Abstract

The relationship between the particulate scattering coefficient (bp) and the concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM), as represented by the mass-specific scattering coefficient of particulates (bp*=bp/SPM), depends on particle size distribution (PSD). This dependence is quantified for minerogenic particle populations in this paper through calculations of bp* for common minerals as idealized populations (monodispersed spheres); contemporaneous measurements of bp, SPM, and light-scattering attributes of mineral particles with scanning electron microscopy interfaced with automated image and x-ray analyses (SAX), for a connected stream–reservoir system where minerogenic particles dominate bp; and estimates of bp and its size dependency (through SAX results-driven Mie theory calculations), particle volume concentration, and bp*. Modest changes in minerogenic PSDs are shown to result in substantial variations in bp*. Good closure of the SAX-based estimates of bp and particle volume concentration with bulk measurements is demonstrated. Converging relationships between bp* and particle size, developed from three approaches, were well described by power law expressions.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. McKee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam attenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to particle size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57, 124–144 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler and F. Peng, “Light-scattering components and Secchi depth implications in Onondaga Lake, New York, USA,” Fund. Appl. Limnol. 179, 251–265 (2012).

2011 (2)

P. S. Hill, E. Boss, J. P. Newgard, B. A. Law, and T. G. Milligan, “Observations of the sensitivity of beam attenuation to particle size in a coastal bottom boundary layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C02023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng and S. W. Effler, “Characterizations of the light-scattering attributes of mineral particles in Lake Ontario and the effects of whiting,” J. Great Lakes Res. 37, 672–682 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

F. Peng and S. W. Effler, “Characterizations of individual suspended mineral particles in western Lake Erie: Implications for light scattering and water clarity,” J. Great Lakes Res. 36, 686–698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Woźniak, D. Stramski, M. Stramska, R. A. Reynolds, V. M. Wright, E. Y. Miksic, M. Cichocka, and A. M. Cieplak, “Optical variability of seawater in relation to particle concentration, composition, and size distribution in the nearshore marine environment at Imperial Beach, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Jastram, C. E. Zipper, L. W. Zelazny, and K. E. Hyer, “Increasing precision of turbidity-based suspended sediment concentration and load estimates,” J. Environ. Qual. 39, 1306–1316 (2010).

D. M. O’Donnell, S. W. Effler, C. M. Strait, and G. A. Leshkevich, “Optical characterization and pursuit of optical closure for the western basin of Lake Erie with in situ instrumentation,” J. Great Lakes Res. 36, 736–746 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).

F. Peng, S. W. Effler, D. O’Donnell, A. D. Weidemann, and M. T. Auer, “Characterizations of minerogenic particles in support of modeling light scattering in Lake Superior through a two-component approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54, 1369–1381 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng, S. W. Effler, D. C. Pierson, and D. G. Smith, “Light-scattering features of turbidity-causing particles in interconnected reservoir basins and a connecting stream,” Water Res. 43, 2280–2292 (2009).

J. R. Gray and J. W. Gartner, “Technological advances in suspended-sediment surrogate monitoring,” Water Resour. Res. 45, W00D29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Gelda, S. W. Effler, F. Peng, E. M. Owens, and D. C. Pierson, “Turbidity model for Ashokan Reservoir, New York: case study,” J. Environ. Engr. 135, 885–895 (2009).

E. Boss, W. H. Slade, M. Behrenfeld, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Acceptance angle effects on the beam attenuation in the ocean,” Opt. Express 17, 1535–1550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. Slade, and P. Hill, “Effect of particulate aggregation in aquatic environments on the beam attenuation and its utility as a proxy for particulate mass,” Opt. Express 17, 9408–9420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5, 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Gallegos, R. J. Davies-Colley, and M. Gall, “Optical closure in lakes with contrasting extremes of reflectance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2021–2034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

