Abstract

LaF3 thin films at 193 nm were deposited by the molybdenum boat evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD). Various optical characteristics, stress, and microstructures that formed under different ion-beam voltages of IAD deposition were investigated. The relation between these properties is also discussed. LaF3 films deposited with IAD exhibited small rough surfaces and large optical loss at 193 nm. The largest value of optical loss for films at 193 nm, which were prepared at an ion-beam voltage of 400 V, was 1.55% and the extinction coefficient was smaller than 0.0015. Microstructures and crystalline structures of films were influenced and changed by the ion-assisted deposition process. Tensile stress value of films increased as the ion-beam voltage rose. Refractive index, related to the packing density and microstructures, also increased as the ion-beam voltage rose.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. F. Spann, and M. R. Torr, “Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. 1: optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2 and SiO2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4284–4292 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. T. Hart, and T. L. Lichtenstein, “Materials for optical coatings in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 496–500 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Smith and P. Baumeister, “Refractive index of some oxide and fluoride coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 18, 111–115 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. R. Wood, H. G. Craighead, J. E. Sweeney, and P. J. Maloney, “Vacuum ultraviolet loss in magnesium fluoride films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3644–3649 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, “Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 589–598 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Hayes, Crystals with the Fluorite Structure (Oxford University, 1974), chap. 1.
  7. D. Ristau, S. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, J. Ferré-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peirò, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, “Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3196–3204 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, “R.F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride,” Thin Solid Films 217, 87–90 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Influence of thermal annealing and ultraviolet light irradiation on LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6921–6926 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure- and composition-related characteristics of LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Opt. Eng. 45, 083801 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, and W. G. Sainty, “Ion-beam-assisted deposition of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 179–185 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, and W. C. Herrmann, “Ion-assisted deposition of optical thin films: low energy vs high energy bombardment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 552–559 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. R. McNeil, G. A. Al-Jumaily, K. C. Jungling, and A. C. Barron, “Properties of TiO2 and SiO2 thin films deposited using ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 24, 486–489(1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, and H. A. Macleod, “Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 1–6 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, L. J. Lingg, H. A. Macleod, J. A. Leavitt, and L. C. Mclntyre, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3733–3737 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. J. Martin, W. G. Sainty, R. P. Netterfield, D. R. Mckenzie, D. J. H. Cockayne, S. H. Sie, O. R. Wood, and H. G. Craighead, “Influence of ion assistance on the optical properties of MgF2,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1235–1239 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. J. Martin and R. P. Netterfield, “Ion assisted deposition of magnesium fluoride films on substrates at ambient temperature,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1732–1733 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  20. O. Paredes, C. Córdoba, and J. Benavides, “Optical constants determination in thin films lead-free vitreous coatings,” Superficies Vacio 9, 89–91 (1999).
  21. B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demchishin, “Study of the structure and properties of the vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide, and zirconium dioxide,” Phys. Met. Metallogr. 28, 653–660 (1969).
  22. J. A. Thornton, “Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666–670(1974).
    [CrossRef]
  23. U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure- and composition-related characteristics of LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Opt. Eng. 45, 083801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Influence of thermal annealing and ultraviolet light irradiation on LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6921–6926 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, and H. A. Macleod, “Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Paredes, C. Córdoba, and J. Benavides, “Optical constants determination in thin films lead-free vitreous coatings,” Superficies Vacio 9, 89–91 (1999).

1996 (1)

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, “R.F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride,” Thin Solid Films 217, 87–90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1987 (2)

1985 (3)

1984 (2)

1983 (1)

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, and W. G. Sainty, “Ion-beam-assisted deposition of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 179–185 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1974 (1)

J. A. Thornton, “Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666–670(1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demchishin, “Study of the structure and properties of the vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide, and zirconium dioxide,” Phys. Met. Metallogr. 28, 653–660 (1969).

1962 (1)

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, “Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 589–598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Adamik, M.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Al-Jumaily, G. A.

Barna, P. B.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barron, A. C.

Baumeister, P.

Benavides, J.

O. Paredes, C. Córdoba, and J. Benavides, “Optical constants determination in thin films lead-free vitreous coatings,” Superficies Vacio 9, 89–91 (1999).

Bosch, S.

Carniglia, C. K.

Chen, H. C.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cockayne, D. J. H.

Cook, J. G.

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, “R.F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride,” Thin Solid Films 217, 87–90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Córdoba, C.

O. Paredes, C. Córdoba, and J. Benavides, “Optical constants determination in thin films lead-free vitreous coatings,” Superficies Vacio 9, 89–91 (1999).

Craighead, H. G.

Das, S. R.

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, “R.F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride,” Thin Solid Films 217, 87–90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Demchishin, A. V.

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demchishin, “Study of the structure and properties of the vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide, and zirconium dioxide,” Phys. Met. Metallogr. 28, 653–660 (1969).

Duparré, A.

Ferré-Borrull, J.

Günster, S.

Hart, T. T.

Hayes, W.

W. Hayes, Crystals with the Fluorite Structure (Oxford University, 1974), chap. 1.

Herrmann, W. C.

Jaing, C. C.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jungling, K. C.

Kaiser, U.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, M.

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure- and composition-related characteristics of LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Opt. Eng. 45, 083801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Influence of thermal annealing and ultraviolet light irradiation on LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6921–6926 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kato, R.

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, “Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 589–598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, and H. A. Macleod, “Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kiriakidis, G.

Laux, S.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leavitt, J. A.

Lee, C. C.

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure- and composition-related characteristics of LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Opt. Eng. 45, 083801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Influence of thermal annealing and ultraviolet light irradiation on LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6921–6926 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lehan, J. P.

