Abstract

A novel architecture of the optical multiple-image encryption based on the modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) by using cascading phase only functions (POFs) in the Fresnel transform (FrT) domain is presented. This proposed method can greatly increase the capacity of the system by avoiding the crosstalk, completely, between the encrypted target images. Each present stage encrypted target image is encoded as to a complex function by using the MGSA with constraining the encrypted target image of the previous stage. Not only the wavelength and position parameters in the FrT domain can be keys to increase system security, the created POFs are also served mutually as the encryption keys to decrypt target image from present stage into next stage in the cascaded scheme. Compared with a prior method [Appl. Opt.48, 2686–2692 (2009)], the main advantages of this proposed encryption system is that it does not need any transformative lenses and this makes it very efficient and easy to implement optically. Simulation results show that this proposed encryption system can successfully achieve the multiple-image encryption via fewer POFs, which is more advantageous in simpler implementation and efficiency than a prior method where each decryption stage requires two POFs to accomplish this task.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Refregier and B. Javidi, “Optical image encryption using input and Fourier plane random phase encoding,” Opt. Lett. 20, 767–769 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. H. Yeh, H. T. Chang, H. C. Chien, and C. J. Kuo, “Design of cascaded phase keys for hierarchical security system,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6128–6134 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. H. Lin, H. T. Chang, W. N. Lai, and C. H. Chuang, “Public-key-based optical image cryptosystem with data embedding techniques,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2331–2339 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2464–2469 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. C. Chang, H. T. Chang, and C. J. Kuo, “Hybrid image cryptosystem based on dyadic phase displacement in the Fourier domain,” Opt. Commun. 236, 245–257 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. T. Chang, “Image encryption using separate amplitude-based virtual image and iteratively-retrieved phase information,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2165–2171 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Double random-phase encoding in the Fresnel domain,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1584–1586 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. E. Hwang and P. Han, “Fast algorithm of phase masks for image encryption in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1870–1874 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Unnikrishnan, J. Joseph, and K. Singh, “Optical encryption by double-random phase encoding in the fractional Fourier domain,” Opt. Lett. 25, 887–889 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. T. Liu, Q. L. Mi, and B. H. Zhu, “Optical image encryption with multistage and multichannel fractional Fourier-domain filtering,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1242–1244 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Zhang, C. H. Zheng, and N. Tanno, “Optical encryption based on iterative fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 202, 277–285 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Situ and J. Zhang, “A cascaded iterative Fourier transform algorithm for optical security applications,” Optik 114, 473–477 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Li, K. Kreske, and J. Rosen, “Security and encryption optical systems based on a correlator with significant output images,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5295–5301 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. T. Chang, W. C. Lu, and C. J. Kuo, “Multiple-Phase Retrieval for Optical Security Systems by Use of Random-Phase Encoding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4815–4834 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Situ and J. Zhang, “A lensless optical security system based on computer-generated phase only masks,” Opt. Commun. 232, 115–122 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Z. He, L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, X. C. Wang, and X. F. Meng, “Multiple image encryption and watermarking by random phase matching,” Opt. Commun. 247, 29–37 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. M. Hennelly, T. J. Naughton, J. McDonald, J. T. Sheridan, G. Unnikrishnan, D. P. Kelly, and B. Javidi, “Spread-space spread-spectrum technique for secure multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1060–1066 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multichanneled encryption via a joint transform correlator architecture,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5903–5907 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Multiple-image encryption by wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1306–1308 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Position multiplexing for multiple-image encryption,” J. Opt. A 8, 391–397 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. E. Hwang, H. T. Chang, and W. N. Lie, “Multiple-image encryption and multiplexing using modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm and phase modulation in Fresnel transform domain,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3917–3919 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. E. Hwang, H. T. Chang, and W. N. Lie, “Fast double-phase retrieval in Fresnel domain using modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm for lensless optical security systems,” Opt. Express 17, 13700–13710 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. L. Xiao, X. Zhou, S. Yuan, Q. Liu, and Y. C. Li, “Multiple-image optical encryption: an improved encoding approach,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2686–2692 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “Phase determination for image and diffraction plane pictures in the electron microscope,” Optik 34, 275–284 (1971).
  25. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).
  26. H. E. Hwang, H. T. Chang, and W. N. Lie, “Lensless optical data embedding system using concealogram and cascaded digital Fresnel hologram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1453–1461, (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. E. Hwang and P. Han, “Signal reconstruction algorithm based on a single intensity in the Fresnel domain,” Opt. Express 15, 3766–3776 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

