Abstract

We propose a method to obtain long memory retention time and high contrast ratio in a tristate liquid crystal display device. The proposed device has three unique liquid crystal (LC) states that are known as splay, π twist, and bend, with different operating schemes for the two modes of operation, which are the memory (M) mode or dynamic (D) mode. A form of selective vertical or horizontal switching changes the optically compensated π twist LC as a common black state in both the M and D modes into a bend LC state for the D mode or into the splay LC state for the M mode, respectively.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-aligned liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177–L179 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffener, “New bistable cholesteric liquid-crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 109–111 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4215–4217 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. R. Lee, J. H. Lee, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Dual mode operation of bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal cell using horizontal switching for dynamic operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 074508 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler, “The pi-cell: A fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329–339 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Effect of azimuthal anchoring strength on stability in a bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 041704 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5063–5068 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6581–6586 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Yeh and C. Cu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays2nd ed. (Wiley, 1998).
  12. C. G. Jhun, J. H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optical bouncing in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 128–132 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009

S. R. Lee, J. H. Lee, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Dual mode operation of bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal cell using horizontal switching for dynamic operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 074508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, J. H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optical bouncing in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 128–132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Effect of azimuthal anchoring strength on stability in a bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 041704 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4215–4217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-aligned liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177–L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1984

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler, “The pi-cell: A fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329–339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffener, “New bistable cholesteric liquid-crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 109–111 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Back, J. I.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffener, “New bistable cholesteric liquid-crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 109–111 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler, “The pi-cell: A fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329–339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. P.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. H.

C. G. Jhun, J. H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optical bouncing in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 128–132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cu, C.

P. Yeh and C. Cu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays2nd ed. (Wiley, 1998).

Heffener, W. R.

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffener, “New bistable cholesteric liquid-crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 109–111 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jhun, C. G.

S. R. Lee, J. H. Lee, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Dual mode operation of bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal cell using horizontal switching for dynamic operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 074508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, J. H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optical bouncing in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 128–132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

S. R. Lee, J. H. Lee, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Dual mode operation of bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal cell using horizontal switching for dynamic operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 074508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, J. H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optical bouncing in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 128–132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Effect of azimuthal anchoring strength on stability in a bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 041704 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4215–4217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. J.

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, K. R.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler, “The pi-cell: A fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329–339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-B.

S. R. Lee, J. H. Lee, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Dual mode operation of bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal cell using horizontal switching for dynamic operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 074508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.-D.

S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Effect of azimuthal anchoring strength on stability in a bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 041704 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

S. R. Lee, J. H. Lee, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Dual mode operation of bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal cell using horizontal switching for dynamic operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 074508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Effect of azimuthal anchoring strength on stability in a bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 041704 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4215–4217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. R.

S. R. Lee, J. H. Lee, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Dual mode operation of bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal cell using horizontal switching for dynamic operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 074508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, U. J.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. K.

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, T.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-aligned liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177–L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. C.

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-H.

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4215–4217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-aligned liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177–L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, Y.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-aligned liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177–L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and C. Cu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays2nd ed. (Wiley, 1998).

Yoon, T.-H.

S. R. Lee, J. H. Lee, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Dual mode operation of bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal cell using horizontal switching for dynamic operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 074508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, J. H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optical bouncing in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 128–132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Effect of azimuthal anchoring strength on stability in a bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 041704 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4215–4217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffener, “New bistable cholesteric liquid-crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 109–111 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4215–4217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. R. Lee, J. H. Lee, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Dual mode operation of bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal cell using horizontal switching for dynamic operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 074508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-aligned liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177–L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, J. H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optical bouncing in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 128–132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler, “The pi-cell: A fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329–339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Effect of azimuthal anchoring strength on stability in a bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 041704 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Yeh and C. Cu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays2nd ed. (Wiley, 1998).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Operation scheme of the proposed dual-operating mode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabricated cell images in 0.25d/p. (a) Co-existed splay and the π twist states after a fringe electric field. (b) Uniform π twist after a vertical electric field.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical configuration of π twist LC texture as a dark state.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Representation of light paths in Poincare sphere. (a) Movement of three lights (450, 550, and 650 nm) by π twist LC cell with 114 deg slow axis. (b) Movement of three lights (450, 550, and 650 nm) by Film 2 and Film 1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fabricated cell images. (a) Before optical compensation. (b) After optical compensation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmittance with respect to the wavelength dispersion of simulated and experimental results. (a) In the M mode. (b) In the D mode.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Memory retention time in M mode without optical compensation; pictures were captured at (a) 1 day, (b) 1 week, and (c) 1 month after a fringe 35 V on and off.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) V-T curves of simulated and experimental results. (b) Measured response time with the applied voltage change between 0 V and 19.8 V with 1 kHz in the D mode.

Equations (1)

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Tπ(λ)=|[01]Mf1Mf2Mπ[10]t|2.

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