Abstract

In this paper, we report the development of an optical sensor network (OSN) based on piezoelectrically actuated corner cube retroreflectors (PA-CCRs). PA-CCRs were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems processes and assembled by aligning horizontally actuated mirrors and vertical side walls in a holder, which allows mass production. Fabricated PA-CCRs showed a tilting angle by more than 1.5 deg at 5 V bias voltage. A 3 dB cutoff frequency was measured to be in the range of 3.5 kHz. To show the feasilbility, an OSN was established based on fabricated PA-CCRs for on-off keying passive transmission links. The results demonstrated data transmission at a rate up to 5kb/s.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Computer Networks 38, 393–422 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Wen, L. Minglu, and W. Min-You, “Inductive charging with multiple charger nodes in wireless sensor networks,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3842, 262–270 (2006).
  3. M. D’Souza, K. Bialkowski, A. Postula, and M. Ros, “A wireless sensor node architecture using remote power charging, for interaction applications,” in 10th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design Architectures, Methods and Tools (IEEE, 2007), pp. 485–494.
  4. B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Leibowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, “An autonomous 16  mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510–1515.
  5. D. J. Cook and S .K. Das, Wireless Sensor Networks, Technologies, Protocols, and Applications (Wiley, 2004).
  6. N. Patwari and J. Wilson, “RF sensor networks for device-free localization: measurements, models, and algorithms,” Proc. IEEE 98, 1961–1973 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Kundur, W. Luh, U. N. Okorafor, and T. Zourntos, “Security and privacy for distributed multimedia sensor networks,” Proc. IEEE 96, 112–130 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Xie, F. Tong, W.-H. Yang, and Y.-C. Kim, “An energy considered routing protocol of free space optical sensor network,” in Proceedings of 2011 4th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–5.
  9. J. Llorca, A. Desai, U. Vishkin, C. C. Davis, and S. D. Milner, “Reconfigurable optical wireless sensor networks,” Proc. SPIE 5237, 136–146 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. I. Afzal, W. Mahmood, S. M. Sajid, and S. Shin, “Optical wireless communication and recharging mechanism of wireless sensor network by using CCRs,” Int. J. Advanced Sci. Technol.13, 49–60 (2009).
  11. S. Teramoto and T. Ohtsuki, “Optical wireless sensor network system using corner cube retroreflectors,” EURASIP J. Appl. Signal Process. 1, 39–44 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. U. N. Okorafor and D. Kundur, “Security-aware routing and localization for a directional mission critical network,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun. 28, 664–676 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. B. Chu and N. R. Lo, “Optical communication using micro corner cube reflectors,” in Proceedings of IEEE Tenth Annual International Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 1997), pp. 350–355.
  14. J. M. Kahn, R. H. Katz, and K. S. J. Pister, “Next century challenges: Mobile networking for ‘smart dust’,” in Proceedings of ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (IEEE, 1999), pp. 271–278.
  15. W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Luo and K. W. Goossen, “Free-space optical link by microelectromechanical system array and corner cube reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1316–1318 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Jenkins, G. Brown, W. Johnstone, and D. Uttamchandani, “Microelectromechanical systems actuated small-scale retroreflectors for free space optical communications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S384 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. K. Chan and J. E. Ford, “Retroreflecting optical modulator using an MEMS deformable micromirror array,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 516–525 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. S. Scholl, “Ray trace through a corner-cube retroreflector with complex reflection coefficients,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1589–1592 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Z. X. Zhu, V. S. Hsu, and J. M. Kahn, “Optical modeling of MEMS corner cube retroreflectors with misalignment and nonflatness,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 26–32 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Zhou, J. M. Kahn, and K. S. J. Pister, “Corner-cube retroreflectors based on structure-assisted assembly for free-space optical communication,” IEEE/ASME J. Microelectromechan. Syst. 12, 233–242 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. K. Hong, R. R. A. Syms, K. S. J. Pister, and L. X. Zhou, “Design, fabrication and test of self-assembled optical corner cube reflectors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 663–672 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor network for fixed infrastructure sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640F (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. C. Park, J. Y. Park, J. Won, D. Kim, and J. Park, “Silicon bulkmicromachined piezoelectrically actuated corner cube retroflector,” presented at the 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (Tranducers) 2011, paper T3P.145, Beijing, China, 5–9 June 2011.
  25. D. H. Lee and J. Y. Park, “Piezo-electrically actuated micro corner cube retroreflector (CCR) for free-space optical communication applications,” J. Electrical Eng. Technol. 5, 337–341 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. Wameke, M. Last, B. Liebowitz, and K. S. J. Pister, “Smart Dust: communicating with a cubic-millimeter computer,” Computer 34, 44–51 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