Lichtenstein, T. L.

Lingg, L. J.

Liu, M. C.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure- and composition-related characteristics of LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Opt. Eng. 45, 083801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Influence of thermal annealing and ultraviolet light irradiation on LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6921–6926 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lowdermilk, W. H.

Lu, C. J.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, and H. A. Macleod, “Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, L. J. Lingg, H. A. Macleod, J. A. Leavitt, and L. C. Mclntyre, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3733–3737 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, and W. G. Sainty, “Ion-beam-assisted deposition of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 179–185 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Maloney, P. J.

Martin, P. J.

Masetti, E.

Matsui, E.

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, “Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 589–598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Mckenzie, D. R.

Mclntyre, L. C.

McNeil, J. R.

Milam, D.

Mitchell, D. F.

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, “R.F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride,” Thin Solid Films 217, 87–90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Movchan, B. A.

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demchishin, “Study of the structure and properties of the vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide, and zirconium dioxide,” Phys. Met. Metallogr. 28, 653–660 (1969).

Nakahira, K.

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure- and composition-related characteristics of LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Opt. Eng. 45, 083801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Influence of thermal annealing and ultraviolet light irradiation on LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6921–6926 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Netterfield, R. P.

Ogura, S.

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, and H. A. Macleod, “Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pacey, C. G.

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, and W. G. Sainty, “Ion-beam-assisted deposition of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 179–185 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Paredes, O.

O. Paredes, C. Córdoba, and J. Benavides, “Optical constants determination in thin films lead-free vitreous coatings,” Superficies Vacio 9, 89–91 (1999).

Peirò, F.

Quesnel, E.

Rainer, F.

Richter, W.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

Safran, G.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

Shiao, M. H.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sie, S. H.

Smith, D.

Spann, J. F.

Sweeney, J. E.

Takano, Y.

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure- and composition-related characteristics of LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Opt. Eng. 45, 083801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Influence of thermal annealing and ultraviolet light irradiation on LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6921–6926 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Q.

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, and H. A. Macleod, “Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Targove, J. D.

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, “Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666–670(1974).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonravov, A.

Torr, D. G.

Torr, M. R.

Uchida, Y.

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, “Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 589–598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, S. R.

Wood, O. R.

Yousefi, G. H.

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, “R.F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride,” Thin Solid Films 217, 87–90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zukic, M.

Appl. Opt. (12)

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, and W. G. Sainty, “Ion-beam-assisted deposition of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 179–185 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Smith and P. Baumeister, “Refractive index of some oxide and fluoride coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 18, 111–115 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, and W. C. Herrmann, “Ion-assisted deposition of optical thin films: low energy vs high energy bombardment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 552–559 (1984).
[CrossRef]

O. R. Wood, H. G. Craighead, J. E. Sweeney, and P. J. Maloney, “Vacuum ultraviolet loss in magnesium fluoride films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3644–3649 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. R. McNeil, G. A. Al-Jumaily, K. C. Jungling, and A. C. Barron, “Properties of TiO2 and SiO2 thin films deposited using ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 24, 486–489(1985).
[CrossRef]

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. T. Hart, and T. L. Lichtenstein, “Materials for optical coatings in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 496–500 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, W. G. Sainty, R. P. Netterfield, D. R. Mckenzie, D. J. H. Cockayne, S. H. Sie, O. R. Wood, and H. G. Craighead, “Influence of ion assistance on the optical properties of MgF2,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1235–1239 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, L. J. Lingg, H. A. Macleod, J. A. Leavitt, and L. C. Mclntyre, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3733–3737 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. F. Spann, and M. R. Torr, “Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. 1: optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2 and SiO2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4284–4292 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, S. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, J. Ferré-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peirò, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, “Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3196–3204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Influence of thermal annealing and ultraviolet light irradiation on LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6921–6926 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin and R. P. Netterfield, “Ion assisted deposition of magnesium fluoride films on substrates at ambient temperature,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1732–1733 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, “Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 589–598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (2)

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, and H. A. Macleod, “Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Thornton, “Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666–670(1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure- and composition-related characteristics of LaF3 thin films at 193 nm,” Opt. Eng. 45, 083801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Met. Metallogr. (1)

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demchishin, “Study of the structure and properties of the vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide, and zirconium dioxide,” Phys. Met. Metallogr. 28, 653–660 (1969).

Superficies Vacio (1)

O. Paredes, C. Córdoba, and J. Benavides, “Optical constants determination in thin films lead-free vitreous coatings,” Superficies Vacio 9, 89–91 (1999).

Thin Solid Films (3)

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, “R.F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride,” Thin Solid Films 217, 87–90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. Hayes, Crystals with the Fluorite Structure (Oxford University, 1974), chap. 1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmittance spectra of LaF3 prepared with different ion-beam voltages at 250 °C.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross-sectional SEM micrographs of samples prepared with (a) ion-beam voltage of 0 V at 250 °C; (b) ion-beam voltage of 150 V at 250 °C.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

XRD spectra of samples prepared with (a) ion-beam voltage of 0 V at 250 °C; (b) ion-beam voltage of 150 V at 250 °C.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical loss and refractive index at 193 nm of LaF3 thin films prepared with different ion-beam voltages.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Surface roughness and stress of LaF3 thin films prepared with different ion-beam voltages.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Composition of LaF3 Thin Films by ESCA

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Table 2. Refractive Index and Extinction Coefficient at 193 nm of LaF3 Films

Equations (2)

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L(%)=1T(%)R(%),
σ=Eh2(1ν)6t(1Rd1R0),

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