W. J. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, “Inherent optical properties of non-spherical marine-like particles—From theory to observation,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 45, 1–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng, S. W. Effler, D. M O’Donnell, M. G. Perkins, and A. D. Weidemann, “Role of minerogenic particles in light scattering in lakes and a river in central New York,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6577–6594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, M. Babin, and S. B. Woźniak, “Variations in the optical properties of terrigenous mineral-rich particulate matter suspended in seawater,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 2418–2433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng and S. W. Effler, “Suspended minerogenic particles in a reservoir: Light-scattering features from individual particle analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 204–216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Lubac and H. Loisel, “Variability and classification of remote sensing reflectance spectra in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 45–58 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Prestigiacomo, S. W. Effler, D. O’Donnell, J. M. Hassett, E. M. Michalenko, Z. Lee, and A. Weidemann, “Turbidity and suspended solids levels and loads in a sediment enriched stream: implications for impacted lotic and lentic ecosystems,” Lake Reserv. Manage. 23, 231–244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

D. G. Bowers and C. E. Binding, “The optical properties of mineral suspended particles: a review and synthesis,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67, 219–230 (2006).

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass,” J. Mar. Res. 64, 431–451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68, 348–362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

A.-L. Barillé-Boyer, L. Barille, H. Masse, D. Razet, and M. Heral, “Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 58, 147–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

Y. Mamane, R. Willis, and T. Conner, “Evaluation of computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy applied to an ambient urban aerosol sample,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 34, 97–107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

J. Bloesch, “Mechanisms, measurement and importance of sediment resuspension in lakes,” Mar. Freshw. Res. 46, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Risović and M. Martinis, “A comparative analysis of sea-particle-size distribution models,” Fizika B 4, 111–120 (1995).

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and K. J. Voss, “Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13193–13199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. L. Johnson, J. Jiao, S. G. DosSantos, and S. W. Effler, “Individual particle analysis of suspended materials in Onondaga Lake, New York,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 736–744 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

U. Weilenmann, C.R. O’Melia, and W. Stumm, “Particle transport in lakes: Models and measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1–18 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Walling and P. W. Moorehead, “The particle size characteristics of fluvial suspended sediment: an overview,” Hydrobiologia 176–177, 125–149 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

P. H. Nadeau, “Relationships between the mean area, volume and thickness for dispersed particles of kaolinites and micaceous clays and their application to surface area and ion exchange properties,” Clay Miner. 22, 351–356 (1987).

1984 (2)

C. Yin and D. L. Johnson, “An individual particle analysis and budget study of Onondaga Lake sediments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 1193–1201 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Baker and J. W. Lavelle, “The effect of particle size on the light attenuation coefficient of natural suspensions,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 8197–8203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. W. Spinrad and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “An analysis of the optical features of the near-bottom and bottom nepheloid layers in the area of the Scotian Rise,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 9553–9561 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

E. A. Laws and J. W. Archie, “Appropriate use of regression analysis in marine biology,” Mar. Biol. 65, 13–16 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, Z.

M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68, 348–362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Archie, J. W.

E. A. Laws and J. W. Archie, “Appropriate use of regression analysis in marine biology,” Mar. Biol. 65, 13–16 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Astoreca, R.

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. McKee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam attenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to particle size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57, 124–144 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Auer, M. T.

F. Peng, S. W. Effler, D. O’Donnell, A. D. Weidemann, and M. T. Auer, “Characterizations of minerogenic particles in support of modeling light scattering in Lake Superior through a two-component approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54, 1369–1381 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

D. Stramski, M. Babin, and S. B. Woźniak, “Variations in the optical properties of terrigenous mineral-rich particulate matter suspended in seawater,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 2418–2433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baker, E. T.

E. T. Baker and J. W. Lavelle, “The effect of particle size on the light attenuation coefficient of natural suspensions,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 8197–8203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Barille, L.

A.-L. Barillé-Boyer, L. Barille, H. Masse, D. Razet, and M. Heral, “Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 58, 147–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barillé-Boyer, A.-L.

