Abstract

We present the design procedure for an ultracompact low-power all-optical modulator based on a dispersion-engineered slow-light regime in a photonic crystal Mach–Zehnder interferometer (PhC MZI), selectively infiltrated by nonlinear optical fluids. The dispersionless slow-light regime enhancing the nonlinearities enabled a 22 μm long PhC MZI to operate as a modulator with an input power as low as 3mW/μm. Simulations reveal that the switching threshold can be controlled by varying the optofluidic infiltration.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (4)

2010 (3)

L. O’Faolain, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, T. Kampfrath, K. Kuipers, and T. F. Krauss, “Compact optical switches and modulators based on dispersion engineered photonic crystals,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 404–414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640  Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18, 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (5)

2007 (5)

S. Kubo, D. Mori, and T. Baba, “Low-group-velocity and low-dispersion slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2981–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide-editing modulator for low voltage operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: a new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Kraus, “Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Phys. D 40, 2666–2670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Säynätjoki, M. Mulot, J. Ahopelto, and H. Lipsanen, “Dispersion engineering of photonic crystal waveguides with ring-shaped holes,” Opt. Express 15, 8323–8328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, “Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866–4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. D. Bristow, J.-P. R. Wells, W. H. Fan, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui, T. F. Krauss, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast nonlinear response of AlGaAs two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. S. He and P. N. Prasad, “Stimulated Kerr scattering and reorientation work of molecules in liquid CS2,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2687–2697 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Ahopelto, J.

Argyros, A.

Auguste, J.-L.

Baba, T.

Bakhshi, S.

Bedoya, A. Casas

A. Casas Bedoya, P. Domachuk, C. Monat, C. Grillet, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, E. C. Mägi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optofluidic dispersion engineering of photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 7949, 794904 (2011).

Beggs, D. M.

L. O’Faolain, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, T. Kampfrath, K. Kuipers, and T. F. Krauss, “Compact optical switches and modulators based on dispersion engineered photonic crystals,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 404–414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, J. G.

Bettotti, P.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 21111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bitarafan, M. H.

Blondy, J.-M.

Bog, U.

Borel, P. I.

Bridges, T. J.

Bristow, A. D.

A. D. Bristow, J.-P. R. Wells, W. H. Fan, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui, T. F. Krauss, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast nonlinear response of AlGaAs two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chai, Y. J.

T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide-editing modulator for low voltage operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide-editing modulator for low voltage operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chinaud, J.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

Citrin, D. S.

Colocci, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 21111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corcoran, B.

Cox, F. M.

Dai, L.

Delaye, P.

Domachuk, P.

A. Casas Bedoya, P. Domachuk, C. Monat, C. Grillet, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, E. C. Mägi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optofluidic dispersion engineering of photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 7949, 794904 (2011).

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: a new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ebnali-Heidari, M.

M. H. Bitarafan, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, and M. Ebnali-Heidari, “Proposal for postfabrication fine-tuning of three-port photonic crystal channel drop filters by means of optofluidic infiltration,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Bakhshi, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, and M. Ebnali-Heidari, “Proposal for enhancing the transmission efficiency of photonic crystal 60° waveguide bends by means of optofluidic infiltration,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4048–4053 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Monat, C. Grillet, and M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, “A proposal for enhancing four-wave mixing in slow light engineered photonic crystal waveguides and its application to optical regeneration,” Opt. Express 17, 18340–18353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 17, 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

A. Casas Bedoya, P. Domachuk, C. Monat, C. Grillet, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, E. C. Mägi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optofluidic dispersion engineering of photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 7949, 794904 (2011).

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640  Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18, 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 17, 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express 16, 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: a new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, “Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866–4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Emery, T.

Erickson, D.

Fage-Pedersen, J.

Fan, S. H.

Fan, W. H.

A. D. Bristow, J.-P. R. Wells, W. H. Fan, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui, T. F. Krauss, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast nonlinear response of AlGaAs two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Février, S.

Fox, A. M.

A. D. Bristow, J.-P. R. Wells, W. H. Fan, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui, T. F. Krauss, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast nonlinear response of AlGaAs two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

Frey, R.

Giessen, H.

Gomez-Iglesias, A.

Grillet, C.

A. Casas Bedoya, P. Domachuk, C. Monat, C. Grillet, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, E. C. Mägi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optofluidic dispersion engineering of photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 7949, 794904 (2011).

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640  Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18, 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Monat, C. Grillet, and M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, “A proposal for enhancing four-wave mixing in slow light engineered photonic crystal waveguides and its application to optical regeneration,” Opt. Express 17, 18340–18353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 17, 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express 16, 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, L.