N. Patwari and J. Wilson, “RF sensor networks for device-free localization: measurements, models, and algorithms,” Proc. IEEE 98, 1961–1973 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. N. Okorafor and D. Kundur, “Security-aware routing and localization for a directional mission critical network,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun. 28, 664–676 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Lee and J. Y. Park, “Piezo-electrically actuated micro corner cube retroreflector (CCR) for free-space optical communication applications,” J. Electrical Eng. Technol. 5, 337–341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor network for fixed infrastructure sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640F (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

D. Kundur, W. Luh, U. N. Okorafor, and T. Zourntos, “Security and privacy for distributed multimedia sensor networks,” Proc. IEEE 96, 112–130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Y. Wen, L. Minglu, and W. Min-You, “Inductive charging with multiple charger nodes in wireless sensor networks,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3842, 262–270 (2006).

C. Jenkins, G. Brown, W. Johnstone, and D. Uttamchandani, “Microelectromechanical systems actuated small-scale retroreflectors for free space optical communications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S384 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Chan and J. E. Ford, “Retroreflecting optical modulator using an MEMS deformable micromirror array,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 516–525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo and K. W. Goossen, “Free-space optical link by microelectromechanical system array and corner cube reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1316–1318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Hong, R. R. A. Syms, K. S. J. Pister, and L. X. Zhou, “Design, fabrication and test of self-assembled optical corner cube reflectors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 663–672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Teramoto and T. Ohtsuki, “Optical wireless sensor network system using corner cube retroreflectors,” EURASIP J. Appl. Signal Process. 1, 39–44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Llorca, A. Desai, U. Vishkin, C. C. Davis, and S. D. Milner, “Reconfigurable optical wireless sensor networks,” Proc. SPIE 5237, 136–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Zhou, J. M. Kahn, and K. S. J. Pister, “Corner-cube retroreflectors based on structure-assisted assembly for free-space optical communication,” IEEE/ASME J. Microelectromechan. Syst. 12, 233–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Computer Networks 38, 393–422 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Zhu, V. S. Hsu, and J. M. Kahn, “Optical modeling of MEMS corner cube retroreflectors with misalignment and nonflatness,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 26–32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. Wameke, M. Last, B. Liebowitz, and K. S. J. Pister, “Smart Dust: communicating with a cubic-millimeter computer,” Computer 34, 44–51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Afzal, M. I.

M. I. Afzal, W. Mahmood, S. M. Sajid, and S. Shin, “Optical wireless communication and recharging mechanism of wireless sensor network by using CCRs,” Int. J. Advanced Sci. Technol.13, 49–60 (2009).

Agrawal, N.

N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor network for fixed infrastructure sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akyildiz, I. F.

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Computer Networks 38, 393–422 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bellew, C. L.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Leibowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, “An autonomous 16  mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510–1515.

Bialkowski, K.

M. D’Souza, K. Bialkowski, A. Postula, and M. Ros, “A wireless sensor node architecture using remote power charging, for interaction applications,” in 10th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design Architectures, Methods and Tools (IEEE, 2007), pp. 485–494.

Boser, B. E.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Leibowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, “An autonomous 16  mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510–1515.

Brown, G.

C. Jenkins, G. Brown, W. Johnstone, and D. Uttamchandani, “Microelectromechanical systems actuated small-scale retroreflectors for free space optical communications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S384 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burris, H. R.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cayirci, E.

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Computer Networks 38, 393–422 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, T. K.

