Abstract

2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone (BDDH) synthesized via chemical route and nonlinear optical parameters, such as nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ(3)), second hyperpolarizability (γ), and optical-limiting behavior were investigated by single beam z-scan technique for different concentrations. Synthesized sample were irradiated by a Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser and found that n2 and β increases linearly with increasing concentration and hence γ decreases linearly. The excited-state absorption cross sections of BDDH were found to be larger than ground-state absorption cross sections, and it leads to reverse saturable absorption (RSA). The experimental results are well in agreement with the theory and also establish BDDH as one of the potential candidate materials for optical limiting at 532 nm.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  43. M. D. Zidan and Z. Ajji, “Optical limiting behaviour of disperse red 1 dye doped polymer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 934–937 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

M. D. Zidan and Z. Ajji, “Optical limiting behaviour of disperse red 1 dye doped polymer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 934–937 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Fazio, F. Neri, S. Patane, L. D’urso, and G. Compagnini, “Optical limiting effects in linear carbon chains,” Carbon 49, 306–310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. Yanmao, J. Lu, Q. Xu, F. Yan, X. Xia, L. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effects of substituents on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of poly(3-alkoxythiophene) derivatives,” Synth. Met. 160, 409–412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Naseema, K. V. Sujith, K. B. Manjunatha, B. Kalluraya, G. Umesh, and V. Rao, “Synthesis, characterization and studies on the nonlinear optical parameters of hydrazones,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 741–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Tekin, U. Kurum, M. Durmus, H. Gul Yaglioglu, T. Nyokong, and A. Elmali, “Optical limiting properties of zinc phthalocyanines in solution and solid PMMA composite films,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. I. Miah, “Optical power limiting and transmitting properties of cadmium iodide single crystal: Temperature dependence,” Phys. Lett. A 373, 3483–3485 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Man, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order non linear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiophenes/poly(methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, Y. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q.-H. Xu, “Nonlinear optical switching behavior of Au nanocubes and nano-octahydra investigated by femtosecond z-scan measurement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Beltran, G. O. Ramos, C. K. W. Jim, J. L. Maldonado, M. Haubler, and D. P. Dominguez, “Optical nonlinearities in hyperbranched polyyne studied by two-photon excited florescence and third-harmonic generation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 489–496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Antonov, G. Gergor, V. Petrov, M. Kubista, and J. Nugren, “UV-VIS spectroscopic and chemometric study on the aggregation of ionic dyes in water,” Talanta 49, 99–106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Sherwood, R. Cheng, T. M. Smith, J. H. Werner, A. P. Shrere, A. A. Peteanu, and J. Wildeman, “Aggregation effect on the emission spectra and dynamics of model oligomers of MEH-PPV,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 18851–18862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, T. He, H. Hao, S. Zhu, and H. Xiao, “Z-scan study of optical nonlinearities in two fullerenes derivatives,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4271–4275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Singh and P. Aghamkar, “Mechanism of phase conjugation via stimulated Brillouin scattering in narrow band gap semiconductors,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1251–1255 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Aghamkar and M. Singh, “Phase conjugation in weakly piezoelectric magnetized semiconductor-plasmas,” J. Mod. Opt. 55-6, 931–945 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharamprakash, “Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figure of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure properties relationship,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. Gayathri and A. Ramalingam, “Single beam z-scan measurement of the third-order optical nonlinearities of azo dyes,” Spectrochim. Acta A 68, 578–582 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Jena, P. B. Bisht, M. M. Shaijumon, and S. Rampharbhu, “Study of optical nonlinearity of functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by using four-wave mixing and z-scan technique,” Opt. Commun. 273, 153–158 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Destri, M. Pasini, W. Parzio, A. Zappettini, and F. D’Amore, “Thienylene polyazomethines and polyazines as third-order nonlinear optical materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1505–1511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. H. Habibi, A. Hassanzadeh, and A. Z-Isfahani, “Effect of dye aggregation and azo-hydrazone tautomerism on the photolytical degradation of solophenyl red 3 BL azo dye using aqueous TiO2 suspension,” Dyes Pigments 69, 111–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Udaykumar, A. J. Kiran, A. V. Adhikzri, K. Chandra Sekharan, G. Umesh, and H. D. Shashikala, “Third-order nonlinear optical studies of newly synthesized polyoxadiazoles containing 3,4-dialkoxythiophenes,” Chem. Phys. 331, 125–130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Tripathy and P. B. Bisht, “Simultaneous estimation of nonlinear refractive and absorptive parameters by solvent induced change in optical density,” Opt. Commun. 261, 353–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

W. Feng, W. Yi, H. Wu, M. Ozaki, and K. Yashino, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities by conjugated polymer-bonded carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 034301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, H. Xu, W. Shi, Y. Gao, Y. Sing, J. Wing, Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Synthesis and optical properties of polyacetylenes containing nonlinear optical chromophores,” Polymer 46, 7670–7677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Ronchi, T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, F. Babudri, A. Cardone, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “χ(3) measurements in poly(2’,5’-dioctyloxy-4,4’,4’’-terphenylenevinylene) using the z-scan technique,” Synth. Met. 139, 831–834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Huang, T. C. Wen, A. Gopalan, and F. Ren, “Structural influence on the electronic properties of methoxy substituted polyaniline/aluminum Schottky barrier diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 104, 88–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Castillo, J. Hung, A. Fernandez, and V. Mujica, “Nonlinear optical evidences of aggregation in asphaltene-toluene solutions,” Fuel 80, 1239–1243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Henari, “Optical switching in organometallic phthalocyanine,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 188–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, M. Ferrara, F. Babudri, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “Subsistuent-dependence of the optical nonlinearities in poly(2,5-dialkoxy-p-phenylenevinylene) polymers investigated by the z-scan technique,” Chem. Phys. 272, 111–118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