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide-editing modulator for low voltage operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438, 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hart, R. M.

Hawkins, A. R.

A. R. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, Handbook of Optofluidics (CRC, 2010), Appendix B.

He, G. S.

G. S. He and P. N. Prasad, “Stimulated Kerr scattering and reorientation work of molecules in liquid CS2,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2687–2697 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

Intonti, F.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 21111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, C.

Jiang, W.

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide-editing modulator for low voltage operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, E.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Kampfrath, T.

L. O’Faolain, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, T. Kampfrath, K. Kuipers, and T. F. Krauss, “Compact optical switches and modulators based on dispersion engineered photonic crystals,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 404–414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karle, T. J.

T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karnutsch, C.

Kawagishi, Y.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kraus, T. F.

T. F. Kraus, “Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Phys. D 40, 2666–2670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640  Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18, 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. O’Faolain, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, T. Kampfrath, K. Kuipers, and T. F. Krauss, “Compact optical switches and modulators based on dispersion engineered photonic crystals,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 404–414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, “Why do we need slow light?” Nat. Photonics 2, 448–449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, “Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 6227–6232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express 16, 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Bristow, J.-P. R. Wells, W. H. Fan, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui, T. F. Krauss, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast nonlinear response of AlGaAs two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, S.

Kuipers, K.

L. O’Faolain, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, T. Kampfrath, K. Kuipers, and T. F. Krauss, “Compact optical switches and modulators based on dispersion engineered photonic crystals,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 404–414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kurt, H.

Large, M. C. J.

Lavrinenko, A. V.

Lee, M. W.

Li, J.

Li, T.

Lide, D. R.

D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2010), Section 12.

Lipsanen, H.

Mägi, E. C.

A. Casas Bedoya, P. Domachuk, C. Monat, C. Grillet, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, E. C. Mägi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optofluidic dispersion engineering of photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 7949, 794904 (2011).

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438, 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R. C.

Monat, C.

A. Casas Bedoya, P. Domachuk, C. Monat, C. Grillet, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, E. C. Mägi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optofluidic dispersion engineering of photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 7949, 794904 (2011).

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640  Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18, 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Monat, C. Grillet, and M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, “A proposal for enhancing four-wave mixing in slow light engineered photonic crystal waveguides and its application to optical regeneration,” Opt. Express 17, 18340–18353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 17, 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express 16, 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: a new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moravvej-Farshi, M. K.

Morgan, C. N.

T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mori, D.

Moss, D. J.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640  Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18, 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mulot, M.

Nakayama, K.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438, 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

L. O’Faolain, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, T. Kampfrath, K. Kuipers, and T. F. Krauss, “Compact optical switches and modulators based on dispersion engineered photonic crystals,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 404–414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640  Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18, 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, “Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 6227–6232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express 16, 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 21111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pelusi, M.

Pelusi, M. D.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A. Y.

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, “Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866–4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He and P. N. Prasad, “Stimulated Kerr scattering and reorientation work of molecules in liquid CS2,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2687–2697 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits, ” Opt. Lett. 31, 59–61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pudo, D.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. S.

A. D. Bristow, J.-P. R. Wells, W. H. Fan, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui, T. F. Krauss, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast nonlinear response of AlGaAs two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rockwood, T.

Roosen, G.

Rouvie, A.

Roy, P.

Säynätjoki, A.

Scherer, A.

Schmidt, H.

A. R. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, Handbook of Optofluidics (CRC, 2010), Appendix B.

Schweizer, S. L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 21111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, Y.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Skolnick, M. S.

A. D. Bristow, J.-P. R. Wells, W. H. Fan, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui, T. F. Krauss, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast nonlinear response of AlGaAs two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. L.

Soljacic, M.

Tahraoui, A.

A. D. Bristow, J.-P. R. Wells, W. H. Fan, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui, T. F. Krauss, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast nonlinear response of AlGaAs two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Teipel, J.

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

A. Casas Bedoya, P. Domachuk, C. Monat, C. Grillet, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, E. C. Mägi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optofluidic dispersion engineering of photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 7949, 794904 (2011).

C. L. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express 16, 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Turck, V.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 21111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Viale, P.

Vignolini, S.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 21111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438, 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide-editing modulator for low voltage operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 21111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wells, J.-P. R.

A. D. Bristow, J.-P. R. Wells, W. H. Fan, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui, T. F. Krauss, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast nonlinear response of AlGaAs two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

White, T. P.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640  Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18, 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. O’Faolain, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, T. Kampfrath, K. Kuipers, and T. F. Krauss, “Compact optical switches and modulators based on dispersion engineered photonic crystals,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 404–414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, “Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 6227–6232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D. M.