T. K. Chan and J. E. Ford, “Retroreflecting optical modulator using an MEMS deformable micromirror array,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 516–525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chediak, J. A.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Leibowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, “An autonomous 16  mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510–1515.

Chu, P. B.

P. B. Chu and N. R. Lo, “Optical communication using micro corner cube reflectors,” in Proceedings of IEEE Tenth Annual International Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 1997), pp. 350–355.

Cook, D. J.

D. J. Cook and S .K. Das, Wireless Sensor Networks, Technologies, Protocols, and Applications (Wiley, 2004).

D’Souza, M.

M. D’Souza, K. Bialkowski, A. Postula, and M. Ros, “A wireless sensor node architecture using remote power charging, for interaction applications,” in 10th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design Architectures, Methods and Tools (IEEE, 2007), pp. 485–494.

Das, S .K.

D. J. Cook and S .K. Das, Wireless Sensor Networks, Technologies, Protocols, and Applications (Wiley, 2004).

Davis, C. C.

N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor network for fixed infrastructure sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640F (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Llorca, A. Desai, U. Vishkin, C. C. Davis, and S. D. Milner, “Reconfigurable optical wireless sensor networks,” Proc. SPIE 5237, 136–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Desai, A.

J. Llorca, A. Desai, U. Vishkin, C. C. Davis, and S. D. Milner, “Reconfigurable optical wireless sensor networks,” Proc. SPIE 5237, 136–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J. E.

T. K. Chan and J. E. Ford, “Retroreflecting optical modulator using an MEMS deformable micromirror array,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 516–525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gilbreath, G. C.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, P. G.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

C. Luo and K. W. Goossen, “Free-space optical link by microelectromechanical system array and corner cube reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1316–1318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y. K.

Y. K. Hong, R. R. A. Syms, K. S. J. Pister, and L. X. Zhou, “Design, fabrication and test of self-assembled optical corner cube reflectors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 663–672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, V. S.

Z. X. Zhu, V. S. Hsu, and J. M. Kahn, “Optical modeling of MEMS corner cube retroreflectors with misalignment and nonflatness,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 26–32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, C.

C. Jenkins, G. Brown, W. Johnstone, and D. Uttamchandani, “Microelectromechanical systems actuated small-scale retroreflectors for free space optical communications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S384 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnstone, W.

C. Jenkins, G. Brown, W. Johnstone, and D. Uttamchandani, “Microelectromechanical systems actuated small-scale retroreflectors for free space optical communications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S384 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J. M.

L. Zhou, J. M. Kahn, and K. S. J. Pister, “Corner-cube retroreflectors based on structure-assisted assembly for free-space optical communication,” IEEE/ASME J. Microelectromechan. Syst. 12, 233–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Zhu, V. S. Hsu, and J. M. Kahn, “Optical modeling of MEMS corner cube retroreflectors with misalignment and nonflatness,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 26–32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kahn, R. H. Katz, and K. S. J. Pister, “Next century challenges: Mobile networking for ‘smart dust’,” in Proceedings of ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (IEEE, 1999), pp. 271–278.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Leibowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, “An autonomous 16  mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510–1515.

Katz, R. H.

J. M. Kahn, R. H. Katz, and K. S. J. Pister, “Next century challenges: Mobile networking for ‘smart dust’,” in Proceedings of ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (IEEE, 1999), pp. 271–278.

Kim, D.

J. C. Park, J. Y. Park, J. Won, D. Kim, and J. Park, “Silicon bulkmicromachined piezoelectrically actuated corner cube retroflector,” presented at the 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (Tranducers) 2011, paper T3P.145, Beijing, China, 5–9 June 2011.

Kim, Y.-C.

R. Xie, F. Tong, W.-H. Yang, and Y.-C. Kim, “An energy considered routing protocol of free space optical sensor network,” in Proceedings of 2011 4th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–5.

Koplow, J.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kundur, D.

U. N. Okorafor and D. Kundur, “Security-aware routing and localization for a directional mission critical network,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun. 28, 664–676 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Kundur, W. Luh, U. N. Okorafor, and T. Zourntos, “Security and privacy for distributed multimedia sensor networks,” Proc. IEEE 96, 112–130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Last, M.