W. E. Douglas, L. G. Klapshina, A. N. Rubinov, G. A. Domrashev, B. A. Bushuk, and J. A. Kalvinkovskaya, “Thin film z-scan measurements of the nonlinear response of novel conjugated silicon ethylene polymers and metal containing complexes incorporated into polymeric matrices,” Proc. SPIE 4106, 360–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

1993

H. S. Nalwa, T. Hamada, A. Kakuta, and A. Mukoh, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of polyazine derivatives,” Synth. Met. 57, 3901–3906 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Nalwa, A. Kakuta, and A. Mukoh, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of processable polyazine thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4743–4745 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. S. Sheik Bahae and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearity using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz, E. Winter, and G. Leising, “Optical third-harmonic generation in polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3701–3709 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

M.-T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, “A systematic study of polarizability and microscopic third-order optical nonlinearity in thiophene oligomers,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5535–5541 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

C. R. Hauer, G. S. King, E. L. McCool, W. B. Euler, J. D. Ferrara, and W. J. Youngs, “Structure of 2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone and IR study of higher polyazines: A new class of polymeric conductors,” J. Chem. Am. Soc. 109, 5760–5765 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, and A. Owyoung, “Empirical relationship for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 601–608 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adhikari, A. V.

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Man, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order non linear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiophenes/poly(methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adhikzri, A. V.

D. Udaykumar, A. J. Kiran, A. V. Adhikzri, K. Chandra Sekharan, G. Umesh, and H. D. Shashikala, “Third-order nonlinear optical studies of newly synthesized polyoxadiazoles containing 3,4-dialkoxythiophenes,” Chem. Phys. 331, 125–130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aghamkar, P.

M. Singh and P. Aghamkar, “Mechanism of phase conjugation via stimulated Brillouin scattering in narrow band gap semiconductors,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1251–1255 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Aghamkar and M. Singh, “Phase conjugation in weakly piezoelectric magnetized semiconductor-plasmas,” J. Mod. Opt. 55-6, 931–945 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ajji, Z.

M. D. Zidan and Z. Ajji, “Optical limiting behaviour of disperse red 1 dye doped polymer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 934–937 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Antonov, L.

L. Antonov, G. Gergor, V. Petrov, M. Kubista, and J. Nugren, “UV-VIS spectroscopic and chemometric study on the aggregation of ionic dyes in water,” Talanta 49, 99–106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Babudri, F.

A. Ronchi, T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, F. Babudri, A. Cardone, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “χ(3) measurements in poly(2’,5’-dioctyloxy-4,4’,4’’-terphenylenevinylene) using the z-scan technique,” Synth. Met. 139, 831–834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, M. Ferrara, F. Babudri, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “Subsistuent-dependence of the optical nonlinearities in poly(2,5-dialkoxy-p-phenylenevinylene) polymers investigated by the z-scan technique,” Chem. Phys. 272, 111–118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beltran, R. C.

R. C. Beltran, G. O. Ramos, C. K. W. Jim, J. L. Maldonado, M. Haubler, and D. P. Dominguez, “Optical nonlinearities in hyperbranched polyyne studied by two-photon excited florescence and third-harmonic generation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 489–496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bisht, P. B.

K. C. Jena, P. B. Bisht, M. M. Shaijumon, and S. Rampharbhu, “Study of optical nonlinearity of functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by using four-wave mixing and z-scan technique,” Opt. Commun. 273, 153–158 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Tripathy and P. B. Bisht, “Simultaneous estimation of nonlinear refractive and absorptive parameters by solvent induced change in optical density,” Opt. Commun. 261, 353–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boling, N. L.

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, and A. Owyoung, “Empirical relationship for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 601–608 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008), pp. 260–278.

Bushuk, B. A.

W. E. Douglas, L. G. Klapshina, A. N. Rubinov, G. A. Domrashev, B. A. Bushuk, and J. A. Kalvinkovskaya, “Thin film z-scan measurements of the nonlinear response of novel conjugated silicon ethylene polymers and metal containing complexes incorporated into polymeric matrices,” Proc. SPIE 4106, 360–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cardone, A.

A. Ronchi, T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, F. Babudri, A. Cardone, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “χ(3) measurements in poly(2’,5’-dioctyloxy-4,4’,4’’-terphenylenevinylene) using the z-scan technique,” Synth. Met. 139, 831–834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cassano, T.

A. Ronchi, T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, F. Babudri, A. Cardone, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “χ(3) measurements in poly(2’,5’-dioctyloxy-4,4’,4’’-terphenylenevinylene) using the z-scan technique,” Synth. Met. 139, 831–834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, M. Ferrara, F. Babudri, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “Subsistuent-dependence of the optical nonlinearities in poly(2,5-dialkoxy-p-phenylenevinylene) polymers investigated by the z-scan technique,” Chem. Phys. 272, 111–118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Castillo, J.

J. Castillo, J. Hung, A. Fernandez, and V. Mujica, “Nonlinear optical evidences of aggregation in asphaltene-toluene solutions,” Fuel 80, 1239–1243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chandra Sekharan, K.

D. Udaykumar, A. J. Kiran, A. V. Adhikzri, K. Chandra Sekharan, G. Umesh, and H. D. Shashikala, “Third-order nonlinear optical studies of newly synthesized polyoxadiazoles containing 3,4-dialkoxythiophenes,” Chem. Phys. 331, 125–130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, R.

A. G. Sherwood, R. Cheng, T. M. Smith, J. H. Werner, A. P. Shrere, A. A. Peteanu, and J. Wildeman, “Aggregation effect on the emission spectra and dynamics of model oligomers of MEH-PPV,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 18851–18862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Cheng, T. He, H. Hao, S. Zhu, and H. Xiao, “Z-scan study of optical nonlinearities in two fullerenes derivatives,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4271–4275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Compagnini, G.