A. D. Bristow, J.-P. R. Wells, W. H. Fan, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui, T. F. Krauss, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast nonlinear response of AlGaAs two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 21111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. K.

Yang, C. H.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yiou, S.

Yoshino, K.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 21111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Bristow, J.-P. R. Wells, W. H. Fan, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui, T. F. Krauss, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast nonlinear response of AlGaAs two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, “Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866–4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide-editing modulator for low voltage operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

L. O’Faolain, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, T. Kampfrath, K. Kuipers, and T. F. Krauss, “Compact optical switches and modulators based on dispersion engineered photonic crystals,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 404–414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. D (1)

T. F. Kraus, “Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Phys. D 40, 2666–2670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: a new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, “Why do we need slow light?” Nat. Photonics 2, 448–449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2, 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438, 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

S. Yiou, P. Delaye, A. Rouvie, J. Chinaud, R. Frey, G. Roosen, P. Viale, S. Février, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Stimulated Raman scattering in an ethanol core microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 13, 4786–4791 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Cox, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, “Liquid-filled hollow core microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 4135–4140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhang, J. Teipel, and H. Giessen, “Theoretical design of a liquid core photonic crystal fiber for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 14, 6800–6812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express 16, 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kurt and D. S. Citrin, “Reconfigurable multimode photonic-crystal waveguides, ” Opt. Express 16, 11995–12001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 17, 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, J. Fage-Pedersen, and P. I. Borel, “Photonic crystal waveguides with semi-slow light and tailored dispersion properties,” Opt. Express 14, 9444–9450 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, “Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 6227–6232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Säynätjoki, M. Mulot, J. Ahopelto, and H. Lipsanen, “Dispersion engineering of photonic crystal waveguides with ring-shaped holes,” Opt. Express 15, 8323–8328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Monat, C. Grillet, and M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, “A proposal for enhancing four-wave mixing in slow light engineered photonic crystal waveguides and its application to optical regeneration,” Opt. Express 17, 18340–18353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640  Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express 18, 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. S. He and P. N. Prasad, “Stimulated Kerr scattering and reorientation work of molecules in liquid CS2,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2687–2697 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Casas Bedoya, P. Domachuk, C. Monat, C. Grillet, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, E. C. Mägi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optofluidic dispersion engineering of photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 7949, 794904 (2011).

Other (3)

“Introduction to Optical Liquids,” 2011, http://www.cargille.com/opticalintro.shtml .

D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2010), Section 12.

A. R. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, Handbook of Optofluidics (CRC, 2010), Appendix B.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic representation of a PhC W09W with selectively infiltrated air holes (dark circles).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Wavelength dependence of the group indices, ng, (lines) and GVDs, β2, (symbols) of the fundamental modes of the selectively infiltrated W09W of Fig. 1 for optical fluids of nf=1.75, 1.85, and 1.95.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic representation of a dispersion-engineered PhC-based MZM with optimized 60° bends. All waveguides are assumed to be W09 type. The fluids infiltrated into the holes of the upper arm (yellow), the lower arm (light green), and four bends (dark green) are assumed to have the refractive indices nfU=1.95, nfL=1.85, and nfd=1.9, respectively. The dark green rectangles on both sides of the MZM indicate the input and output monitors.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Propagating modes of W09W of Fig. 1 when the refractive index of the infiltrated liquid is 1.85 for the linear (solid line) and nonlinear (dashed line) regimes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized output intensity versus the input power for a dispersion-engineered MZM operating at center wavelength of (a) 1550 nm and (b) 1580 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Normalized output intensity versus the input power for dispersion-engineered MZM operating in various slow-light regimes.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Time responses of three MZMs, whose arms are made of W09W. Dots show the input; dotted dashes, dashes, and solid line show the output for uninfiltrated MZM with conventional 60° bends, dispersion-engineered MZM with conventional 60° bends, and dispersion-engineered MZM with optimized 60° bends, respectively.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Details of the Group Indices and the Corresponding GVDs, Center Wavelengths of the Flat Band (λc), Bandwidths (Δλ), and the Group Index—Bandwidth Products (ng×λ/λc) For All Cases

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Table 2. Details of the Required Input Powers for the Modulation in All Cases Shown in Fig. 6 and the Corresponding Modulation Windows

Equations (2)

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Lλ12σ(nδn)(vGc).
Δϕ(kk)×2πa×L,

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