Abstract

A cost-effective, high-throughput, and high-yield method for the efficiency enhancement of an optical mouse lighting module is proposed. We integrated imprinting technology and free-form surface design to obtain a lighting module with high illumination efficiency and uniform intensity distribution. The imprinting technique can increase the light extraction efficiency and modulate the intensity distribution of light-emitting diodes. A modulated light source was utilized to add a compact free-form surface element to create a lighting module with 95% uniformity and 80% optical efficiency.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. S. Zukauskas, M. S. Schur, and R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid State Lighting (Wiley-Interscience2002).
  3. T. Fuji, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Orita, “High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode suing extended-pitch photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5809–5813 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173504 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Yong Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1840–1842 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. J. Tullis, “Method and device for achieving high contrast surface illumination,” U.S. patent 5686720, (11November, 1997).
  9. Avago (Agilent), “HDNS-2100 solid-state optical mouse lens data sheet,” http://www.avagotech.com.tw/docs/AV02-1278EN .
  10. R. E. Fisher and B. Tadic-Galeb, Optical System Design (McGraw-Hill, 2000).
  11. G. E. Smith, “Illumination optics and method,” U.S. patent 6476970, (5November, 2003).
  12. E. F. Schubert, “The Lambertian emission pattern,” in Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University, 2006), pp. 94–95.
  13. S. H. Tu, S. Y. Wu, Y. C. Lee, J. W. Pan, C. H. Kuo, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Functional imprinting structures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes for light pattern modulation and light extraction efficiency enhancement,” Opt. Rev. 17, 379–384 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Radiant Zemax, “SIG-400TM,” http://www.radiantimaging.com/index.php?q=products/sig400 .
  15. “Advanced System Analysis Program technical guide,” Edges in ASAP, http://www.breault.com/k-base.php?kbaseID=29&catID=44&page=2 .
  16. J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “High efficiency pocket-size projector with a projecting lens and light emitting diode-based light source system,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3406–3414 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, W. S. Sun, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Integration of non-Lambertian LED and reflective optical element as efficient street lamp,” Opt. Express 18, A221–A230 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Luo, Z. Fang, Y. Han, and H. Li, “Design of compact and smooth free-form optical system with uniform luminance for LED light source,” Opt. Express 18, 9055–9063 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2008 (1)

J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “High efficiency pocket-size projector with a projecting lens and light emitting diode-based light source system,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3406–3414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Yong Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Fuji, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Orita, “High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode suing extended-pitch photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bao, K.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Yong Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

S. H. Tu, S. Y. Wu, Y. C. Lee, J. W. Pan, C. H. Kuo, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Functional imprinting structures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes for light pattern modulation and light extraction efficiency enhancement,” Opt. Rev. 17, 379–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, W. S. Sun, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Integration of non-Lambertian LED and reflective optical element as efficient street lamp,” Opt. Express 18, A221–A230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “High efficiency pocket-size projector with a projecting lens and light emitting diode-based light source system,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3406–3414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Yong

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Yong Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, T.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Yong Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. Y.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z.

Fisher, R. E.

R. E. Fisher and B. Tadic-Galeb, Optical System Design (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

Fuji, T.

T. Fuji, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

M. S. Zukauskas, M. S. Schur, and R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid State Lighting (Wiley-Interscience2002).

Han, Y.

Ji, H.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Yong Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, X. N.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Yong Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khizar, M.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

S. H. Tu, S. Y. Wu, Y. C. Lee, J. W. Pan, C. H. Kuo, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Functional imprinting structures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes for light pattern modulation and light extraction efficiency enhancement,” Opt. Rev. 17, 379–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. C.

S. H. Tu, S. Y. Wu, Y. C. Lee, J. W. Pan, C. H. Kuo, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Functional imprinting structures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes for light pattern modulation and light extraction efficiency enhancement,” Opt. Rev. 17, 379–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Lin, J. Y.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lio, C. X.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lio, X. J.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Orita, K.

K. Orita, “High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode suing extended-pitch photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, Q.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. W.

J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, W. S. Sun, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Integration of non-Lambertian LED and reflective optical element as efficient street lamp,” Opt. Express 18, A221–A230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Tu, S. Y. Wu, Y. C. Lee, J. W. Pan, C. H. Kuo, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Functional imprinting structures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes for light pattern modulation and light extraction efficiency enhancement,” Opt. Rev. 17, 379–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “High efficiency pocket-size projector with a projecting lens and light emitting diode-based light source system,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3406–3414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, “The Lambertian emission pattern,” in Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University, 2006), pp. 94–95.