E. Fazio, F. Neri, S. Patane, L. D’urso, and G. Compagnini, “Optical limiting effects in linear carbon chains,” Carbon 49, 306–310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D’Amore, F.

D’urso, L.

E. Fazio, F. Neri, S. Patane, L. D’urso, and G. Compagnini, “Optical limiting effects in linear carbon chains,” Carbon 49, 306–310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Destri, S.

Dharamprakash, S. M.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharamprakash, “Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figure of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure properties relationship,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dominguez, D. P.

R. C. Beltran, G. O. Ramos, C. K. W. Jim, J. L. Maldonado, M. Haubler, and D. P. Dominguez, “Optical nonlinearities in hyperbranched polyyne studied by two-photon excited florescence and third-harmonic generation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 489–496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Domrashev, G. A.

W. E. Douglas, L. G. Klapshina, A. N. Rubinov, G. A. Domrashev, B. A. Bushuk, and J. A. Kalvinkovskaya, “Thin film z-scan measurements of the nonlinear response of novel conjugated silicon ethylene polymers and metal containing complexes incorporated into polymeric matrices,” Proc. SPIE 4106, 360–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Douglas, W. E.

W. E. Douglas, L. G. Klapshina, A. N. Rubinov, G. A. Domrashev, B. A. Bushuk, and J. A. Kalvinkovskaya, “Thin film z-scan measurements of the nonlinear response of novel conjugated silicon ethylene polymers and metal containing complexes incorporated into polymeric matrices,” Proc. SPIE 4106, 360–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Durmus, M.

S. Tekin, U. Kurum, M. Durmus, H. Gul Yaglioglu, T. Nyokong, and A. Elmali, “Optical limiting properties of zinc phthalocyanines in solution and solid PMMA composite films,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Elmali, A.

S. Tekin, U. Kurum, M. Durmus, H. Gul Yaglioglu, T. Nyokong, and A. Elmali, “Optical limiting properties of zinc phthalocyanines in solution and solid PMMA composite films,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Euler, W. B.

C. R. Hauer, G. S. King, E. L. McCool, W. B. Euler, J. D. Ferrara, and W. J. Youngs, “Structure of 2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone and IR study of higher polyazines: A new class of polymeric conductors,” J. Chem. Am. Soc. 109, 5760–5765 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Farinola, G. M.

A. Ronchi, T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, F. Babudri, A. Cardone, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “χ(3) measurements in poly(2’,5’-dioctyloxy-4,4’,4’’-terphenylenevinylene) using the z-scan technique,” Synth. Met. 139, 831–834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, M. Ferrara, F. Babudri, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “Subsistuent-dependence of the optical nonlinearities in poly(2,5-dialkoxy-p-phenylenevinylene) polymers investigated by the z-scan technique,” Chem. Phys. 272, 111–118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fazio, E.

E. Fazio, F. Neri, S. Patane, L. D’urso, and G. Compagnini, “Optical limiting effects in linear carbon chains,” Carbon 49, 306–310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, W.

W. Feng, W. Yi, H. Wu, M. Ozaki, and K. Yashino, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities by conjugated polymer-bonded carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 034301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, A.

J. Castillo, J. Hung, A. Fernandez, and V. Mujica, “Nonlinear optical evidences of aggregation in asphaltene-toluene solutions,” Fuel 80, 1239–1243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, J. D.

C. R. Hauer, G. S. King, E. L. McCool, W. B. Euler, J. D. Ferrara, and W. J. Youngs, “Structure of 2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone and IR study of higher polyazines: A new class of polymeric conductors,” J. Chem. Am. Soc. 109, 5760–5765 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, M.

T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, M. Ferrara, F. Babudri, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “Subsistuent-dependence of the optical nonlinearities in poly(2,5-dialkoxy-p-phenylenevinylene) polymers investigated by the z-scan technique,” Chem. Phys. 272, 111–118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

S. Yin, H. Xu, W. Shi, Y. Gao, Y. Sing, J. Wing, Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Synthesis and optical properties of polyacetylenes containing nonlinear optical chromophores,” Polymer 46, 7670–7677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gayathri, C.

C. Gayathri and A. Ramalingam, “Single beam z-scan measurement of the third-order optical nonlinearities of azo dyes,” Spectrochim. Acta A 68, 578–582 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gergor, G.

L. Antonov, G. Gergor, V. Petrov, M. Kubista, and J. Nugren, “UV-VIS spectroscopic and chemometric study on the aggregation of ionic dyes in water,” Talanta 49, 99–106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. J.

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, and A. Owyoung, “Empirical relationship for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 601–608 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, A.

M. L. Huang, T. C. Wen, A. Gopalan, and F. Ren, “Structural influence on the electronic properties of methoxy substituted polyaniline/aluminum Schottky barrier diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 104, 88–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharamprakash, “Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figure of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure properties relationship,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. H. Habibi, A. Hassanzadeh, and A. Z-Isfahani, “Effect of dye aggregation and azo-hydrazone tautomerism on the photolytical degradation of solophenyl red 3 BL azo dye using aqueous TiO2 suspension,” Dyes Pigments 69, 111–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hamada, T.

H. S. Nalwa, T. Hamada, A. Kakuta, and A. Mukoh, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of polyazine derivatives,” Synth. Met. 57, 3901–3906 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hao, H.

Y. Cheng, T. He, H. Hao, S. Zhu, and H. Xiao, “Z-scan study of optical nonlinearities in two fullerenes derivatives,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4271–4275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hassanzadeh, A.

