.

Frick, T.

Fu, J.

C. Yao, B. Xu, X. Zhang, J. Huang, J. Fu, and Y. Wu, “Interface microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welding copper-steel dissimilar joint,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 807–814 (2009).
[CrossRef]

García, J. F.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gillner, A.

M. Wild, A. Gillner, and R. Poprawe, “Locally selective bonding of silicon and glass with laser,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 63–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gottmann, J.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 2, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grace, M.

A. Y. Sajjadi, K. Mitra, and M. Grace, “Ablation of subsurface tumors using an ultra-short pulse laser,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 451–456 (2010).

Greco, V.

V. Greco, F. Marchesini, and G. Molesini, “Optical contact and van der Waals interactions: the role of the surface topography in determining the bonding strength of thick glass plates,” J. Opt. A 3, 85–88 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z.

H. Huang and Z. Guo, “Human dermis separation via ultra-short pulsed laser plasma-mediated ablation,” J. Phys. D 42, 165204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang and Z. Guo, “Ultra-short pulsed laser PDMS thin-layer separation and micro-fabrication,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 055007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gutmann, R.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J. Q. Lu, and R. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P.

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Horn, A.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass—glass and glass—silicon,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 171–175(2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 2, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

H. Huang and Z. Guo, “Ultra-short pulsed laser PDMS thin-layer separation and micro-fabrication,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 055007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang and Z. Guo, “Human dermis separation via ultra-short pulsed laser plasma-mediated ablation,” J. Phys. D 42, 165204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

C. Yao, B. Xu, X. Zhang, J. Huang, J. Fu, and Y. Wu, “Interface microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welding copper-steel dissimilar joint,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 807–814 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 85–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jahazi, M.

X. Cao and M. Jahazi, “Effect of welding speed on butt joint quality of Ti-6Al-4V alloy welded using a high-power Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 1231–1241 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Kachel, M.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass—glass and glass—silicon,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 171–175(2008).
[CrossRef]

Kongsuwan, P.

S. Vukeli, P. Kongsuwan, and Y. L. Yao, “Ultrafast laser induced structural modification of fused silica—Part I: feature formation mechanisms,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 132, 061012 (2010).

Lu, J. Q.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J. Q. Lu, and R. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marchesini, F.

V. Greco, F. Marchesini, and G. Molesini, “Optical contact and van der Waals interactions: the role of the surface topography in determining the bonding strength of thick glass plates,” J. Opt. A 3, 85–88 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marcinkevicius, A.

Matsuo, S.

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mingareev, I.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass—glass and glass—silicon,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 171–175(2008).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

Mitra, K.

A. Y. Sajjadi, K. Mitra, and M. Grace, “Ablation of subsurface tumors using an ultra-short pulse laser,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 451–456 (2010).

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, M.

Miyamoto, I.

K. Cvecek, I. Miyamoto, J. Strauss, M. Wolf, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Sample preparation method for glass welding by ultrashort laser pulses yields higher seam strength,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1941–1944 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 2, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Molesini, G.

V. Greco, F. Marchesini, and G. Molesini, “Optical contact and van der Waals interactions: the role of the surface topography in determining the bonding strength of thick glass plates,” J. Opt. A 3, 85–88 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Niklaus, F.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J. Q. Lu, and R. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26, 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 257–261 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Onda, S.

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 85–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poprawe, R.

M. Wild, A. Gillner, and R. Poprawe, “Locally selective bonding of silicon and glass with laser,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 63–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richter, S.

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 257–261 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sajjadi, A. Y.

A. Y. Sajjadi, K. Mitra, and M. Grace, “Ablation of subsurface tumors using an ultra-short pulse laser,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 451–456 (2010).

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

Shah, L.

Stemme, G.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J. Q. Lu, and R. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strauss, J.

Tamaki, T.

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 85–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 257–261 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vukeli, S.

S. Vukeli, P. Kongsuwan, and Y. L. Yao, “Ultrafast laser induced structural modification of fused silica—Part I: feature formation mechanisms,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 132, 061012 (2010).

Watanabe, M.

Watanabe, W.

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 85–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Werth, A.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass—glass and glass—silicon,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 171–175(2008).
[CrossRef]

Wild, M.

M. Wild, A. Gillner, and R. Poprawe, “Locally selective bonding of silicon and glass with laser,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 63–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, M.

Wortmann, D.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 2, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

C. Yao, B. Xu, X. Zhang, J. Huang, J. Fu, and Y. Wu, “Interface microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welding copper-steel dissimilar joint,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 807–814 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

C. Yao, B. Xu, X. Zhang, J. Huang, J. Fu, and Y. Wu, “Interface microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welding copper-steel dissimilar joint,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 807–814 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yao, C.

C. Yao, B. Xu, X. Zhang, J. Huang, J. Fu, and Y. Wu, “Interface microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welding copper-steel dissimilar joint,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 807–814 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set up for USP laser welding and sealing of transparent materials.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sketch of cross section of the fixture for USP laser welding and sealing.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Microscopic view of cross sections of the fused silica modification region by USP laser with different pulse energies and the same speed (0.5mm/s).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Microscopic view of single line welding at the bottom fused silica substrate with different scanning speeds and the same pulse energy (0.95 µJ).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Single line welding widths for different welding speeds and the same pulse energy (0.95 µJ).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM tilted angle view of single line welding of fused silica after broken apart (Fave=26.5kJ/cm2): (a) the welding surface of the top substrate showing grooves welding seam peeled off, and (b) the welding surface of the bottom substrate showing bumps welding seam remains.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

SEM enlarged view of bottom substrate surface with single line welding after broken apart (Fave=26.5kJ/cm2).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

SEM tilted angle view of multiline welding region of fused silica (Fave=26.5kJ/cm2) after broken apart: (a) the welding surface of the top substrate, and (b) the welding surface of the bottom substrate.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

USP laser one-edge sealing with multi line welding the area without interference fringe is showing the welded region.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Bonded two substrates after USP laser one-edge sealing when holding the top glass sample by tweezers.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

USP laser four-edge sealing of fused silica samples (Fave=26.5kJ/cm2): (a) top view with interference fringe seen for nonwelded regions and no interference fringe seen for those sealing seams, and (b) transmission view of the four welding seams crossing with each other with LED backlight illumination.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Microscopic view of USP laser four-edge sealing of two fused silica samples (Fave=26.5kJ/cm2): (a) one of the sealing seam composing of multiple welding lines, and (b) one of the intersections of two sealing seams.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Camera view of the center region well sealed by USP laser-water immersion from top left corner cannot penetrate into the center region due to the block of sealed edges.

Equations (2)

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D=1.22λN.A.,
Favg=E*RD*v,

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