H. E. Hwang and P. Han, “Fast algorithm of phase masks for image encryption in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1870–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Position multiplexing for multiple-image encryption,” J. Opt. A 8, 391–397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Z. He, L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, X. C. Wang, and X. F. Meng, “Multiple image encryption and watermarking by random phase matching,” Opt. Commun. 247, 29–37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Multiple-image encryption by wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1306–1308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Double random-phase encoding in the Fresnel domain,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1584–1586 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “A lensless optical security system based on computer-generated phase only masks,” Opt. Commun. 232, 115–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chang, H. T. Chang, and C. J. Kuo, “Hybrid image cryptosystem based on dyadic phase displacement in the Fourier domain,” Opt. Commun. 236, 245–257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

G. H. Lin, H. T. Chang, W. N. Lai, and C. H. Chuang, “Public-key-based optical image cryptosystem with data embedding techniques,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2331–2339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “A cascaded iterative Fourier transform algorithm for optical security applications,” Optik 114, 473–477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

H. T. Chang, W. C. Lu, and C. J. Kuo, “Multiple-Phase Retrieval for Optical Security Systems by Use of Random-Phase Encoding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4815–4834 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, C. H. Zheng, and N. Tanno, “Optical encryption based on iterative fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 202, 277–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Yeh, H. T. Chang, H. C. Chien, and C. J. Kuo, “Design of cascaded phase keys for hierarchical security system,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6128–6134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. T. Chang, “Image encryption using separate amplitude-based virtual image and iteratively-retrieved phase information,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2165–2171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Liu, Q. L. Mi, and B. H. Zhu, “Optical image encryption with multistage and multichannel fractional Fourier-domain filtering,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1242–1244 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1996 (1)

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2464–2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

1971 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “Phase determination for image and diffraction plane pictures in the electron microscope,” Optik 34, 275–284 (1971).

Amaya, D.

Bolognini, N.

Cai, L. Z.

M. Z. He, L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, X. C. Wang, and X. F. Meng, “Multiple image encryption and watermarking by random phase matching,” Opt. Commun. 247, 29–37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. T.

H. E. Hwang, H. T. Chang, and W. N. Lie, “Lensless optical data embedding system using concealogram and cascaded digital Fresnel hologram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1453–1461, (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Hwang, H. T. Chang, and W. N. Lie, “Fast double-phase retrieval in Fresnel domain using modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm for lensless optical security systems,” Opt. Express 17, 13700–13710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Hwang, H. T. Chang, and W. N. Lie, “Multiple-image encryption and multiplexing using modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm and phase modulation in Fresnel transform domain,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3917–3919 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chang, H. T. Chang, and C. J. Kuo, “Hybrid image cryptosystem based on dyadic phase displacement in the Fourier domain,” Opt. Commun. 236, 245–257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Lin, H. T. Chang, W. N. Lai, and C. H. Chuang, “Public-key-based optical image cryptosystem with data embedding techniques,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2331–2339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chang, W. C. Lu, and C. J. Kuo, “Multiple-Phase Retrieval for Optical Security Systems by Use of Random-Phase Encoding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4815–4834 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Yeh, H. T. Chang, H. C. Chien, and C. J. Kuo, “Design of cascaded phase keys for hierarchical security system,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6128–6134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chang, “Image encryption using separate amplitude-based virtual image and iteratively-retrieved phase information,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2165–2171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. C.

Y. C. Chang, H. T. Chang, and C. J. Kuo, “Hybrid image cryptosystem based on dyadic phase displacement in the Fourier domain,” Opt. Commun. 236, 245–257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chatwin, C.

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2464–2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chien, H. C.

Chuang, C. H.

G. H. Lin, H. T. Chang, W. N. Lai, and C. H. Chuang, “Public-key-based optical image cryptosystem with data embedding techniques,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2331–2339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “Phase determination for image and diffraction plane pictures in the electron microscope,” Optik 34, 275–284 (1971).

Han, P.

He, M. Z.

M. Z. He, L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, X. C. Wang, and X. F. Meng, “Multiple image encryption and watermarking by random phase matching,” Opt. Commun. 247, 29–37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hennelly, B. M.

Hwang, H. E.

Javidi, B.

Joseph, J.

Kelly, D. P.

Kreske, K.

Kuo, C. J.