A.-L. Barillé-Boyer, L. Barille, H. Masse, D. Razet, and M. Heral, “Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 58, 147–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bates, T. F.

T. F. Bates, “The kaolin minerals,” in The Electron-optical Investigation of Clays, J. A. Gard, ed. (Mineralogical Society, 1971), pp. 109–148.

Behrenfeld, M.

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass,” J. Mar. Res. 64, 431–451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Binding, C. E.

D. G. Bowers and C. E. Binding, “The optical properties of mineral suspended particles: a review and synthesis,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67, 219–230 (2006).

Bloesch, J.

J. Bloesch, “Mechanisms, measurement and importance of sediment resuspension in lakes,” Mar. Freshw. Res. 46, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bogucki, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Progr. Oceanogr. 61, 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Boss, E.

P. S. Hill, E. Boss, J. P. Newgard, B. A. Law, and T. G. Milligan, “Observations of the sensitivity of beam attenuation to particle size in a coastal bottom boundary layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C02023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).

E. Boss, W. Slade, and P. Hill, “Effect of particulate aggregation in aquatic environments on the beam attenuation and its utility as a proxy for particulate mass,” Opt. Express 17, 9408–9420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. H. Slade, M. Behrenfeld, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Acceptance angle effects on the beam attenuation in the ocean,” Opt. Express 17, 1535–1550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. McKee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam attenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to particle size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57, 124–144 (2012).
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P. S. Hill, E. Boss, J. P. Newgard, B. A. Law, and T. G. Milligan, “Observations of the sensitivity of beam attenuation to particle size in a coastal bottom boundary layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C02023 (2011).
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F. Peng, S. W. Effler, D. O’Donnell, A. D. Weidemann, and M. T. Auer, “Characterizations of minerogenic particles in support of modeling light scattering in Lake Superior through a two-component approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54, 1369–1381 (2009).
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O’Donnell, D. M

O’Donnell, D. M.

D. M. O’Donnell, S. W. Effler, C. M. Strait, and G. A. Leshkevich, “Optical characterization and pursuit of optical closure for the western basin of Lake Erie with in situ instrumentation,” J. Great Lakes Res. 36, 736–746 (2010).
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S. W. Effler and F. Peng, “Light-scattering components and Secchi depth implications in Onondaga Lake, New York, USA,” Fund. Appl. Limnol. 179, 251–265 (2012).

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[CrossRef]

F. Peng, S. W. Effler, D. O’Donnell, A. D. Weidemann, and M. T. Auer, “Characterizations of minerogenic particles in support of modeling light scattering in Lake Superior through a two-component approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54, 1369–1381 (2009).
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R. K. Gelda, S. W. Effler, F. Peng, E. M. Owens, and D. C. Pierson, “Turbidity model for Ashokan Reservoir, New York: case study,” J. Environ. Engr. 135, 885–895 (2009).

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F. Peng, S. W. Effler, D. M O’Donnell, M. G. Perkins, and A. D. Weidemann, “Role of minerogenic particles in light scattering in lakes and a river in central New York,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6577–6594 (2007).
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Perkins, M. G.

Pierson, D. C.

F. Peng, S. W. Effler, D. C. Pierson, and D. G. Smith, “Light-scattering features of turbidity-causing particles in interconnected reservoir basins and a connecting stream,” Water Res. 43, 2280–2292 (2009).

R. K. Gelda, S. W. Effler, F. Peng, E. M. Owens, and D. C. Pierson, “Turbidity model for Ashokan Reservoir, New York: case study,” J. Environ. Engr. 135, 885–895 (2009).

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A. R. Prestigiacomo, S. W. Effler, D. O’Donnell, J. M. Hassett, E. M. Michalenko, Z. Lee, and A. Weidemann, “Turbidity and suspended solids levels and loads in a sediment enriched stream: implications for impacted lotic and lentic ecosystems,” Lake Reserv. Manage. 23, 231–244 (2007).
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E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).