B. Wameke, M. Last, B. Liebowitz, and K. S. J. Pister, “Smart Dust: communicating with a cubic-millimeter computer,” Computer 34, 44–51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. H.

D. H. Lee and J. Y. Park, “Piezo-electrically actuated micro corner cube retroreflector (CCR) for free-space optical communication applications,” J. Electrical Eng. Technol. 5, 337–341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leibowitz, B. S.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Leibowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, “An autonomous 16  mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510–1515.

Liebowitz, B.

B. Wameke, M. Last, B. Liebowitz, and K. S. J. Pister, “Smart Dust: communicating with a cubic-millimeter computer,” Computer 34, 44–51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Llorca, J.

J. Llorca, A. Desai, U. Vishkin, C. C. Davis, and S. D. Milner, “Reconfigurable optical wireless sensor networks,” Proc. SPIE 5237, 136–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, N. R.

P. B. Chu and N. R. Lo, “Optical communication using micro corner cube reflectors,” in Proceedings of IEEE Tenth Annual International Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 1997), pp. 350–355.

Luh, W.

D. Kundur, W. Luh, U. N. Okorafor, and T. Zourntos, “Security and privacy for distributed multimedia sensor networks,” Proc. IEEE 96, 112–130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

C. Luo and K. W. Goossen, “Free-space optical link by microelectromechanical system array and corner cube reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1316–1318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mahmood, W.

M. I. Afzal, W. Mahmood, S. M. Sajid, and S. Shin, “Optical wireless communication and recharging mechanism of wireless sensor network by using CCRs,” Int. J. Advanced Sci. Technol.13, 49–60 (2009).

Mahon, R.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milner, S. D.

N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor network for fixed infrastructure sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640F (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Llorca, A. Desai, U. Vishkin, C. C. Davis, and S. D. Milner, “Reconfigurable optical wireless sensor networks,” Proc. SPIE 5237, 136–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Minglu, L.

Y. Wen, L. Minglu, and W. Min-You, “Inductive charging with multiple charger nodes in wireless sensor networks,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3842, 262–270 (2006).

Min-You, W.

Y. Wen, L. Minglu, and W. Min-You, “Inductive charging with multiple charger nodes in wireless sensor networks,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3842, 262–270 (2006).

Moore, C. I.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, E.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuki, T.

S. Teramoto and T. Ohtsuki, “Optical wireless sensor network system using corner cube retroreflectors,” EURASIP J. Appl. Signal Process. 1, 39–44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okorafor, U. N.

U. N. Okorafor and D. Kundur, “Security-aware routing and localization for a directional mission critical network,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun. 28, 664–676 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Kundur, W. Luh, U. N. Okorafor, and T. Zourntos, “Security and privacy for distributed multimedia sensor networks,” Proc. IEEE 96, 112–130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

J. C. Park, J. Y. Park, J. Won, D. Kim, and J. Park, “Silicon bulkmicromachined piezoelectrically actuated corner cube retroflector,” presented at the 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (Tranducers) 2011, paper T3P.145, Beijing, China, 5–9 June 2011.

Park, J. C.

J. C. Park, J. Y. Park, J. Won, D. Kim, and J. Park, “Silicon bulkmicromachined piezoelectrically actuated corner cube retroflector,” presented at the 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (Tranducers) 2011, paper T3P.145, Beijing, China, 5–9 June 2011.

Park, J. Y.

D. H. Lee and J. Y. Park, “Piezo-electrically actuated micro corner cube retroreflector (CCR) for free-space optical communication applications,” J. Electrical Eng. Technol. 5, 337–341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Park, J. Y. Park, J. Won, D. Kim, and J. Park, “Silicon bulkmicromachined piezoelectrically actuated corner cube retroflector,” presented at the 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (Tranducers) 2011, paper T3P.145, Beijing, China, 5–9 June 2011.

Patwari, N.