M. H. Habibi, A. Hassanzadeh, and A. Z-Isfahani, “Effect of dye aggregation and azo-hydrazone tautomerism on the photolytical degradation of solophenyl red 3 BL azo dye using aqueous TiO2 suspension,” Dyes Pigments 69, 111–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haubler, M.

R. C. Beltran, G. O. Ramos, C. K. W. Jim, J. L. Maldonado, M. Haubler, and D. P. Dominguez, “Optical nonlinearities in hyperbranched polyyne studied by two-photon excited florescence and third-harmonic generation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 489–496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hauer, C. R.

C. R. Hauer, G. S. King, E. L. McCool, W. B. Euler, J. D. Ferrara, and W. J. Youngs, “Structure of 2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone and IR study of higher polyazines: A new class of polymeric conductors,” J. Chem. Am. Soc. 109, 5760–5765 (1987).
[CrossRef]

He, T.

Y. Cheng, T. He, H. Hao, S. Zhu, and H. Xiao, “Z-scan study of optical nonlinearities in two fullerenes derivatives,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4271–4275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, P. K.

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Man, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order non linear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiophenes/poly(methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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F. Z. Henari, “Optical switching in organometallic phthalocyanine,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 188–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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D. Yanmao, J. Lu, Q. Xu, F. Yan, X. Xia, L. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effects of substituents on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of poly(3-alkoxythiophene) derivatives,” Synth. Met. 160, 409–412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. L.

M. L. Huang, T. C. Wen, A. Gopalan, and F. Ren, “Structural influence on the electronic properties of methoxy substituted polyaniline/aluminum Schottky barrier diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 104, 88–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hung, J.

J. Castillo, J. Hung, A. Fernandez, and V. Mujica, “Nonlinear optical evidences of aggregation in asphaltene-toluene solutions,” Fuel 80, 1239–1243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jena, K. C.

K. C. Jena, P. B. Bisht, M. M. Shaijumon, and S. Rampharbhu, “Study of optical nonlinearity of functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by using four-wave mixing and z-scan technique,” Opt. Commun. 273, 153–158 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharamprakash, “Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figure of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure properties relationship,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jim, C. K. W.

R. C. Beltran, G. O. Ramos, C. K. W. Jim, J. L. Maldonado, M. Haubler, and D. P. Dominguez, “Optical nonlinearities in hyperbranched polyyne studied by two-photon excited florescence and third-harmonic generation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 489–496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kakuta, A.

H. S. Nalwa, T. Hamada, A. Kakuta, and A. Mukoh, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of polyazine derivatives,” Synth. Met. 57, 3901–3906 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Nalwa, A. Kakuta, and A. Mukoh, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of processable polyazine thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4743–4745 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kalluraya, B.

K. Naseema, K. V. Sujith, K. B. Manjunatha, B. Kalluraya, G. Umesh, and V. Rao, “Synthesis, characterization and studies on the nonlinear optical parameters of hydrazones,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 741–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kalvinkovskaya, J. A.

W. E. Douglas, L. G. Klapshina, A. N. Rubinov, G. A. Domrashev, B. A. Bushuk, and J. A. Kalvinkovskaya, “Thin film z-scan measurements of the nonlinear response of novel conjugated silicon ethylene polymers and metal containing complexes incorporated into polymeric matrices,” Proc. SPIE 4106, 360–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

King, G. S.

C. R. Hauer, G. S. King, E. L. McCool, W. B. Euler, J. D. Ferrara, and W. J. Youngs, “Structure of 2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone and IR study of higher polyazines: A new class of polymeric conductors,” J. Chem. Am. Soc. 109, 5760–5765 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kiran, A. J.

D. Udaykumar, A. J. Kiran, A. V. Adhikzri, K. Chandra Sekharan, G. Umesh, and H. D. Shashikala, “Third-order nonlinear optical studies of newly synthesized polyoxadiazoles containing 3,4-dialkoxythiophenes,” Chem. Phys. 331, 125–130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klapshina, L. G.

W. E. Douglas, L. G. Klapshina, A. N. Rubinov, G. A. Domrashev, B. A. Bushuk, and J. A. Kalvinkovskaya, “Thin film z-scan measurements of the nonlinear response of novel conjugated silicon ethylene polymers and metal containing complexes incorporated into polymeric matrices,” Proc. SPIE 4106, 360–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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F. Krausz, E. Winter, and G. Leising, “Optical third-harmonic generation in polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3701–3709 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kubista, M.

L. Antonov, G. Gergor, V. Petrov, M. Kubista, and J. Nugren, “UV-VIS spectroscopic and chemometric study on the aggregation of ionic dyes in water,” Talanta 49, 99–106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kurum, U.

S. Tekin, U. Kurum, M. Durmus, H. Gul Yaglioglu, T. Nyokong, and A. Elmali, “Optical limiting properties of zinc phthalocyanines in solution and solid PMMA composite films,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lam, Y.

S. Yin, H. Xu, W. Shi, Y. Gao, Y. Sing, J. Wing, Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Synthesis and optical properties of polyacetylenes containing nonlinear optical chromophores,” Polymer 46, 7670–7677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Y. H. Lee, Y. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q.-H. Xu, “Nonlinear optical switching behavior of Au nanocubes and nano-octahydra investigated by femtosecond z-scan measurement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leising, G.

F. Krausz, E. Winter, and G. Leising, “Optical third-harmonic generation in polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3701–3709 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

D. Yanmao, J. Lu, Q. Xu, F. Yan, X. Xia, L. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effects of substituents on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of poly(3-alkoxythiophene) derivatives,” Synth. Met. 160, 409–412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maldonado, J. L.

