Abstract

The theory of mode-sorting in bimodal asymmetric Y-junctions is extended to multimode asymmetric Y-junctions with multiple output arms. This theory allows for the optimization of these mode-sorting planar structures. Asymmetric Y-junctions provide unique opportunities for spatial mode division multiplexing (MDM) of optical fiber. Spatial MDM is considered paramount to overcoming the bandwidth limitations of single-mode fiber. The design criteria presented in this paper facilitate their design.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. D. Love, R. W. C. Vance, and A. Joblin, “Asymmetric, adiabatic multipronged planar splitters,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 353–369 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Sasaki and I. Anderson, “Theoretical and experimental studies on active Y-junctions in optical-waveguides,” J. Quantum Electron. 14, 883–892 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. G. Medoks, “The theory of symmetric waveguide Y-junction,” Radio Engineering and Electronic Physics-USSR 13, 106 (1968).
  4. M. Izutsu, Y. Nakai, and T. Sueta, “Operation mechanism of the single-mode optical-waveguide-Y junction,” Opt. Lett. 7, 136–138 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” J. Quantum. Electron. QE-11, 32–39 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. M. Henry, and J. D. Love, “Asymmetric multimode Y-junction splitters,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, 379–392 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Y. Hung, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, “Novel design of wide-angle single-mode symmetric Y-junctions,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1184–1185 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. D. Love and A. Ankiewicz, “Purely geometrical coarse wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1385–1386 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Shirafuji and S. Kurazono, “Transmission characteristics of optical asymmetric-Y junction with a gap region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 426–429 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 344–346 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. D. Love and A. Ankiewicz, “Photonic devices based on mode conversion,” in Proceedings of Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT, 2001), pp. 80–81.
  12. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory(Chapman and Hall, 1983).
  13. J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Single-, few-, and multimode Y-junctions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 304–309 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 344–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Single-, few-, and multimode Y-junctions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 304–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. D. Love and A. Ankiewicz, “Purely geometrical coarse wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1385–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. M. Henry, and J. D. Love, “Asymmetric multimode Y-junction splitters,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, 379–392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. D. Love, R. W. C. Vance, and A. Joblin, “Asymmetric, adiabatic multipronged planar splitters,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 353–369 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Shirafuji and S. Kurazono, “Transmission characteristics of optical asymmetric-Y junction with a gap region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 426–429 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

W. Y. Hung, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, “Novel design of wide-angle single-mode symmetric Y-junctions,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1184–1185 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1978 (1)

H. Sasaki and I. Anderson, “Theoretical and experimental studies on active Y-junctions in optical-waveguides,” J. Quantum Electron. 14, 883–892 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” J. Quantum. Electron. QE-11, 32–39 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

A. G. Medoks, “The theory of symmetric waveguide Y-junction,” Radio Engineering and Electronic Physics-USSR 13, 106 (1968).

Anderson, I.

H. Sasaki and I. Anderson, “Theoretical and experimental studies on active Y-junctions in optical-waveguides,” J. Quantum Electron. 14, 883–892 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

J. D. Love and A. Ankiewicz, “Purely geometrical coarse wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1385–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love and A. Ankiewicz, “Photonic devices based on mode conversion,” in Proceedings of Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT, 2001), pp. 80–81.

Arkwright, J. W.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 344–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” J. Quantum. Electron. QE-11, 32–39 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. P.

W. Y. Hung, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, “Novel design of wide-angle single-mode symmetric Y-junctions,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1184–1185 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chung, P. S.

W. Y. Hung, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, “Novel design of wide-angle single-mode symmetric Y-junctions,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1184–1185 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Henry, W. M.

W. M. Henry, and J. D. Love, “Asymmetric multimode Y-junction splitters,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, 379–392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hung, W. Y.

W. Y. Hung, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, “Novel design of wide-angle single-mode symmetric Y-junctions,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1184–1185 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Izutsu, M.

Joblin, A.

J. D. Love, R. W. C. Vance, and A. Joblin, “Asymmetric, adiabatic multipronged planar splitters,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 353–369 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kurazono, S.