N. Patwari and J. Wilson, “RF sensor networks for device-free localization: measurements, models, and algorithms,” Proc. IEEE 98, 1961–1973 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pister, K. S. J.

Y. K. Hong, R. R. A. Syms, K. S. J. Pister, and L. X. Zhou, “Design, fabrication and test of self-assembled optical corner cube reflectors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 663–672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, J. M. Kahn, and K. S. J. Pister, “Corner-cube retroreflectors based on structure-assisted assembly for free-space optical communication,” IEEE/ASME J. Microelectromechan. Syst. 12, 233–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Wameke, M. Last, B. Liebowitz, and K. S. J. Pister, “Smart Dust: communicating with a cubic-millimeter computer,” Computer 34, 44–51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Leibowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, “An autonomous 16  mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510–1515.

J. M. Kahn, R. H. Katz, and K. S. J. Pister, “Next century challenges: Mobile networking for ‘smart dust’,” in Proceedings of ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (IEEE, 1999), pp. 271–278.

Postula, A.

M. D’Souza, K. Bialkowski, A. Postula, and M. Ros, “A wireless sensor node architecture using remote power charging, for interaction applications,” in 10th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design Architectures, Methods and Tools (IEEE, 2007), pp. 485–494.

Rabinovich, W. S.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ros, M.

M. D’Souza, K. Bialkowski, A. Postula, and M. Ros, “A wireless sensor node architecture using remote power charging, for interaction applications,” in 10th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design Architectures, Methods and Tools (IEEE, 2007), pp. 485–494.

Sajid, S. M.

M. I. Afzal, W. Mahmood, S. M. Sajid, and S. Shin, “Optical wireless communication and recharging mechanism of wireless sensor network by using CCRs,” Int. J. Advanced Sci. Technol.13, 49–60 (2009).

Sankarasubramaniam, Y.

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Computer Networks 38, 393–422 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scholl, M. S.

Scott, M. D.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Leibowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, “An autonomous 16  mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510–1515.

Shin, S.

M. I. Afzal, W. Mahmood, S. M. Sajid, and S. Shin, “Optical wireless communication and recharging mechanism of wireless sensor network by using CCRs,” Int. J. Advanced Sci. Technol.13, 49–60 (2009).

Stell, M. F.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Su, W.

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Computer Networks 38, 393–422 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suite, M. R.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Swingen, L.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Syms, R. R. A.

Y. K. Hong, R. R. A. Syms, K. S. J. Pister, and L. X. Zhou, “Design, fabrication and test of self-assembled optical corner cube reflectors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 663–672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Teramoto, S.

S. Teramoto and T. Ohtsuki, “Optical wireless sensor network system using corner cube retroreflectors,” EURASIP J. Appl. Signal Process. 1, 39–44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tong, F.

R. Xie, F. Tong, W.-H. Yang, and Y.-C. Kim, “An energy considered routing protocol of free space optical sensor network,” in Proceedings of 2011 4th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–5.

Uttamchandani, D.

C. Jenkins, G. Brown, W. Johnstone, and D. Uttamchandani, “Microelectromechanical systems actuated small-scale retroreflectors for free space optical communications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S384 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vilcheck, M. J.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vishkin, U.

J. Llorca, A. Desai, U. Vishkin, C. C. Davis, and S. D. Milner, “Reconfigurable optical wireless sensor networks,” Proc. SPIE 5237, 136–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wameke, B.

B. Wameke, M. Last, B. Liebowitz, and K. S. J. Pister, “Smart Dust: communicating with a cubic-millimeter computer,” Computer 34, 44–51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Warneke, B. A.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Leibowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, “An autonomous 16  mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510–1515.

Wen, Y.

Y. Wen, L. Minglu, and W. Min-You, “Inductive charging with multiple charger nodes in wireless sensor networks,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3842, 262–270 (2006).

Wilson, J.

N. Patwari and J. Wilson, “RF sensor networks for device-free localization: measurements, models, and algorithms,” Proc. IEEE 98, 1961–1973 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Witkowsky, J. L.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Won, J.