R. C. Beltran, G. O. Ramos, C. K. W. Jim, J. L. Maldonado, M. Haubler, and D. P. Dominguez, “Optical nonlinearities in hyperbranched polyyne studied by two-photon excited florescence and third-harmonic generation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 489–496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Man, K. B.

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Man, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order non linear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiophenes/poly(methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manjunatha, K. B.

K. Naseema, K. V. Sujith, K. B. Manjunatha, B. Kalluraya, G. Umesh, and V. Rao, “Synthesis, characterization and studies on the nonlinear optical parameters of hydrazones,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 741–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manjunatha, M. G.

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Man, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order non linear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiophenes/poly(methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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McCool, E. L.

C. R. Hauer, G. S. King, E. L. McCool, W. B. Euler, J. D. Ferrara, and W. J. Youngs, “Structure of 2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone and IR study of higher polyazines: A new class of polymeric conductors,” J. Chem. Am. Soc. 109, 5760–5765 (1987).
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M. I. Miah, “Optical power limiting and transmitting properties of cadmium iodide single crystal: Temperature dependence,” Phys. Lett. A 373, 3483–3485 (2009).
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H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers (CRC Press, 1997).

Mujica, V.

J. Castillo, J. Hung, A. Fernandez, and V. Mujica, “Nonlinear optical evidences of aggregation in asphaltene-toluene solutions,” Fuel 80, 1239–1243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mukoh, A.

H. S. Nalwa, T. Hamada, A. Kakuta, and A. Mukoh, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of polyazine derivatives,” Synth. Met. 57, 3901–3906 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Nalwa, A. Kakuta, and A. Mukoh, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of processable polyazine thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4743–4745 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, O.

Nalwa, H. S.

H. S. Nalwa, A. Kakuta, and A. Mukoh, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of processable polyazine thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4743–4745 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Nalwa, T. Hamada, A. Kakuta, and A. Mukoh, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of polyazine derivatives,” Synth. Met. 57, 3901–3906 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers (CRC Press, 1997).

H. S. Nalwa, “Nonlinear optical properties of π-conjugated materials,” in Handbook of Organic Conductive Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, 1997), Vol. 4, pp. 261–364.

Naseema, K.

K. Naseema, K. V. Sujith, K. B. Manjunatha, B. Kalluraya, G. Umesh, and V. Rao, “Synthesis, characterization and studies on the nonlinear optical parameters of hydrazones,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 741–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Naso, F.

A. Ronchi, T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, F. Babudri, A. Cardone, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “χ(3) measurements in poly(2’,5’-dioctyloxy-4,4’,4’’-terphenylenevinylene) using the z-scan technique,” Synth. Met. 139, 831–834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, M. Ferrara, F. Babudri, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “Subsistuent-dependence of the optical nonlinearities in poly(2,5-dialkoxy-p-phenylenevinylene) polymers investigated by the z-scan technique,” Chem. Phys. 272, 111–118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neri, F.

E. Fazio, F. Neri, S. Patane, L. D’urso, and G. Compagnini, “Optical limiting effects in linear carbon chains,” Carbon 49, 306–310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nugren, J.

L. Antonov, G. Gergor, V. Petrov, M. Kubista, and J. Nugren, “UV-VIS spectroscopic and chemometric study on the aggregation of ionic dyes in water,” Talanta 49, 99–106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nyokong, T.

S. Tekin, U. Kurum, M. Durmus, H. Gul Yaglioglu, T. Nyokong, and A. Elmali, “Optical limiting properties of zinc phthalocyanines in solution and solid PMMA composite films,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Owyoung, A.

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, and A. Owyoung, “Empirical relationship for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 601–608 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

W. Feng, W. Yi, H. Wu, M. Ozaki, and K. Yashino, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities by conjugated polymer-bonded carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 034301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parzio, W.

Pasini, M.

Patane, S.

E. Fazio, F. Neri, S. Patane, L. D’urso, and G. Compagnini, “Optical limiting effects in linear carbon chains,” Carbon 49, 306–310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Patil, P. S.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharamprakash, “Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figure of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure properties relationship,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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A. G. Sherwood, R. Cheng, T. M. Smith, J. H. Werner, A. P. Shrere, A. A. Peteanu, and J. Wildeman, “Aggregation effect on the emission spectra and dynamics of model oligomers of MEH-PPV,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 18851–18862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

L. Antonov, G. Gergor, V. Petrov, M. Kubista, and J. Nugren, “UV-VIS spectroscopic and chemometric study on the aggregation of ionic dyes in water,” Talanta 49, 99–106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polavarapu, L.

Y. H. Lee, Y. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q.-H. Xu, “Nonlinear optical switching behavior of Au nanocubes and nano-octahydra investigated by femtosecond z-scan measurement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poornesh, P.

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Man, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order non linear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiophenes/poly(methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

M.-T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, “A systematic study of polarizability and microscopic third-order optical nonlinearity in thiophene oligomers,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5535–5541 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ramalingam, A.

C. Gayathri and A. Ramalingam, “Single beam z-scan measurement of the third-order optical nonlinearities of azo dyes,” Spectrochim. Acta A 68, 578–582 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramos, G. O.

R. C. Beltran, G. O. Ramos, C. K. W. Jim, J. L. Maldonado, M. Haubler, and D. P. Dominguez, “Optical nonlinearities in hyperbranched polyyne studied by two-photon excited florescence and third-harmonic generation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 489–496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rampharbhu, S.

K. C. Jena, P. B. Bisht, M. M. Shaijumon, and S. Rampharbhu, “Study of optical nonlinearity of functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by using four-wave mixing and z-scan technique,” Opt. Commun. 273, 153–158 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rao, V.