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A.-L. Barillé-Boyer, L. Barille, H. Masse, D. Razet, and M. Heral, “Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 58, 147–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, R. A.

S. B. Woźniak, D. Stramski, M. Stramska, R. A. Reynolds, V. M. Wright, E. Y. Miksic, M. Cichocka, and A. M. Cieplak, “Optical variability of seawater in relation to particle concentration, composition, and size distribution in the nearshore marine environment at Imperial Beach, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5, 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Risovic, D.

D. Risović and M. Martinis, “A comparative analysis of sea-particle-size distribution models,” Fizika B 4, 111–120 (1995).

Robertson, C.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).

Schar, D. W. H.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).

Schreurs, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Slade, W.

Slade, W. H.

Smith, D. G.

F. Peng, S. W. Effler, D. C. Pierson, and D. G. Smith, “Light-scattering features of turbidity-causing particles in interconnected reservoir basins and a connecting stream,” Water Res. 43, 2280–2292 (2009).

R. J. Davies-Colley, W. N. Vant, and D. G. Smith, Colour and Clarity of Natural Waters: Science and Management of Optical Water Quality (Blackburn, 2003).

Smith, G. J.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).

Spinrad, R. W.

R. W. Spinrad and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “An analysis of the optical features of the near-bottom and bottom nepheloid layers in the area of the Scotian Rise,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 9553–9561 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Strait, C. M.

D. M. O’Donnell, S. W. Effler, C. M. Strait, and G. A. Leshkevich, “Optical characterization and pursuit of optical closure for the western basin of Lake Erie with in situ instrumentation,” J. Great Lakes Res. 36, 736–746 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stramska, M.

S. B. Woźniak, D. Stramski, M. Stramska, R. A. Reynolds, V. M. Wright, E. Y. Miksic, M. Cichocka, and A. M. Cieplak, “Optical variability of seawater in relation to particle concentration, composition, and size distribution in the nearshore marine environment at Imperial Beach, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

S. B. Woźniak, D. Stramski, M. Stramska, R. A. Reynolds, V. M. Wright, E. Y. Miksic, M. Cichocka, and A. M. Cieplak, “Optical variability of seawater in relation to particle concentration, composition, and size distribution in the nearshore marine environment at Imperial Beach, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5, 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, M. Babin, and S. B. Woźniak, “Variations in the optical properties of terrigenous mineral-rich particulate matter suspended in seawater,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 2418–2433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Progr. Oceanogr. 61, 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Woźniak and D. Stramski, “Modeling the optical properties of mineral particles suspended in seawater and their influence on ocean reflectance and chlorophyll estimation from remote sensing algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3489–3503(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stumm, W.

U. Weilenmann, C.R. O’Melia, and W. Stumm, “Particle transport in lakes: Models and measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1–18 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, A.

M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68, 348–362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tamburri, M. N.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).

Taylor, L.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).

Travis, L. D.

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5, 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tzortziou, M.

M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68, 348–362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vant, W. N.

R. J. Davies-Colley, W. N. Vant, and D. G. Smith, Colour and Clarity of Natural Waters: Science and Management of Optical Water Quality (Blackburn, 2003).

Vassen, W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Progr. Oceanogr. 61, 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and K. J. Voss, “Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13193–13199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walling, D. E.

D. E. Walling and P. W. Moorehead, “The particle size characteristics of fluvial suspended sediment: an overview,” Hydrobiologia 176–177, 125–149 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A.

A. R. Prestigiacomo, S. W. Effler, D. O’Donnell, J. M. Hassett, E. M. Michalenko, Z. Lee, and A. Weidemann, “Turbidity and suspended solids levels and loads in a sediment enriched stream: implications for impacted lotic and lentic ecosystems,” Lake Reserv. Manage. 23, 231–244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A. D.

F. Peng, S. W. Effler, D. O’Donnell, A. D. Weidemann, and M. T. Auer, “Characterizations of minerogenic particles in support of modeling light scattering in Lake Superior through a two-component approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54, 1369–1381 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng, S. W. Effler, D. M O’Donnell, M. G. Perkins, and A. D. Weidemann, “Role of minerogenic particles in light scattering in lakes and a river in central New York,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6577–6594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weilenmann, U.