J. C. Park, J. Y. Park, J. Won, D. Kim, and J. Park, “Silicon bulkmicromachined piezoelectrically actuated corner cube retroflector,” presented at the 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (Tranducers) 2011, paper T3P.145, Beijing, China, 5–9 June 2011.

Xie, R.

R. Xie, F. Tong, W.-H. Yang, and Y.-C. Kim, “An energy considered routing protocol of free space optical sensor network,” in Proceedings of 2011 4th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–5.

Yang, W.-H.

R. Xie, F. Tong, W.-H. Yang, and Y.-C. Kim, “An energy considered routing protocol of free space optical sensor network,” in Proceedings of 2011 4th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–5.

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, J. M. Kahn, and K. S. J. Pister, “Corner-cube retroreflectors based on structure-assisted assembly for free-space optical communication,” IEEE/ASME J. Microelectromechan. Syst. 12, 233–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Leibowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, “An autonomous 16  mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510–1515.

Zhou, L. X.

Y. K. Hong, R. R. A. Syms, K. S. J. Pister, and L. X. Zhou, “Design, fabrication and test of self-assembled optical corner cube reflectors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 663–672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z. X.

Z. X. Zhu, V. S. Hsu, and J. M. Kahn, “Optical modeling of MEMS corner cube retroreflectors with misalignment and nonflatness,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 26–32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zourntos, T.

D. Kundur, W. Luh, U. N. Okorafor, and T. Zourntos, “Security and privacy for distributed multimedia sensor networks,” Proc. IEEE 96, 112–130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Computer (1)

B. Wameke, M. Last, B. Liebowitz, and K. S. J. Pister, “Smart Dust: communicating with a cubic-millimeter computer,” Computer 34, 44–51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Computer Networks (1)

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Computer Networks 38, 393–422 (2002).
[CrossRef]

EURASIP J. Appl. Signal Process. (1)

S. Teramoto and T. Ohtsuki, “Optical wireless sensor network system using corner cube retroreflectors,” EURASIP J. Appl. Signal Process. 1, 39–44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun. (1)

U. N. Okorafor and D. Kundur, “Security-aware routing and localization for a directional mission critical network,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun. 28, 664–676 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. X. Zhu, V. S. Hsu, and J. M. Kahn, “Optical modeling of MEMS corner cube retroreflectors with misalignment and nonflatness,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 26–32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Luo and K. W. Goossen, “Free-space optical link by microelectromechanical system array and corner cube reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1316–1318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ASME J. Microelectromechan. Syst. (1)

L. Zhou, J. M. Kahn, and K. S. J. Pister, “Corner-cube retroreflectors based on structure-assisted assembly for free-space optical communication,” IEEE/ASME J. Microelectromechan. Syst. 12, 233–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. K. Chan and J. E. Ford, “Retroreflecting optical modulator using an MEMS deformable micromirror array,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 516–525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrical Eng. Technol. (1)

D. H. Lee and J. Y. Park, “Piezo-electrically actuated micro corner cube retroreflector (CCR) for free-space optical communication applications,” J. Electrical Eng. Technol. 5, 337–341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

Y. K. Hong, R. R. A. Syms, K. S. J. Pister, and L. X. Zhou, “Design, fabrication and test of self-assembled optical corner cube reflectors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 663–672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

C. Jenkins, G. Brown, W. Johnstone, and D. Uttamchandani, “Microelectromechanical systems actuated small-scale retroreflectors for free space optical communications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S384 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (1)

Y. Wen, L. Minglu, and W. Min-You, “Inductive charging with multiple charger nodes in wireless sensor networks,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3842, 262–270 (2006).

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (2)

N. Patwari and J. Wilson, “RF sensor networks for device-free localization: measurements, models, and algorithms,” Proc. IEEE 98, 1961–1973 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Kundur, W. Luh, U. N. Okorafor, and T. Zourntos, “Security and privacy for distributed multimedia sensor networks,” Proc. IEEE 96, 112–130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Llorca, A. Desai, U. Vishkin, C. C. Davis, and S. D. Milner, “Reconfigurable optical wireless sensor networks,” Proc. SPIE 5237, 136–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Agrawal, S. D. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Free space optical sensor network for fixed infrastructure sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

J. C. Park, J. Y. Park, J. Won, D. Kim, and J. Park, “Silicon bulkmicromachined piezoelectrically actuated corner cube retroflector,” presented at the 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (Tranducers) 2011, paper T3P.145, Beijing, China, 5–9 June 2011.