K. Naseema, K. V. Sujith, K. B. Manjunatha, B. Kalluraya, G. Umesh, and V. Rao, “Synthesis, characterization and studies on the nonlinear optical parameters of hydrazones,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 741–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

M. L. Huang, T. C. Wen, A. Gopalan, and F. Ren, “Structural influence on the electronic properties of methoxy substituted polyaniline/aluminum Schottky barrier diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 104, 88–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ronchi, A.

A. Ronchi, T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, F. Babudri, A. Cardone, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “χ(3) measurements in poly(2’,5’-dioctyloxy-4,4’,4’’-terphenylenevinylene) using the z-scan technique,” Synth. Met. 139, 831–834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rubinov, A. N.

W. E. Douglas, L. G. Klapshina, A. N. Rubinov, G. A. Domrashev, B. A. Bushuk, and J. A. Kalvinkovskaya, “Thin film z-scan measurements of the nonlinear response of novel conjugated silicon ethylene polymers and metal containing complexes incorporated into polymeric matrices,” Proc. SPIE 4106, 360–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shaijumon, M. M.

K. C. Jena, P. B. Bisht, M. M. Shaijumon, and S. Rampharbhu, “Study of optical nonlinearity of functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by using four-wave mixing and z-scan technique,” Opt. Commun. 273, 153–158 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shashikala, H. D.

D. Udaykumar, A. J. Kiran, A. V. Adhikzri, K. Chandra Sekharan, G. Umesh, and H. D. Shashikala, “Third-order nonlinear optical studies of newly synthesized polyoxadiazoles containing 3,4-dialkoxythiophenes,” Chem. Phys. 331, 125–130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik Bahae, “Z-scan measurement of optical nonlinearities,” in Characterization Techniques and Tabulation for Organic Nonlinear Materials, M. G. Kuyzk and C. W. Dirk, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 1998), pp. 655–692.

Sheik Bahae, M. S.

M. S. Sheik Bahae and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearity using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sherwood, A. G.

A. G. Sherwood, R. Cheng, T. M. Smith, J. H. Werner, A. P. Shrere, A. A. Peteanu, and J. Wildeman, “Aggregation effect on the emission spectra and dynamics of model oligomers of MEH-PPV,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 18851–18862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

S. Yin, H. Xu, W. Shi, Y. Gao, Y. Sing, J. Wing, Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Synthesis and optical properties of polyacetylenes containing nonlinear optical chromophores,” Polymer 46, 7670–7677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shrere, A. P.

A. G. Sherwood, R. Cheng, T. M. Smith, J. H. Werner, A. P. Shrere, A. A. Peteanu, and J. Wildeman, “Aggregation effect on the emission spectra and dynamics of model oligomers of MEH-PPV,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 18851–18862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sing, Y.

S. Yin, H. Xu, W. Shi, Y. Gao, Y. Sing, J. Wing, Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Synthesis and optical properties of polyacetylenes containing nonlinear optical chromophores,” Polymer 46, 7670–7677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Singh, B. P.

M.-T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, “A systematic study of polarizability and microscopic third-order optical nonlinearity in thiophene oligomers,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5535–5541 (1988).
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Singh, M.

P. Aghamkar and M. Singh, “Phase conjugation in weakly piezoelectric magnetized semiconductor-plasmas,” J. Mod. Opt. 55-6, 931–945 (2008).
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M. Singh and P. Aghamkar, “Mechanism of phase conjugation via stimulated Brillouin scattering in narrow band gap semiconductors,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1251–1255 (2008).
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Smith, T. M.

A. G. Sherwood, R. Cheng, T. M. Smith, J. H. Werner, A. P. Shrere, A. A. Peteanu, and J. Wildeman, “Aggregation effect on the emission spectra and dynamics of model oligomers of MEH-PPV,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 18851–18862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sujith, K. V.

K. Naseema, K. V. Sujith, K. B. Manjunatha, B. Kalluraya, G. Umesh, and V. Rao, “Synthesis, characterization and studies on the nonlinear optical parameters of hydrazones,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 741–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, B. Z.

S. Yin, H. Xu, W. Shi, Y. Gao, Y. Sing, J. Wing, Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Synthesis and optical properties of polyacetylenes containing nonlinear optical chromophores,” Polymer 46, 7670–7677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tauc, J.

J. Tauc, “Optical properties of non-crystalline solids,” in Optical Properties of Solids, F. Abeles, ed. (North Holland, 1970), pp. 277–297.

Tekin, S.

S. Tekin, U. Kurum, M. Durmus, H. Gul Yaglioglu, T. Nyokong, and A. Elmali, “Optical limiting properties of zinc phthalocyanines in solution and solid PMMA composite films,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tommasi, R.

A. Ronchi, T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, F. Babudri, A. Cardone, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “χ(3) measurements in poly(2’,5’-dioctyloxy-4,4’,4’’-terphenylenevinylene) using the z-scan technique,” Synth. Met. 139, 831–834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, M. Ferrara, F. Babudri, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “Subsistuent-dependence of the optical nonlinearities in poly(2,5-dialkoxy-p-phenylenevinylene) polymers investigated by the z-scan technique,” Chem. Phys. 272, 111–118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, U.

U. Tripathy and P. B. Bisht, “Simultaneous estimation of nonlinear refractive and absorptive parameters by solvent induced change in optical density,” Opt. Commun. 261, 353–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Udaykumar, D.

D. Udaykumar, A. J. Kiran, A. V. Adhikzri, K. Chandra Sekharan, G. Umesh, and H. D. Shashikala, “Third-order nonlinear optical studies of newly synthesized polyoxadiazoles containing 3,4-dialkoxythiophenes,” Chem. Phys. 331, 125–130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Umesh, G.

