Abstract

We propose a method to suppress the beat noise generated in fiber low coherence interferometry (LCI) systems for characterizing the chromatic dispersion of chirped fiber Bragg gratings. The beat noise is considered as the dominant noise in the system because of the spectrum mismatch between interference arms due to the broad bandwidth of the light source and the introduction of dispersive components into the measurement arm, and is unfavorable for the signal quality. An experimental system is set up and interferograms of various situations are provided. Experiment results indicate that our method is feasible and effective, as it improves the signal to noise ratio effectively by a factor of more than 3, thereby expanding the measurement range of the LCI system.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Rao, “Study on fiber-optic low-coherence interferometric and fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Photonic Sensors 1, 382–400 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Gan, Y. Hao, Q. Ye, Z. Pan, C. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “High spatial resolution distributed strain sensor based on linear chirped fiber Bragg grating and fiber loop ringdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36, 879–881 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Liu, W. Li, and J. Yao, “Real-time interrogation of a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1340–1342 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Karim and O. Seddiki, “Theoretical analysis of sampled Bragg grating with a chirp in sampling and grating period for dispersion compensation applications,” J. Opt. Commun. 31, 18–21 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Gumenyuk, C. Thur, S. Kivisto, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tapered fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Quantum Electron. 46, 769–773 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Shu, K. Sugden, and I. Bennion, “Optically pumped chirped grating for tunable chromatic dispersion compensation,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BTuA8.
  7. C. Wang and J. Yao, “Ultrafast and ultrahigh-resolution interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating sensor based on interferometric temporal spectroscopy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2927–2933 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Xia, C. Wang, S. Blais, and J. Yao, “Ultrafast and precise interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensor based on wavelength-to-time mapping incorporating higher order dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 254–261 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Dolgaleva, A. Malacarne, P. Tannouri, L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, J. S. Aitchison, J. Azaña, R. Morandotti, P. R. Herman, and P. V. S. Marques, “Integrated optical temporal Fourier transformer based on a chirped Bragg grating waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4416–4418 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Liu, M. Li, C. Wang, and J. Yao, “Real-time interrogation of a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating sensor based on chirped pulse compression with improved resolution and signal-to-noise ratio,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1239–1247 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Bader, T. Pagel, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Characterization of chirped fiber Bragg gratings: identification and removal of cladding-mode perturbations in measurement data,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1783–1789 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Q. Chen, “Suppression of beat noise in low-coherence fiber interferometric system.,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 2367–2370 (2007).
  13. Q. Chen, N. Lu, and F. Jiang, “Characterization of the dispersion of chirped fiber Bragg grating through Fourier transform spectrometry method,” Proc. SPIE 6837, 68370W (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Chen, N. Lu, and X. Sang, “Analysis on the interferogram of a low coherence interferometric system for measuring the dispersion of chirped fiber grating through Fourier spectrometry method,” Proc. SPIE 6624, 66240T (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Zhu, Q. Chen, and Y. Li, “Research on the sampling strategy for measuring the dispersion of chirped fiber Bragg grating,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 10th International Conference on Electronic Measurement and Instruments (IEEE, 2011), pp. 231–235.

2011

Y. Rao, “Study on fiber-optic low-coherence interferometric and fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Photonic Sensors 1, 382–400 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gan, Y. Hao, Q. Ye, Z. Pan, C. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “High spatial resolution distributed strain sensor based on linear chirped fiber Bragg grating and fiber loop ringdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36, 879–881 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, W. Li, and J. Yao, “Real-time interrogation of a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1340–1342 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Dolgaleva, A. Malacarne, P. Tannouri, L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, J. S. Aitchison, J. Azaña, R. Morandotti, P. R. Herman, and P. V. S. Marques, “Integrated optical temporal Fourier transformer based on a chirped Bragg grating waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4416–4418 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, M. Li, C. Wang, and J. Yao, “Real-time interrogation of a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating sensor based on chirped pulse compression with improved resolution and signal-to-noise ratio,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1239–1247 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Bader, T. Pagel, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Characterization of chirped fiber Bragg gratings: identification and removal of cladding-mode perturbations in measurement data,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1783–1789 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang and J. Yao, “Ultrafast and ultrahigh-resolution interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating sensor based on interferometric temporal spectroscopy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2927–2933 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. Xia, C. Wang, S. Blais, and J. Yao, “Ultrafast and precise interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensor based on wavelength-to-time mapping incorporating higher order dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 254–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Karim and O. Seddiki, “Theoretical analysis of sampled Bragg grating with a chirp in sampling and grating period for dispersion compensation applications,” J. Opt. Commun. 31, 18–21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Gumenyuk, C. Thur, S. Kivisto, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tapered fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Quantum Electron. 46, 769–773 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

Q. Chen, N. Lu, and F. Jiang, “Characterization of the dispersion of chirped fiber Bragg grating through Fourier transform spectrometry method,” Proc. SPIE 6837, 68370W (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Q. Chen, N. Lu, and X. Sang, “Analysis on the interferogram of a low coherence interferometric system for measuring the dispersion of chirped fiber grating through Fourier spectrometry method,” Proc. SPIE 6624, 66240T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, “Suppression of beat noise in low-coherence fiber interferometric system.,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 2367–2370 (2007).

Aitchison, J. S.

Azaña, J.

Bader, R.

Bennion, I.

X. Shu, K. Sugden, and I. Bennion, “Optically pumped chirped grating for tunable chromatic dispersion compensation,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BTuA8.

Blais, S.

Brinkmeyer, E.

Cai, C.

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, N. Lu, and F. Jiang, “Characterization of the dispersion of chirped fiber Bragg grating through Fourier transform spectrometry method,” Proc. SPIE 6837, 68370W (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, “Suppression of beat noise in low-coherence fiber interferometric system.,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 2367–2370 (2007).

Q. Chen, N. Lu, and X. Sang, “Analysis on the interferogram of a low coherence interferometric system for measuring the dispersion of chirped fiber grating through Fourier spectrometry method,” Proc. SPIE 6624, 66240T (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhu, Q. Chen, and Y. Li, “Research on the sampling strategy for measuring the dispersion of chirped fiber Bragg grating,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 10th International Conference on Electronic Measurement and Instruments (IEEE, 2011), pp. 231–235.

Dolgaleva, K.

Fang, Z.

Fernandes, L. A.

Gan, J.

Grenier, J. R.

Gumenyuk, R.

R. Gumenyuk, C. Thur, S. Kivisto, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tapered fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Quantum Electron. 46, 769–773 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Y.

Herman, P. R.

Jiang, F.

Q. Chen, N. Lu, and F. Jiang, “Characterization of the dispersion of chirped fiber Bragg grating through Fourier transform spectrometry method,” Proc. SPIE 6837, 68370W (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karim, F.

F. Karim and O. Seddiki, “Theoretical analysis of sampled Bragg grating with a chirp in sampling and grating period for dispersion compensation applications,” J. Opt. Commun. 31, 18–21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kivisto, S.

R. Gumenyuk, C. Thur, S. Kivisto, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tapered fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Quantum Electron. 46, 769–773 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Li, W.

W. Liu, W. Li, and J. Yao, “Real-time interrogation of a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1340–1342 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

C. Zhu, Q. Chen, and Y. Li, “Research on the sampling strategy for measuring the dispersion of chirped fiber Bragg grating,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 10th International Conference on Electronic Measurement and Instruments (IEEE, 2011), pp. 231–235.

Liu, W.

W. Liu, M. Li, C. Wang, and J. Yao, “Real-time interrogation of a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating sensor based on chirped pulse compression with improved resolution and signal-to-noise ratio,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1239–1247 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, W. Li, and J. Yao, “Real-time interrogation of a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1340–1342 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, N.