K. Shirafuji and S. Kurazono, “Transmission characteristics of optical asymmetric-Y junction with a gap region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 426–429 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 344–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Single-, few-, and multimode Y-junctions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 304–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love and A. Ankiewicz, “Purely geometrical coarse wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1385–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Henry, and J. D. Love, “Asymmetric multimode Y-junction splitters,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, 379–392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love, R. W. C. Vance, and A. Joblin, “Asymmetric, adiabatic multipronged planar splitters,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 353–369 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory(Chapman and Hall, 1983).

J. D. Love and A. Ankiewicz, “Photonic devices based on mode conversion,” in Proceedings of Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT, 2001), pp. 80–81.

Medoks, A. G.

A. G. Medoks, “The theory of symmetric waveguide Y-junction,” Radio Engineering and Electronic Physics-USSR 13, 106 (1968).

Milton, A. F.

W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” J. Quantum. Electron. QE-11, 32–39 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, Y.

Riesen, N.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 344–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Single-, few-, and multimode Y-junctions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 304–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

H. Sasaki and I. Anderson, “Theoretical and experimental studies on active Y-junctions in optical-waveguides,” J. Quantum Electron. 14, 883–892 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shirafuji, K.

K. Shirafuji and S. Kurazono, “Transmission characteristics of optical asymmetric-Y junction with a gap region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 426–429 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory(Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Sueta, T.

Vance, R. W. C.

J. D. Love, R. W. C. Vance, and A. Joblin, “Asymmetric, adiabatic multipronged planar splitters,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 353–369 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

W. Y. Hung, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, “Novel design of wide-angle single-mode symmetric Y-junctions,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1184–1185 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love and A. Ankiewicz, “Purely geometrical coarse wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1385–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 344–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Single-, few-, and multimode Y-junctions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 304–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Shirafuji and S. Kurazono, “Transmission characteristics of optical asymmetric-Y junction with a gap region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 426–429 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Sasaki and I. Anderson, “Theoretical and experimental studies on active Y-junctions in optical-waveguides,” J. Quantum Electron. 14, 883–892 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” J. Quantum. Electron. QE-11, 32–39 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. D. Love, R. W. C. Vance, and A. Joblin, “Asymmetric, adiabatic multipronged planar splitters,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 353–369 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Henry, and J. D. Love, “Asymmetric multimode Y-junction splitters,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, 379–392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Radio Engineering and Electronic Physics-USSR (1)

A. G. Medoks, “The theory of symmetric waveguide Y-junction,” Radio Engineering and Electronic Physics-USSR 13, 106 (1968).

Other (2)

J. D. Love and A. Ankiewicz, “Photonic devices based on mode conversion,” in Proceedings of Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT, 2001), pp. 80–81.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory(Chapman and Hall, 1983).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a), (b) Mode-sorting properties of a bimodal, two-arm asymmetric Y-junction, and (c) the structure of an asymmetric Y-junction with an N-mode stem and N-output arms.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The behavior of an N=3 Y-junction, with arms labeled A, B, and C, and with a 14 μm stem width (black shaded region signifies excitation of higher-order modes).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The behavior of an N=2 Y-junction with a 5 μm stem width (bold black lines signify the excitation of higher-order modes in the arms).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optimal mode-sorting for a three-mode asymmetric Y-junction with fundamental (a), second (b) and third (c) modes in the stem.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optimal mode-sorting for a four-mode asymmetric Y-junction with fundamental (a), second (b), third (c) and fourth (d) modes in the stem.

Equations (12)

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MCF=|βAβB|θγAB
γAB=12[(βA+βB)2(2kn)2]1/2
MCFij=|βiβj|θiiγij,γij=12[(βi+βj)2(2kn)2]1/2
MCFij=1θγij|βiβjij|
MOF=ijj>iN|1MCFij|=θijj>iN|ijβiβj|γij
β1,,βN|min{ijj>iN|ijβiβj|[(βi+βj)2(2kn)2]1/2}
maxa=1N[minb=1Ns|βArm,aβStem,b|]mini=2Nsj=1Nk=2Nsik|βArm,jkβStem,i|
ncl2nco2W=UcotUncl2nco2W=UtanU
W=UcotUW=UtanU
W2+U2=V2U=ρ[knco2β2]1/2
β1,,βN|min{ijj>iN|ijβiβj|[(βi+βj)2(2kn)2]1/2}maxa=1N[minb=1Ns|βArm,aβStem,b|]mini=2Nsj=1Nk=2.Nsik|βArm,jkβStem,i|
β1,,βN=[knco2U2ρ2]1/2

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