Abstract

Self-mode locking effect in a wideband tunable graphene-based passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser has been observed experimentally. Q-switching is achieved by using graphene as a saturable absorber, while a tunable bandpass filter with a narrow bandwidth is used to obtain wideband tunability. We propose to suppress the modulation on each pulse from self-mode locking by introducing three subring resonators constructed with three 3 dB couplers into the laser ring cavity. Moreover, the laser output characteristics with respect to pump power are studied in detail. A stable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with a tunable range from 1522 nm to 1568 nm is demonstrated experimentally.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (3)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C. Y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 105–107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. Newhouse-Illige, B. J. LeRoy, and A. S. Sandhu, “Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Lin, K. Xia, R. Li, X. Li, G. Li, K. Ueda, and J. Li, “Radially polarized and passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3574–3576 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B63–B92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1581–1583 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Philippov, A. V. Kir’yanov, and S. Unger, “Advanced configuration of erbium fiber passively Q-switched laser with Co2+:ZnSe crystal as saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 57–59 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

1993 (2)

1988 (1)

F. Zhang and J. W. Y. Lit, “Direct-coupling single-mode fiber ring resonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1347–1355(1988).
[CrossRef]

Bae, M.-K.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

Chang, H. L.

Chen, Y. F.

Chen, Y.-K.

Chi, S.

Chien, H.-C.

Chrostowski, J.

Clarkson, W. A.

Cormode, D.

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. Newhouse-Illige, B. J. LeRoy, and A. S. Sandhu, “Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, B.

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C. Y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 105–107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Filippov, V. N.

Han, W.-S.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C. Y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 105–107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C. Y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 105–107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

Huang, J. Y.

Huang, K. F.

Huang, S. C.

Huang, T.-T.

Inoue, Y.

Jablonski, M.

Jang, S.-Y.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kieu, K.

Kimura, Y.

Kir’yanov, A. V.

V. N. Philippov, A. V. Kir’yanov, and S. Unger, “Advanced configuration of erbium fiber passively Q-switched laser with Co2+:ZnSe crystal as saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 57–59 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Filippov, A. N. Starodumov, and A. V. Kir’yanov, “All-fiber passively Q-switched low-threshold erbium laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 343–345 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knize, R. J.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ko, C.-H.

Koningstein, J. A. K.

Kubota, H.

Lee, C.-C.

LeRoy, B. J.

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. Newhouse-Illige, B. J. LeRoy, and A. S. Sandhu, “Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Li, J.

Li, R.

Li, X.

Liaw, C. Y.

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C. Y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 105–107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liaw, S.-K.

Lin, D.

Lit, J. W. Y.

F. Zhang and J. W. Y. Lit, “Direct-coupling single-mode fiber ring resonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1347–1355(1988).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.-K.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

Mansuripur, M.

Maruyama, S.

Murakami, Y.

Myslinski, P.

Nakazawa, M.

Newhouse-Illige, T.

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. Newhouse-Illige, B. J. LeRoy, and A. S. Sandhu, “Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Philippov, V. N.

V. N. Philippov, A. V. Kir’yanov, and S. Unger, “Advanced configuration of erbium fiber passively Q-switched laser with Co2+:ZnSe crystal as saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 57–59 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, C.

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. Newhouse-Illige, B. J. LeRoy, and A. S. Sandhu, “Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Roberts, A.

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. Newhouse-Illige, B. J. LeRoy, and A. S. Sandhu, “Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, A. S.

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. Newhouse-Illige, B. J. LeRoy, and A. S. Sandhu, “Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Set, S. Y.

Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

Song, Y.-W.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Starodumov, A. N.

Su, K. W.

Sun, Z.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

Tang, D. Y.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

Unger, S.

V. N. Philippov, A. V. Kir’yanov, and S. Unger, “Advanced configuration of erbium fiber passively Q-switched laser with Co2+:ZnSe crystal as saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 57–59 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weng, J.

Xia, K.

Xu, H.

Yaguchi, H.

Yamashita, S.

Yan, Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.

Yeh, C.-H.

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang and J. W. Y. Lit, “Direct-coupling single-mode fiber ring resonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1347–1355(1988).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.-P.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, M.

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experiment setup: Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with a ring configuration. Inset is the three subrings constructed with three 3 dB couplers. Configuration 1: Point 1 connected with Point 2. Configuration 2: Point 1 connected with Point 4, and Point 2 connected with Point 3 for mode suppression.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical pulse train of Configuration 1 without subrings: (a) pulse train and (b) single-pulse envelope recorded at a pump power of 63.25 mW and wavelength of 1541 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Typical pulse train of Configuration 2 with three subrings: (a) pulse train and (b) single-pulse envelope recorded at a pump power of 63.25 mW and wavelength of 1541 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Laser output (stable Q-switching) at different wavelengths of Configuration 2 with three subrings at a pump power of 63.25 mW: (a) spectra and (b) average output power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Average output power and pulse repetition rate and (b) pulse energy and pulse duration of Configuration 2 with three subrings as a function of pump power at a wavelength of 1541 nm.

Equations (2)

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βLm=2pπ
βLi=2qπ

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