Q. Chen, N. Lu, and F. Jiang, “Characterization of the dispersion of chirped fiber Bragg grating through Fourier transform spectrometry method,” Proc. SPIE 6837, 68370W (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, N. Lu, and X. Sang, “Analysis on the interferogram of a low coherence interferometric system for measuring the dispersion of chirped fiber grating through Fourier spectrometry method,” Proc. SPIE 6624, 66240T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malacarne, A.

Marques, P. V. S.

Morandotti, R.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

R. Gumenyuk, C. Thur, S. Kivisto, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tapered fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Quantum Electron. 46, 769–773 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pagel, T.

Pan, Z.

Qu, R.

Rao, Y.

Y. Rao, “Study on fiber-optic low-coherence interferometric and fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Photonic Sensors 1, 382–400 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Renner, H.

Sang, X.

Q. Chen, N. Lu, and X. Sang, “Analysis on the interferogram of a low coherence interferometric system for measuring the dispersion of chirped fiber grating through Fourier spectrometry method,” Proc. SPIE 6624, 66240T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seddiki, O.

F. Karim and O. Seddiki, “Theoretical analysis of sampled Bragg grating with a chirp in sampling and grating period for dispersion compensation applications,” J. Opt. Commun. 31, 18–21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

X. Shu, K. Sugden, and I. Bennion, “Optically pumped chirped grating for tunable chromatic dispersion compensation,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BTuA8.

Sugden, K.

X. Shu, K. Sugden, and I. Bennion, “Optically pumped chirped grating for tunable chromatic dispersion compensation,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BTuA8.

Tannouri, P.

Thur, C.

R. Gumenyuk, C. Thur, S. Kivisto, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tapered fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Quantum Electron. 46, 769–773 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Xia, H.

Yao, J.

Ye, Q.

Zhu, C.

C. Zhu, Q. Chen, and Y. Li, “Research on the sampling strategy for measuring the dispersion of chirped fiber Bragg grating,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 10th International Conference on Electronic Measurement and Instruments (IEEE, 2011), pp. 231–235.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

W. Liu, W. Li, and J. Yao, “Real-time interrogation of a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1340–1342 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun.

F. Karim and O. Seddiki, “Theoretical analysis of sampled Bragg grating with a chirp in sampling and grating period for dispersion compensation applications,” J. Opt. Commun. 31, 18–21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.

Q. Chen, “Suppression of beat noise in low-coherence fiber interferometric system.,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 2367–2370 (2007).

Opt. Lett.

Photonic Sensors

Y. Rao, “Study on fiber-optic low-coherence interferometric and fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Photonic Sensors 1, 382–400 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

Q. Chen, N. Lu, and F. Jiang, “Characterization of the dispersion of chirped fiber Bragg grating through Fourier transform spectrometry method,” Proc. SPIE 6837, 68370W (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, N. Lu, and X. Sang, “Analysis on the interferogram of a low coherence interferometric system for measuring the dispersion of chirped fiber grating through Fourier spectrometry method,” Proc. SPIE 6624, 66240T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron.

R. Gumenyuk, C. Thur, S. Kivisto, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tapered fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Quantum Electron. 46, 769–773 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

X. Shu, K. Sugden, and I. Bennion, “Optically pumped chirped grating for tunable chromatic dispersion compensation,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BTuA8.

C. Zhu, Q. Chen, and Y. Li, “Research on the sampling strategy for measuring the dispersion of chirped fiber Bragg grating,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 10th International Conference on Electronic Measurement and Instruments (IEEE, 2011), pp. 231–235.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Conventional fiber LCI system and its interferogram.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Structure of CFBG.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dispersion mechanism of CFBG.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Self-adaptive matching LCI for characterization the dispersion of CFBG.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Configuration for measuring the background dispersion.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Background dispersion interferogram (upper), detail (middle), and the group delay (lower).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The interferogram recorded though self-adaptive spectrum matching method.

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