U. Weilenmann, C.R. O’Melia, and W. Stumm, “Particle transport in lakes: Models and measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1–18 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Willis, R.

Y. Mamane, R. Willis, and T. Conner, “Evaluation of computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy applied to an ambient urban aerosol sample,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 34, 97–107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wouts, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wozniak, S. B.

S. B. Woźniak, D. Stramski, M. Stramska, R. A. Reynolds, V. M. Wright, E. Y. Miksic, M. Cichocka, and A. M. Cieplak, “Optical variability of seawater in relation to particle concentration, composition, and size distribution in the nearshore marine environment at Imperial Beach, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, M. Babin, and S. B. Woźniak, “Variations in the optical properties of terrigenous mineral-rich particulate matter suspended in seawater,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 2418–2433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Woźniak and D. Stramski, “Modeling the optical properties of mineral particles suspended in seawater and their influence on ocean reflectance and chlorophyll estimation from remote sensing algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3489–3503(2004).
[CrossRef]

Wright, V. M.

S. B. Woźniak, D. Stramski, M. Stramska, R. A. Reynolds, V. M. Wright, E. Y. Miksic, M. Cichocka, and A. M. Cieplak, “Optical variability of seawater in relation to particle concentration, composition, and size distribution in the nearshore marine environment at Imperial Beach, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yin, C.

C. Yin and D. L. Johnson, “An individual particle analysis and budget study of Onondaga Lake sediments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 1193–1201 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and K. J. Voss, “Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13193–13199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Spinrad and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “An analysis of the optical features of the near-bottom and bottom nepheloid layers in the area of the Scotian Rise,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 9553–9561 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zelazny, L. W.

J. D. Jastram, C. E. Zipper, L. W. Zelazny, and K. E. Hyer, “Increasing precision of turbidity-based suspended sediment concentration and load estimates,” J. Environ. Qual. 39, 1306–1316 (2010).

Zipper, C. E.

J. D. Jastram, C. E. Zipper, L. W. Zelazny, and K. E. Hyer, “Increasing precision of turbidity-based suspended sediment concentration and load estimates,” J. Environ. Qual. 39, 1306–1316 (2010).

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. Mamane, R. Willis, and T. Conner, “Evaluation of computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy applied to an ambient urban aerosol sample,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 34, 97–107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biogeosciences (1)

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5, 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clay Miner. (1)

P. H. Nadeau, “Relationships between the mean area, volume and thickness for dispersed particles of kaolinites and micaceous clays and their application to surface area and ion exchange properties,” Clay Miner. 22, 351–356 (1987).

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. L. Johnson, J. Jiao, S. G. DosSantos, and S. W. Effler, “Individual particle analysis of suspended materials in Onondaga Lake, New York,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 736–744 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. (3)

A.-L. Barillé-Boyer, L. Barille, H. Masse, D. Razet, and M. Heral, “Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 58, 147–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Bowers and C. E. Binding, “The optical properties of mineral suspended particles: a review and synthesis,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67, 219–230 (2006).

M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68, 348–362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fizika B (1)

D. Risović and M. Martinis, “A comparative analysis of sea-particle-size distribution models,” Fizika B 4, 111–120 (1995).

Fund. Appl. Limnol. (1)

S. W. Effler and F. Peng, “Light-scattering components and Secchi depth implications in Onondaga Lake, New York, USA,” Fund. Appl. Limnol. 179, 251–265 (2012).

Hydrobiologia (1)

D. E. Walling and P. W. Moorehead, “The particle size characteristics of fluvial suspended sediment: an overview,” Hydrobiologia 176–177, 125–149 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Environ. Engr. (1)

R. K. Gelda, S. W. Effler, F. Peng, E. M. Owens, and D. C. Pierson, “Turbidity model for Ashokan Reservoir, New York: case study,” J. Environ. Engr. 135, 885–895 (2009).