Schur, M. S.

M. S. Zukauskas, M. S. Schur, and R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid State Lighting (Wiley-Interscience2002).

Smith, G. E.

G. E. Smith, “Illumination optics and method,” U.S. patent 6476970, (5November, 2003).

Sun, M. H.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W. S.

Tadic-Galeb, B.

R. E. Fisher and B. Tadic-Galeb, Optical System Design (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

Tu, S. H.

J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, W. S. Sun, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Integration of non-Lambertian LED and reflective optical element as efficient street lamp,” Opt. Express 18, A221–A230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Tu, S. Y. Wu, Y. C. Lee, J. W. Pan, C. H. Kuo, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Functional imprinting structures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes for light pattern modulation and light extraction efficiency enhancement,” Opt. Rev. 17, 379–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “High efficiency pocket-size projector with a projecting lens and light emitting diode-based light source system,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3406–3414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tullis, B. J.

B. J. Tullis, “Method and device for achieving high contrast surface illumination,” U.S. patent 5686720, (11November, 1997).

Wang, C. M.

S. H. Tu, S. Y. Wu, Y. C. Lee, J. W. Pan, C. H. Kuo, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Functional imprinting structures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes for light pattern modulation and light extraction efficiency enhancement,” Opt. Rev. 17, 379–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, W. S. Sun, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Integration of non-Lambertian LED and reflective optical element as efficient street lamp,” Opt. Express 18, A221–A230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “High efficiency pocket-size projector with a projecting lens and light emitting diode-based light source system,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3406–3414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. G.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. M.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Y.

S. H. Tu, S. Y. Wu, Y. C. Lee, J. W. Pan, C. H. Kuo, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Functional imprinting structures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes for light pattern modulation and light extraction efficiency enhancement,” Opt. Rev. 17, 379–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, C.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Yong Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Yong Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Yong Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zukauskas, M. S.

M. S. Zukauskas, M. S. Schur, and R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid State Lighting (Wiley-Interscience2002).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “High efficiency pocket-size projector with a projecting lens and light emitting diode-based light source system,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3406–3414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Yong Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Orita, “High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode suing extended-pitch photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

S. H. Tu, S. Y. Wu, Y. C. Lee, J. W. Pan, C. H. Kuo, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Functional imprinting structures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes for light pattern modulation and light extraction efficiency enhancement,” Opt. Rev. 17, 379–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Tech. (1)

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 22, 279 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

Radiant Zemax, “SIG-400TM,” http://www.radiantimaging.com/index.php?q=products/sig400 .

“Advanced System Analysis Program technical guide,” Edges in ASAP, http://www.breault.com/k-base.php?kbaseID=29&catID=44&page=2 .

M. S. Zukauskas, M. S. Schur, and R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid State Lighting (Wiley-Interscience2002).

B. J. Tullis, “Method and device for achieving high contrast surface illumination,” U.S. patent 5686720, (11November, 1997).

Avago (Agilent), “HDNS-2100 solid-state optical mouse lens data sheet,” http://www.avagotech.com.tw/docs/AV02-1278EN .

R. E. Fisher and B. Tadic-Galeb, Optical System Design (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

G. E. Smith, “Illumination optics and method,” U.S. patent 6476970, (5November, 2003).

E. F. Schubert, “The Lambertian emission pattern,” in Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University, 2006), pp. 94–95.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Microscopic images and geometric depiction of the imprinted structures: (a) 50× optical microscope picture of the imprinted LED chip; (b) AFM picture of the 1D blazed grating structure; (c) 1D blazed grating geometric scheme.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The optical performance of imprinted and planar LEDs: (a) applied voltage versus current curve; (b) injection current versus luminous curve; (c) intensity distributions of imprinted LEDs for 180°, 180°, and 90° measurement.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Free-form surface with control points: (a) green surface; (b) red surface.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The FFS LED lens: (a) oblique view; (b) ray tracing; (c) green ray path; (d) red ray path in x-z cross section.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Radiant intensity distribution and energy distribution of the illumination distribution with the active area.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) FFS lens sample; (b) illumination patent captured by camera.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of the Traditional and Novel Illumination System

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of Given Alignment Tolerance for the Two Illumination Systems

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i=0mj=0nPijWijBim(u)Bjn(v)i=0mj=0nWijBim(u)Bjn(v),
Tmax(θ)maximum,
Uniformity=IcenIavg×100%.
E=p,qIp,q×Ap,qWtotal×100%.

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