K. Naseema, K. V. Sujith, K. B. Manjunatha, B. Kalluraya, G. Umesh, and V. Rao, “Synthesis, characterization and studies on the nonlinear optical parameters of hydrazones,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 741–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Man, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order non linear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiophenes/poly(methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Udaykumar, A. J. Kiran, A. V. Adhikzri, K. Chandra Sekharan, G. Umesh, and H. D. Shashikala, “Third-order nonlinear optical studies of newly synthesized polyoxadiazoles containing 3,4-dialkoxythiophenes,” Chem. Phys. 331, 125–130 (2006).
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D. Yanmao, J. Lu, Q. Xu, F. Yan, X. Xia, L. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effects of substituents on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of poly(3-alkoxythiophene) derivatives,” Synth. Met. 160, 409–412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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M. L. Huang, T. C. Wen, A. Gopalan, and F. Ren, “Structural influence on the electronic properties of methoxy substituted polyaniline/aluminum Schottky barrier diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 104, 88–95 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

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A. G. Sherwood, R. Cheng, T. M. Smith, J. H. Werner, A. P. Shrere, A. A. Peteanu, and J. Wildeman, “Aggregation effect on the emission spectra and dynamics of model oligomers of MEH-PPV,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 18851–18862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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D. Yanmao, J. Lu, Q. Xu, F. Yan, X. Xia, L. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effects of substituents on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of poly(3-alkoxythiophene) derivatives,” Synth. Met. 160, 409–412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S. Yin, H. Xu, W. Shi, Y. Gao, Y. Sing, J. Wing, Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Synthesis and optical properties of polyacetylenes containing nonlinear optical chromophores,” Polymer 46, 7670–7677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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D. Yanmao, J. Lu, Q. Xu, F. Yan, X. Xia, L. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effects of substituents on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of poly(3-alkoxythiophene) derivatives,” Synth. Met. 160, 409–412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Y. H. Lee, Y. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q.-H. Xu, “Nonlinear optical switching behavior of Au nanocubes and nano-octahydra investigated by femtosecond z-scan measurement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. Tekin, U. Kurum, M. Durmus, H. Gul Yaglioglu, T. Nyokong, and A. Elmali, “Optical limiting properties of zinc phthalocyanines in solution and solid PMMA composite films,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

D. Yanmao, J. Lu, Q. Xu, F. Yan, X. Xia, L. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effects of substituents on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of poly(3-alkoxythiophene) derivatives,” Synth. Met. 160, 409–412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

Y. H. Lee, Y. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q.-H. Xu, “Nonlinear optical switching behavior of Au nanocubes and nano-octahydra investigated by femtosecond z-scan measurement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yanmao, D.

D. Yanmao, J. Lu, Q. Xu, F. Yan, X. Xia, L. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effects of substituents on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of poly(3-alkoxythiophene) derivatives,” Synth. Met. 160, 409–412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yashino, K.

W. Feng, W. Yi, H. Wu, M. Ozaki, and K. Yashino, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities by conjugated polymer-bonded carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 034301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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W. Feng, W. Yi, H. Wu, M. Ozaki, and K. Yashino, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities by conjugated polymer-bonded carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 034301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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S. Yin, H. Xu, W. Shi, Y. Gao, Y. Sing, J. Wing, Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Synthesis and optical properties of polyacetylenes containing nonlinear optical chromophores,” Polymer 46, 7670–7677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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C. R. Hauer, G. S. King, E. L. McCool, W. B. Euler, J. D. Ferrara, and W. J. Youngs, “Structure of 2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone and IR study of higher polyazines: A new class of polymeric conductors,” J. Chem. Am. Soc. 109, 5760–5765 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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Zhao, M.-T.

M.-T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, “A systematic study of polarizability and microscopic third-order optical nonlinearity in thiophene oligomers,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5535–5541 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Cheng, T. He, H. Hao, S. Zhu, and H. Xiao, “Z-scan study of optical nonlinearities in two fullerenes derivatives,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4271–4275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. D. Zidan and Z. Ajji, “Optical limiting behaviour of disperse red 1 dye doped polymer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 934–937 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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M. H. Habibi, A. Hassanzadeh, and A. Z-Isfahani, “Effect of dye aggregation and azo-hydrazone tautomerism on the photolytical degradation of solophenyl red 3 BL azo dye using aqueous TiO2 suspension,” Dyes Pigments 69, 111–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

R. C. Beltran, G. O. Ramos, C. K. W. Jim, J. L. Maldonado, M. Haubler, and D. P. Dominguez, “Optical nonlinearities in hyperbranched polyyne studied by two-photon excited florescence and third-harmonic generation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 489–496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Man, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order non linear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiophenes/poly(methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. H. Lee, Y. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q.-H. Xu, “Nonlinear optical switching behavior of Au nanocubes and nano-octahydra investigated by femtosecond z-scan measurement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carbon

E. Fazio, F. Neri, S. Patane, L. D’urso, and G. Compagnini, “Optical limiting effects in linear carbon chains,” Carbon 49, 306–310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, M. Ferrara, F. Babudri, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “Subsistuent-dependence of the optical nonlinearities in poly(2,5-dialkoxy-p-phenylenevinylene) polymers investigated by the z-scan technique,” Chem. Phys. 272, 111–118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Udaykumar, A. J. Kiran, A. V. Adhikzri, K. Chandra Sekharan, G. Umesh, and H. D. Shashikala, “Third-order nonlinear optical studies of newly synthesized polyoxadiazoles containing 3,4-dialkoxythiophenes,” Chem. Phys. 331, 125–130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dyes Pigments

M. H. Habibi, A. Hassanzadeh, and A. Z-Isfahani, “Effect of dye aggregation and azo-hydrazone tautomerism on the photolytical degradation of solophenyl red 3 BL azo dye using aqueous TiO2 suspension,” Dyes Pigments 69, 111–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

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H. S. Nalwa, A. Kakuta, and A. Mukoh, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of processable polyazine thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4743–4745 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Feng, W. Yi, H. Wu, M. Ozaki, and K. Yashino, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities by conjugated polymer-bonded carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 034301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharamprakash, “Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figure of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure properties relationship,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Am. Soc.