J. Environ. Qual. (1)

J. D. Jastram, C. E. Zipper, L. W. Zelazny, and K. E. Hyer, “Increasing precision of turbidity-based suspended sediment concentration and load estimates,” J. Environ. Qual. 39, 1306–1316 (2010).

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

R. W. Spinrad and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “An analysis of the optical features of the near-bottom and bottom nepheloid layers in the area of the Scotian Rise,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 9553–9561 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Baker and J. W. Lavelle, “The effect of particle size on the light attenuation coefficient of natural suspensions,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 8197–8203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Woźniak, D. Stramski, M. Stramska, R. A. Reynolds, V. M. Wright, E. Y. Miksic, M. Cichocka, and A. M. Cieplak, “Optical variability of seawater in relation to particle concentration, composition, and size distribution in the nearshore marine environment at Imperial Beach, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Hill, E. Boss, J. P. Newgard, B. A. Law, and T. G. Milligan, “Observations of the sensitivity of beam attenuation to particle size in a coastal bottom boundary layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C02023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and K. J. Voss, “Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13193–13199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Great Lakes Res. (3)

F. Peng and S. W. Effler, “Characterizations of individual suspended mineral particles in western Lake Erie: Implications for light scattering and water clarity,” J. Great Lakes Res. 36, 686–698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng and S. W. Effler, “Characterizations of the light-scattering attributes of mineral particles in Lake Ontario and the effects of whiting,” J. Great Lakes Res. 37, 672–682 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Donnell, S. W. Effler, C. M. Strait, and G. A. Leshkevich, “Optical characterization and pursuit of optical closure for the western basin of Lake Erie with in situ instrumentation,” J. Great Lakes Res. 36, 736–746 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass,” J. Mar. Res. 64, 431–451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lake Reserv. Manage. (1)

A. R. Prestigiacomo, S. W. Effler, D. O’Donnell, J. M. Hassett, E. M. Michalenko, Z. Lee, and A. Weidemann, “Turbidity and suspended solids levels and loads in a sediment enriched stream: implications for impacted lotic and lentic ecosystems,” Lake Reserv. Manage. 23, 231–244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (10)

D. Stramski, M. Babin, and S. B. Woźniak, “Variations in the optical properties of terrigenous mineral-rich particulate matter suspended in seawater,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 2418–2433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng and S. W. Effler, “Suspended minerogenic particles in a reservoir: Light-scattering features from individual particle analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 204–216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng, S. W. Effler, D. O’Donnell, A. D. Weidemann, and M. T. Auer, “Characterizations of minerogenic particles in support of modeling light scattering in Lake Superior through a two-component approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54, 1369–1381 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. McKee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam attenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to particle size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57, 124–144 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Yin and D. L. Johnson, “An individual particle analysis and budget study of Onondaga Lake sediments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 1193–1201 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Gallegos, R. J. Davies-Colley, and M. Gall, “Optical closure in lakes with contrasting extremes of reflectance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2021–2034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Weilenmann, C.R. O’Melia, and W. Stumm, “Particle transport in lakes: Models and measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1–18 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods (1)

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).

Mar. Biol. (1)

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Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. (1)

W. J. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, “Inherent optical properties of non-spherical marine-like particles—From theory to observation,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 45, 1–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Progr. Oceanogr. (1)

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Progr. Oceanogr. 61, 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

B. Lubac and H. Loisel, “Variability and classification of remote sensing reflectance spectra in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 45–58 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Water Res. (1)

F. Peng, S. W. Effler, D. C. Pierson, and D. G. Smith, “Light-scattering features of turbidity-causing particles in interconnected reservoir basins and a connecting stream,” Water Res. 43, 2280–2292 (2009).