M. I. Afzal, W. Mahmood, S. M. Sajid, and S. Shin, “Optical wireless communication and recharging mechanism of wireless sensor network by using CCRs,” Int. J. Advanced Sci. Technol.13, 49–60 (2009).

R. Xie, F. Tong, W.-H. Yang, and Y.-C. Kim, “An energy considered routing protocol of free space optical sensor network,” in Proceedings of 2011 4th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–5.

M. D’Souza, K. Bialkowski, A. Postula, and M. Ros, “A wireless sensor node architecture using remote power charging, for interaction applications,” in 10th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design Architectures, Methods and Tools (IEEE, 2007), pp. 485–494.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Leibowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, “An autonomous 16  mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510–1515.

D. J. Cook and S .K. Das, Wireless Sensor Networks, Technologies, Protocols, and Applications (Wiley, 2004).

P. B. Chu and N. R. Lo, “Optical communication using micro corner cube reflectors,” in Proceedings of IEEE Tenth Annual International Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 1997), pp. 350–355.

J. M. Kahn, R. H. Katz, and K. S. J. Pister, “Next century challenges: Mobile networking for ‘smart dust’,” in Proceedings of ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (IEEE, 1999), pp. 271–278.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of the PA-CCR operation. (a) At ON, the horizontal mirror is aligned so that the PA-CCR shares a direct line-of-sight path with the base station. Note that the ON state is at zero bias. (b) At OFF, the corner hinge tilts the horizontal mirror so that incident light is not aligned with the base station and the communication link not established.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic illustration of fabrication processing steps for PA-CCRs: (a) deposition of SiNx on double SOI wafer, (b) formation of mask for KOH wet etching, (c) KOH wet etching, (d) dicing of double SOI wafer to form vertical mirror, (e) deposition of SiNx/Ti/Pt/PZT/Pt on a silicon wafer, (f) formation of horizontal gold mirror, PZT cantilevers, torsional hinge springs, and SU-8 holder by dry etching and lift-off, (g) KOH wet etching for release and dicing, and (h) aligning and assembling of the Au sputtered vertical mirror on the substrate with horizontal mirror.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM pictures: (a) fabricated horizontal mirror with piezoelectric cantilever actuator and (b) MEMS CCR with vertical and horizontal mirrors. (c) Picture of a bonded PA-CCR in a PCB package.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of a wireless OSN system with PA-CCR sensor nodes: in the set-up, a CMOS imager was used as a photosensor. In the scanning set-up, a photodiode was used as a photosensor, a galvanometer scanner replaced the mirror, and the lens was removed. In this schematic, two sensor nodes are aligned to the base station.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Tilt angle characteristics measured of a PA-CCR as the bias voltage is varied from 0 to 10 V.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Theoretical analysis of SNR characteristics: (a) SNR with the distance between base station and PA-CCRs of different mirror sizes (150, 250, and 300 μm) when source beam divergence is 0.6 or 1.2 mrad. Light scattering is assumed to be Lambertian. (b) SNR at 10 m distance shows an almost linear decrease with a smaller PA-CCR.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Frequency response of a PA-CCR, which shows 3 dB cut-offf frequency at 3.5 kHz. A Boltzmann-Sigmoidal fit is also presented. (b) Frequency response with respect to incident light power.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured input and output signals of a wireless OSN system with PA-CCR sensor nodes when modulated with Vin(peaktopeak)=5V: (a) driving frequency f=1kHz, (b) 2 kHz, and (c) 5 kHz, and with Vin(peaktopeak)=10V: (d) f=1kHz, (e) 2 kHz, and (f) 5 kHz.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Rise And Fall Time Of PA-CCRs Measured At 1 kHz Frequency

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ion=ηPsπL2tan2θ,

Metrics