C. R. Hauer, G. S. King, E. L. McCool, W. B. Euler, J. D. Ferrara, and W. J. Youngs, “Structure of 2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone and IR study of higher polyazines: A new class of polymeric conductors,” J. Chem. Am. Soc. 109, 5760–5765 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

M.-T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, “A systematic study of polarizability and microscopic third-order optical nonlinearity in thiophene oligomers,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5535–5541 (1988).
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P. Aghamkar and M. Singh, “Phase conjugation in weakly piezoelectric magnetized semiconductor-plasmas,” J. Mod. Opt. 55-6, 931–945 (2008).
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F. Z. Henari, “Optical switching in organometallic phthalocyanine,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 188–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. C

A. G. Sherwood, R. Cheng, T. M. Smith, J. H. Werner, A. P. Shrere, A. A. Peteanu, and J. Wildeman, “Aggregation effect on the emission spectra and dynamics of model oligomers of MEH-PPV,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 18851–18862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

M. L. Huang, T. C. Wen, A. Gopalan, and F. Ren, “Structural influence on the electronic properties of methoxy substituted polyaniline/aluminum Schottky barrier diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 104, 88–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Y. Cheng, T. He, H. Hao, S. Zhu, and H. Xiao, “Z-scan study of optical nonlinearities in two fullerenes derivatives,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4271–4275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Tripathy and P. B. Bisht, “Simultaneous estimation of nonlinear refractive and absorptive parameters by solvent induced change in optical density,” Opt. Commun. 261, 353–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Jena, P. B. Bisht, M. M. Shaijumon, and S. Rampharbhu, “Study of optical nonlinearity of functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by using four-wave mixing and z-scan technique,” Opt. Commun. 273, 153–158 (2007).
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M. Singh and P. Aghamkar, “Mechanism of phase conjugation via stimulated Brillouin scattering in narrow band gap semiconductors,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1251–1255 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Tekin, U. Kurum, M. Durmus, H. Gul Yaglioglu, T. Nyokong, and A. Elmali, “Optical limiting properties of zinc phthalocyanines in solution and solid PMMA composite films,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol.

K. Naseema, K. V. Sujith, K. B. Manjunatha, B. Kalluraya, G. Umesh, and V. Rao, “Synthesis, characterization and studies on the nonlinear optical parameters of hydrazones,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 741–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Zidan and Z. Ajji, “Optical limiting behaviour of disperse red 1 dye doped polymer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 934–937 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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S. Yin, H. Xu, W. Shi, Y. Gao, Y. Sing, J. Wing, Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Synthesis and optical properties of polyacetylenes containing nonlinear optical chromophores,” Polymer 46, 7670–7677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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D. Yanmao, J. Lu, Q. Xu, F. Yan, X. Xia, L. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effects of substituents on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of poly(3-alkoxythiophene) derivatives,” Synth. Met. 160, 409–412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ronchi, T. Cassano, R. Tommasi, F. Babudri, A. Cardone, G. M. Farinola, and F. Naso, “χ(3) measurements in poly(2’,5’-dioctyloxy-4,4’,4’’-terphenylenevinylene) using the z-scan technique,” Synth. Met. 139, 831–834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008), pp. 260–278.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Synthesis scheme of 2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Z-scan experimental arrangement.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

FTIR spectra of 2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical absorption spectrum of 2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone in molar absorptivity and optical density (inset) at concentrations (a) 0.2 mM, (b) 0.7 mM, (c) 1.5 mM, and (d) 2.4 mM.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical density versus concentrations.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Bandgap determination of 2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Closed and open aperture (inset) measurements (at 532 nm) of 2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone at concentrations (a) 0.2, (b) 0.7, (c) 1.5, and (d) 2.4 mM, respectively. A closed square represents experimental values; a solid curve represent theoretical fit.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Energy-level diagram for two-photon absorption (TPA) and excited-state absorption (ESA), five-level model.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison of experimental and theoretical hyperpolarizability with concentration.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Variation of (a) nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) and (b) nonlinear refractive index (n2) with concentrations.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Optical limiting plots of 2, 3-butanedione dihydrazone.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Values of Bandgap, Oscillator Strength, and Theoretical and Experimental Hyperpolarizability at Different Concentrations

Tables Icon

Table 2. Calculated Values of the Nonlinear Refractive Index (n2), Nonlinear Absorption Coefficient (β), Third-Order Susceptibility (χ(3)), Excited-State Absorption Coefficient (σexc), and Ground-State Absorption Coefficient (σg) at Different Concentrations

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T(z,S=1)=m=0[q0(z)]m(m+1)3/2forq0(z)<1,
T=1+4Δϕ0x[x2+1][x2+9],
ΔTpv=0.406(1S)0.25|Δϕ0|.
Reχ(3)(SI)=4ϵ0cn02n2(SI)3,
Reχ(3)(esu)=9×108Reχ(3)(SI)4π,
Imχ(3)(SI)=2ε0c2n02β(SI)3ω,
Imχ(3)(esu)=9×108Imχ(3)(SI)4π.
dIdz=αIσexcN(t),
dNdt=αIΩ.
dIdz=αIσexcαIΩtI(t)dt.
T=ln(1+q01+x2)(q01+x2),
q0=σexcαF0Leff2Ω.
α=σgNaC,
(αhν)=A(hνEg)n,
n021n02+2=13Nαl,
αl=f(e2/m)ω02Ω2,

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