Water Resour. Res. (1)

J. R. Gray and J. W. Gartner, “Technological advances in suspended-sediment surrogate monitoring,” Water Resour. Res. 45, W00D29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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R. J. Davies-Colley, W. N. Vant, and D. G. Smith, Colour and Clarity of Natural Waters: Science and Management of Optical Water Quality (Blackburn, 2003).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981).

L. S. Clesceri, A. E. Greenberg, and A. D. Eaton, eds., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th ed. (American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, 1998), p. 1220.

T. F. Bates, “The kaolin minerals,” in The Electron-optical Investigation of Clays, J. A. Gard, ed. (Mineralogical Society, 1971), pp. 109–148.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

W. G. Egan and T. W. Hilgeman, Optical Properties of Inhomogeneous Materials: Applications to Geology, Astronomy, Chemistry, and Engineering (Academic, 1979).

S. C. Chapra, Surface Water-Quality Modeling (McGraw-Hill, 1997).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Values of bp* as a function of particle size and density for selected minerals as idealized monodispersed particle populations [see Eq. (2) and Table 1].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Distribution of bp* in (a) Esopus Creek, and (b) Ashokan Reservoir; long-term observations over 2004–2008.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time series for runoff events and characteristics of particle populations, from bulk measures and SAX characterizations, for Esopus Creek during the 10–25 April 2007 interval: (a) stream flow rate, (b) bp¸ (c) SPM, (d) bp*, (e) PAVm/PVVm ratio, and (f) d50.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Profiles of (a) bp, (b) SPM, (c) bp*, and (d) d50 for the Ashokan Reservoir sampling site during (17 April, solid symbols) and after (8 May, open symbols) the storm runoff event, and (e) time series of bp* and d50 for samples collected at 25 m depth over the study period.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Examples of minerogenic PSDs, F(d), for samples collected from the Ashokan Reservoir site (at depth of 25 m) over the course of the runoff event, with median and effective diameters (d˜ and deff) listed, and (b) related cumulative distribution of bm as a function of particle size, with the concept of d50 illustrated.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SAX-based estimates as predictors of bulk water quality measures, with model I linear least square regressions and statistics (neither intercept was significant): (a) bp vs. bma, and (b) SPM vs. PVVm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Particle size effect on bulk bp,Corr*, with power law function fittings (solid lines): (a) bulk bp,Corr* as a function of d50 (error bars are standard errors of the means in both x-and y-directions), with results from Mie calculation for kaolinite being added as reference, (b) bp*,2S vs. d50, (c) bulk bp,Corr* vs. d˜ (y=0.64x1.59; R2=0.41, reduced χ2=0.03), and (d) bulk bp,Corr* vs. deff.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Performance of SAX-based estimates of bp* as predictors of bulk bp,Corr*, with linear fit (solid lines) and 11 line (dashed): (a) bulk bp,Corr* vs. bp*,S(=bm/SPM), and (b) bulk bp,Corr* vs. bp*,2S [last term of Eq. (4)]; intercept was not significant in either case. Different values of Qb,m and ρ were used for creek and reservoir samples in calculations of bp*,2S:Qb,m=2.29 and 2.42, ρ=2.79 and 2.43 (×106gm3) for creek and reservoir samples, respectively.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Values of Relative Refractive Index (m=nin) and Density (ρ) of Selected Minerals Used for Calculations of bp* for Idealized Particle Populations [Eq. (2)]

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Table 2. Specification of Metrics of bp* and Correlation Coefficient Matrix for the Metrics from Linear Least Squares Regression

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Table 3. Summary of Optical Closures a Attempted through the SAX–Mie Approach

Equations (5)

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PV=(Lmax×W)×((Lmax×W)/6),
bp*=bpSPM=Qb×PAsρ×vs=Qb(πd2/4)ρ(πd3/6)=1.5Qbρd,
bm(660)=1Vi=1Nm(Qbm,i×PAm,i),
bp*=bpSPM=Qbi=1NPAiρi=1NPVi=QbPAVρPVV,
deff=i=1N(di×PAi)/i=1NPAi.

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