Y. C. Chang, H. T. Chang, and C. J. Kuo, “Hybrid image cryptosystem based on dyadic phase displacement in the Fourier domain,” Opt. Commun. 236, 245–257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Yeh, H. T. Chang, H. C. Chien, and C. J. Kuo, “Design of cascaded phase keys for hierarchical security system,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6128–6134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chang, W. C. Lu, and C. J. Kuo, “Multiple-Phase Retrieval for Optical Security Systems by Use of Random-Phase Encoding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4815–4834 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. N.

G. H. Lin, H. T. Chang, W. N. Lai, and C. H. Chuang, “Public-key-based optical image cryptosystem with data embedding techniques,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2331–2339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Li, Y. C.

Lie, W. N.

Lin, G. H.

G. H. Lin, H. T. Chang, W. N. Lai, and C. H. Chuang, “Public-key-based optical image cryptosystem with data embedding techniques,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2331–2339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Y. L. Xiao, X. Zhou, S. Yuan, Q. Liu, and Y. C. Li, “Multiple-image optical encryption: an improved encoding approach,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2686–2692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. He, L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, X. C. Wang, and X. F. Meng, “Multiple image encryption and watermarking by random phase matching,” Opt. Commun. 247, 29–37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. T.

Lu, W. C.

H. T. Chang, W. C. Lu, and C. J. Kuo, “Multiple-Phase Retrieval for Optical Security Systems by Use of Random-Phase Encoding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4815–4834 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, J.

Meng, X. F.

M. Z. He, L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, X. C. Wang, and X. F. Meng, “Multiple image encryption and watermarking by random phase matching,” Opt. Commun. 247, 29–37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mi, Q. L.

Naughton, T. J.

Refregier, P.

Rosen, J.

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “Phase determination for image and diffraction plane pictures in the electron microscope,” Optik 34, 275–284 (1971).

Sheridan, J. T.

Singh, K.

Situ, G.

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Position multiplexing for multiple-image encryption,” J. Opt. A 8, 391–397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Multiple-image encryption by wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1306–1308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “A lensless optical security system based on computer-generated phase only masks,” Opt. Commun. 232, 115–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Double random-phase encoding in the Fresnel domain,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1584–1586 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “A cascaded iterative Fourier transform algorithm for optical security applications,” Optik 114, 473–477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanno, N.

Y. Zhang, C. H. Zheng, and N. Tanno, “Optical encryption based on iterative fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 202, 277–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tebaldi, M.

Torroba, R.

Unnikrishnan, G.

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2464–2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. C.

M. Z. He, L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, X. C. Wang, and X. F. Meng, “Multiple image encryption and watermarking by random phase matching,” Opt. Commun. 247, 29–37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. A.

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2464–2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y. L.

Yeh, C. H.

Yuan, S.

Zhang, J.

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Position multiplexing for multiple-image encryption,” J. Opt. A 8, 391–397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Multiple-image encryption by wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1306–1308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Double random-phase encoding in the Fresnel domain,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1584–1586 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “A lensless optical security system based on computer-generated phase only masks,” Opt. Commun. 232, 115–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “A cascaded iterative Fourier transform algorithm for optical security applications,” Optik 114, 473–477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, C. H. Zheng, and N. Tanno, “Optical encryption based on iterative fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 202, 277–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, C. H.

Y. Zhang, C. H. Zheng, and N. Tanno, “Optical encryption based on iterative fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 202, 277–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

Zhu, B. H.

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Opt. A (1)

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Position multiplexing for multiple-image encryption,” J. Opt. A 8, 391–397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Commun. (4)

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “A lensless optical security system based on computer-generated phase only masks,” Opt. Commun. 232, 115–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. He, L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, X. C. Wang, and X. F. Meng, “Multiple image encryption and watermarking by random phase matching,” Opt. Commun. 247, 29–37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, C. H. Zheng, and N. Tanno, “Optical encryption based on iterative fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 202, 277–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chang, H. T. Chang, and C. J. Kuo, “Hybrid image cryptosystem based on dyadic phase displacement in the Fourier domain,” Opt. Commun. 236, 245–257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

H. T. Chang, “Image encryption using separate amplitude-based virtual image and iteratively-retrieved phase information,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2165–2171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Lin, H. T. Chang, W. N. Lai, and C. H. Chuang, “Public-key-based optical image cryptosystem with data embedding techniques,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2331–2339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2464–2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Optik (3)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “Phase determination for image and diffraction plane pictures in the electron microscope,” Optik 34, 275–284 (1971).

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “A cascaded iterative Fourier transform algorithm for optical security applications,” Optik 114, 473–477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics